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Theory of Three Encampments (politics, military, ideology) / Socialist Three Positions

The "Three Revolutions" refers to "ideological, technical, and cultural revolutions" that have been stressed since the early 1960s. The term Three Revolutions was not used, however, until after 1973.

The Three Revolutions Team Movement was inaugurated February 1973 as "a powerful revolutionary method of guidance" for the Three Revolutions -- ideological, technical, and cultural -- stressed since the early 1960s. Under this method, the Three Revolutions teams are sent to factories, enterprises, and rural and fishing villages for on-the-spot guidance and problem solving in close consultation with local personnel.

Kim Jong Il tried to expedite economic growth and productivity using the Three Revolution Team Movement and the Three Revolution Red Flag Movement. Both movements were designed to inspire the broad masses into actively participating in the Three Revolutions.

At the Fifth Party Congress, Kim Il Sung emphasized the necessity of pressing ahead more vigorously with the three revolutions to consolidate the socialist system. At the Fifth Congress of the Workers Party of Korea in November 1970, he advanced the task of further stepping up the three revolutions-ideological, technical and cultural-to accelerate the complete victory of socialism and defined the general task of Party work-to thoroughly establish the Party's monolithic ideological system.

In response, Kim Jong Il developed the follow-up slogan, "Let us meet the requirements of the chuch'e in ideology, technology and culture." Most units forged ahead with "ideological education" to teach the party members and other workers to become revolutionaries of the chuch'e idea. In many spheres of the national economy, productivity also is expected to increase as a result of the technology emphasis of the campaigns. In addition, the "cultural revolution" addresses promoting literacy and cultural identity.

During 1974 and 1975 the three revolutions, ideological, technical and cultural, was pushed forward in Korea and international solidarity for the independent and peaceful reunification of Korea grew stronger day by day. Kim Il Sung's work "Let Us Meet a Revolutionary Upheaval Victoriously by Strengthening the Party, Government Organs and People's Army and Carrying Out Great Socialist Construction More Efficiently" expounded the idea and policy on building up the Korean revolutionary base politically and militarily as firm as a rock and the works "Let Us Promote the Building of Socialism by Vigorously Carrying Out the Three Revolutions", "On Carrying Out the Agricultural Policy of the Party without Fail" put forth tasks and ways to step up socialist construction.

The long-delayed Sixth Party Congress, convened from October 10-14, 1980, was attended by 3,220 party delegates (3,062 full members and 158 alternate members) and 177 foreign delegates from 118 countries. Approximately 1,800 delegates attended the Fifth Party Congress in November 1970. The 1980 congress was convened by the KWP Central Committee to review, discuss, and endorse reports by the Central Committee, the Central Auditing Committee, and other central organs covering the activities of these bodies since the last congress. The Sixth Party Congress reviewed and discussed the report on the work of the party in the ten years since the Fifth Party Congress.

At the Sixth Party Congress, Kim Il Sung emphasized the Three Revolutions, which were aimed at hastening the process of political and ideological transformation based on chuch'e ideology, improving the material and technical standards of the economy, and developing socialist national culture. According to Kim, these revolutions are the responsibility of the Three Revolution Team Movement--"a new method of guiding the revolution, which combined political and ideological guidance with scientific and technical guidance. This approach enabled the upper bodies to help the lower levels and rouse masses of the working people to accelerate the Three Revolutions." The teams perform their guidance work by sending their members to factories, enterprises, and cooperative farms. Their members are party cadres, including those from the KWP Central Committee, reliable officials of the government, persons from economic and mass organizations, scientists and technicians, and young intellectuals. Kim Il Sung left no question that the Three Revolution Team Movement had succeeded the Ch'llima Movement and would remain the principal vehicle through which the party pursued its political and economic objectives in the 1980s.




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