ZTL-11 8x8 105mm Mobile Gun System
The ZTL-11 is based on type 08 8x8 wheeled armored vehicles family. It is the export variant of the ST1 vehicle, which is already in service with the Chinese Marine Corps. It was first shown to the public in September 2015 during a military parade in Beijing to commemorate the end of the World War II in Asia.
ZTL-11 is the second wheeled assault gun equipped China's army. Compared with the previous PTL-02, except that the 105mm gun was used instead of the 100mm-gun, and the chassis was changed from 6 to 8 wheels, the affiliation was transferred from the artillery to the armor, and the fire support became a fire assault. The ZLT11 wheeled armored assault vehicle in China's active service is an 8X8 chassis equipped with a low-rear 105-line tank gun. It has a total weight of 23 tons, a length of 8 meters, a width of 3 meters and a height of 2.1 meters. The water can be used to float in the river. Has good mobility and strong firepower.
The existence of the ZTL-11 came to be known around 2013, and from this time various photographs came to be found on the Internet. As the name of this new AFV was thought to be "ZTL-09", meaning "09 formula 8X 8 wheel type 105 mm assault car", or "certain new type wheel vehcile" etc were used. But "ZTL" , "Z = Armor, T = (representing the initials of vehicle genres), L = Wheel type", and the name of the assault vehicle as the initial letter T also existed in the name. Finally, it was revealed that the model name of the same vehicle was "11 type armored Assault Tank (ZTL-11)" was revealed on September 3, 2015 in the "World Anti-Fascism War Victory 70th Anniversary" military parade place.
At the beginning of the development of ZTL-11, China's military established the concept of an all-wheeled vehicle family based on the 8X8 wheeled infantry fighting vehicle. The earliest 8 rounds of assault guns used the rear of the battle room and the power front layout. However, serious problems were found during the test.
In 2008 it was revealed that China was experimenting with the world’s most powerful 105mm smoothbore tank gun. Related academic publications pointed out that the 105mm stabilized armor-piercing projectile used with the 105mm tail wing reached a static armor penetration of 850mm. The world record, this is the highest armor penetration depth of a gun of the same caliber. It was formally finalized from its appearance in 2008 to 2011. It should be that the 105 artillery was difficult to develop, resulting in a delay in the finalization time. But it was worth it, and the ZTL-11 gained a domineering nickname: wheeled tank!.
The ZTL-11 is a derivative of the Type-08 infantry combat vehicle (ZBL-08), but a significant design change has been added to the chassis. The biggest change is the change from the front engine to the rear engine. The power pack which was located in the right part of the front of the vehicle body has been changed to the rear part of the vehicle body, and accordingly the vehicle body rear door is abolished, and as an alternative Newly opened front door on the right side of the vehicle body. Changing the engine layout was considered to have improved the stability as a shooting platform by placing the turret at the center of the vehicle body.
The 08 vehicle family is modular, with a front-mounted version of the stepping vehicle. The type-11 wheeled assault vehicle early prototype also had the engine front-end plan, but because the turret was in the rear, the muzzle was close to the front of the vehicle body. At the time, the shock wave of the muzzle retractor caused damage to the front structure of the vehicle body. This was later changed to the rear layout of the engine to move the turret forward, and the muzzle was away from the vehicle body, thereby avoiding the impact on the vehicle body. Therefore, this and the muzzle cancel the muzzle retractor are complementary. The tank armored vehicle is an organic whole, and it takes a whole body.
Since the turret is behind, the chassis is long, and the 105-line artillery retractor in the long rear seat is just above the head of the car. The high-pressure gas emitted by the artillery retractor at the time of firing will have a serious impact on the first head of the car. If the driver is inside the car, it will be very uncomfortable. It feels like putting someone in a big clock and then banging hard on the clock.
Under the limitations of the technical conditions of the year, the 8-wheel chassis was not very compact and wasted a lot of weight. ZTL-11 has to take into account the floating, so its space for improving the protective performance of the pile armor is limited. The suspension system design of the 8-wheel infantry fighting vehicle lacked experience, and the suspension system had insufficient resistance. The accuracy of the ZTL-11 in the long-range firing is relatively high. At that time, the positioning was not too high, but the highlights were quick and cheap, and the requirements for all-wheeled equipment were far less than the current medium-sized synthetic brigades.
In addition to super firepower, excellent maneuverability is also a highlight of the car. The engines of the 8-wheeler family all use a turbocharged V-type 6-cylinder diesel engine with a power of 330 kilowatts. The engine and the heat dissipation system can be integrated to realize the overall hoisting. The early mass production model was equipped with a manual 9 forward and 1 reverse mechanical transmission. Later it was changed to an automatic transmission (AMT). The hydraulic steering wheel was used to control the forward direction of the vehicle. The maximum highway speed was close to 100 km/h.
Although the suspension system is speculated from the photograph, the front two axes are coil spring + shock absorber, the rear two axes are considered to be torsion bar + shock absorber. Steering is done on the wheels of the first and second axes. 11 formula has water navigation performance, and screws to operate at the time of flight are equipped on both sides of the rear part of the body. It is considered to be a measure to obtain water floating performance that adopts a relatively large vehicle body as a wheel armored car. In the photographs during rail transportation, it has been confirmed that ZBL-11 are larger in size than the Type-96 tanks that were mounted on the same freight vehicle at the vehicle body length and vehicle height.
Although the theory that rolling steel plate armor is the material of the vehicle body was common, there are also some listed as "aluminum alloy armor" in some materials. Anti armor defense power is resistant to 12.7 mm armor-pierced bullets launched from the distance of 100 m in front of the vehicle body, the side of the vehicle body is 7.62 mm proof armor , the rear of the vehicle is equipped with anti-stress performance against ordinary bullets of 7.62 mm. In the vehicle body and turret, a ceramic additional armor for improving defense power is bolted, but this is a method common to the Type-08 infantry fighting vehicle which became the base. Since the ZBL-11 makes it possible to navigate on water, there is a limit to the weight increase as well, and it is presumed that the armor defense ability is kept relatively light.
The ZTL-11 turret shape is similar to that of the Type-05 amphibious tank and it is assumed that the turret technique of the same vehicle was diverted. A ceramic additional armor is attached to the front and sides of the turret, and a cage type rack doubling as measures against HEAT bullets is attached to the rear of the turret. A total of twelve smokeless launchers are mounted on the front of the turret, and as necessary, a smoke curtain is developed to hide the vehicle body. In addition, an automatic fire extinguishing system and NBC protection system as a countermeasure against secondary damage at the time of hit are equipped.
The crew consists of four members: a commander, a gunner, a loader, and a pilot. The pilot is seated on the left front side of the vehicle body, the other three boarding in the turret. The control system is the same handle type as the normal vehicle, and the automatic transmission system is adopted for the transmission. Turret placement is arranged with gunner and vehicle length on the left side of the turret and loading hand on the left side. This is an occupant arrangement common to Chinese tanks up to 88 type tanks , and the same arrangement is adopted in 02 style 100mm assault guns and 05 type amphibious tanks. Measures have been taken to maintain the fighting power of passengers, such as by installing air conditioners, because there is plenty of space inside the vehicle to secure the buoyancy.
The 105 mm rifle, the main armament, is equipped with a multi-purpose muzzle brake at the barrel tip to reduce reaction, and along with the improvement of the retractable multi seat machine, the reaction from the 105 mm rifle cannon seems to be suppressed. The number of rounds equipping the 105 mm gun is 36, and the type used include APFSDS (armor with armor), HE (high performance grenade), HEAT (antitank grenade), GP - 2 firearm missile. The shells are mounted on the rear turret turret and the shell rack on the right side of the pilot's seat, and the vehicle body side hatch is used for carrying the shells. The elevation angle of 105 mm gun is -6 to + 18 degrees. With human loading, the launch speed is 6 to 8 shots per minute.
As a secondary armament, one 7.62 mm machine gun (2,000 loaded ammunition) is mounted on the main gun coax, and a loading hand hatch on the upper part of the turret has one 12.7 mm heavy machine gun (500 shots).
ZTL-11 shooting control system consists of laser surveying machine, biaxial gun stabilizer, gun site, liquid crystal digital information display panel, ballistic calculator etc. Most of the inputs of the shooting control apparatus are button-type, and it is said that as soon as the necessary specifications are entered, ready for shooting is set up, it is easy to operate and easy to learn while realizing high hit accuracy.
ZTL-11 has been designed with importance to networking like the recent Chinese AFV, and it is equipped with battle field information system, data link function, satellite position measurement system as standard. An antenna for satellite communication is mounted on the upper part of the turret, and it is possible to check the current position of the vehicle using "Hokuto satellite position measurement system". Target specifications of each vehicle are shared between each vehicle member, between the vehicle and the vehicle, between the vehicle and the command post, and advanced units using the data link function. However, it is reported that it is necessary to train passengers who can cope with informationization to master tactical data link, information sharing system, operation of liquid crystal digital information display panel, "Hokuto" satellite position measurement system, etc.
ZTL-11 is deployed to the No. 112 heavy mechanized infantry division belonging to the 38th group army of the Beijing military district and to the 162 light mechanized infantry belonging to the 54th group army of the Jinan military district Has been done.
No. 162 Light mechanized infantry is one of light mechanized infantry units whose organization is being advanced in recent years by the Chinese army. The light mechanized infantry unit is a unit mainly equipped with a wheeled vehicle, and it is supposed to put into the battlefield quickly by taking advantage of the high deployment capacity. The ZBL-08 infantry fighting vehicle has been developed new flagship armored fighting has been positioned as a vehicle, various derived type which is based on ZBL-08 in light mechanized infantry unit for light mechanized infantry unit, ZTL-11 is one of them. Organizing troops with the same group of vehicles makes it easy for the crew and maintenance personnel to train and learn, and since each vehicle shares many components, it works advantageously in terms of maintenance.
ZTL-11 employs the high strategic mobility as a wheeled vehicle and takes a joint strategy with a family vehicle ZBL-08 infantry fighter car, 122 mm self-propelled grenade gun PLL-09, etc., It seems that it is aimed at improving the overall hitting power, as the ZTL-11 designa is thought to use 105mm artillery to engage in enemy battle destruction, battle with armored fighting vehicles including tanks, fire support by direct shooting and indirect shooting, escort mission of transport vehicle unit making full use of mobility. However, because it is a wheeled vehicle and armor is limited, operation like fighting tanks is not performed. So it can be said that it is a vehicle that is basically used as a fire support weapon.
Due to the limitation of technical conditions, the 8-wheel chassis was not very compact, and a lot of weight was wasted. ZTL-11 also has to take into account the floating crossing, so the space for improving the protective performance of its armor in the stack is relatively limited. The suspension system design of the 8-wheel infantry fighting vehicle lacks experience, and the resistance of the suspension system is insufficient. The accuracy of the ZTL-11 is relatively average when firing at a long range. At that time, the positioning of the 8-wheel was not too high, but it highlighted that it can be fast and cheap. The requirements for all-wheel equipment are far less than the current medium-sized synthetic brigade. So there is a reasonable demand for a new wheeled assault gun (new wheel tank). In the past, 8 wheels were used as the base type to maximize the universality. For wheeled infantry fighting vehicles, there is no problem. However, for the wheel base and 122 self-grenade, these derivative models with a higher center of gravity and heavier vehicle weight, the suspension and power remain unchanged. Great influence on mobility.
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