Wojska Ladowe / Land Forces - Types of Forces
ARMORED AND MECHANIZED FORCES - The armored and mechanized forces are assigned to repulse attacks of enemy armoured and mechanized forces. Their tasks in wartime include also attack activities aimed at regaining territory lost to enemy as well as peace operations. The armoured and mechanized forces are also prepared to resist air assault vehicles (especially helicopters) and to fight with enemy air-mobile formations. The armoured and mechanized forces are equipped with T-72, PT-91 and Leopard 2A-4tanks, mechanized combat vehicles (MCV-1) and armoured personnel carriers APC "Rosomak".
AIR-MOBILE FORCES - The air-mobile forces combine the hitherto airborne and air- assault forces, air cavalry and the land forces aviation. The basic tasks of the air-mobile forces include support of ground and maritime operations aimed at taking over of important enemy objects from air, disorganization of uncommitted enemy forces as well as the destruction of means and forces of logistical support. The air-mobile forces are capable of carrying out subversive, attack and defence tasks. Their core units are the 25 th Air Cavalry Brigade and the 6 th Air-Assault Brigade. The air cavalry is prepared to combat in air and on land, to carrying out anti-tank raids and destroying enemy fire.
MISSILE AND ARTILLERY FORCES - These forces constitute one of the basic types of the land forces. They carry out tasks related to fire support in all conditions. They are assigned to strike enemy and support other forces. The Land Forces Artillery is composed of 2 artillery brigades, an anti-tank regiment, four division artillery regiments, artillery battalions of general-military brigades, anti-tank batteries and support companies. They are equipped with self-propelled 122mm and 152 mm cannons, missile launchers RM-70 and WR-40, 120mm and 98mm mortars as well as anti-tank guided weapons SPIKE and FAGOT.
AIR-DEFENCE FORCES - The air-defence forces are assigned to cover land forces and buildings against air strikes. The core of the Air-Defence forces are six anti-aircraft regiments and anti-aircraft battalions in mechanized and armoured brigades. These forces are equipped with modern radars NUR, command automation units based on LOWCZA-REGA units, missile units KUB and OSA, portable missile launchers GROM, STRZALA- 2, artillery-missile units ZUR-23-2KG, artillery units ZU-23-4 SZYLKA and LOARA.
ENGINEER FORCES - These forces perform two basic functions: combat (engineering support) and humanitarian activities. The former indudes engineering reconnaissance of enemy and terrain, building and dismantling of engineer barriers, building of passages in natural terrain obstacles, building and maintenance of roads, building and maintenance of crossings, demining and camouflage. The humanitarian activities carried out by the engineer forces focus on demining and removal of explosive materials, natural disaster recovery operations, participation in peace missions within UN and NATO forces. The basic formations of the engineer forces on the operational-tactical level are brigades and regiments. The Land Forces have two engineer brigades, an engineer regiment, two road-bridge regiments and a communication regiment.
CHEMICAL FORCES - The chemical forces are equipped with specialist gear and perform very complex tasks related to the defence against mass destruction weapons. Their principal tasks include: detection of radioactive, biological and chemical contamination, provision of collective protection against contamination as well as contamination removal. The chemical forces subunits are capable of striking enemy forces using flame throwers and providing smoke camouflage to their own forces and objeets. They also participate in natural disaster recovery tasks. In peacetime, the contamination detection system used by the chemical forces is partially applied to monitoring contamination levels countrywide. The chemical recovery system is based on two Chemical and Radiation Emergency Teams. The basic units of the chemical forces on the operational level include: a chemical regiment and a chemical battalion, on the tactical units level: chemical companies, while on the units level: chemical platoons.
RECONNAISSANCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE FORCES - These forces specialize in military reconnaissance, radio- electronic, psychological and specialist warfare as well as geographical support. The main goal of reconnaissance is to obtain information about enemy necessary to prepare and successfully carry out combat activities (e.g. movement of enemy forces, their strength and gear). The main task of electronic warfare is the reconnaissance and disorganization of enemy command authorities and the protection of own forces against similar activities on the part of the enemy. The basics units of the reconnaissance and electronic warfare forces include: on the operational level: reconnaissance regiments, Electronic Warfare battalions, on the tactical units level: reconnaissance battalions, on the units level: reconnaissance companies. The reconnaissance and electronic warfare forces use: armoured personnel carhers BRDM-2 and mini-bls.
COMMUNICATIONS AND IT FORCES - These forces are assigned to ensure effective command of land forces in peace, crisis and war. To do that, they use the country's telecommunication potential, telecommunication infrastructure of military districts as well as units and subunits of the land forces command support. Since recently, the Communications and IT forces have also been responsible for IT support of decision-making processes, through, among other things, digital data editing, including analysis of enemy potential and combat simulation. The command process is supported by command regiments, command battalions and command and Communications subunits of the type of forces units. The development of the Communications and IT forces is crucial for the Polish Army in order to attain fuli compatibility with NATO forces.
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