T 43 CLASS (TYPE 010 / Type 6605, 6610) (Minesweepers - Ocean) (MSO)
The T-43 is a minesweeper based on Soviet design but for the most part, built within China. The T-43 can also server as a minelayer as well as a patrol craft.
In 1954, the Soviet-style T43 minesweeper was copied, and the domestic code was 6605. In the 1960s, it was domestically transformed, and the domestic code was 6610. A total of 38 ships were built. In 1953, according to the "June 4th" agreement between China and the Soviet Union, four ships (6605 type) were first imported from the Soviet Union. The materials drawings provided by the Soviet side were assembled at the Wuchang Shipyard (Model 6610), and the construction was not stopped until the late 1980s.
The names of the ships of this class are named after the villages with the "shop" size, such as "Changxin Store", "Shajiadian", "Zhoukoudian", etc.; the numbers are "3XX", "8XX", "9XX" and so on. The main tasks are: to determine the scope of the minefield and to sweep it away; to carry out reconnaissance and inspection of mine-clearing work; to open roads in minefields; to guide low-speed ships and their formations to follow the ship.
Since the construction of the first 6605 ship began, and until the last 6610 minesweeper was delivered to the troops in December 1987, a total of 38 minesweepers were built, including 4 of the 6605 ships and 33 ships of the 6610 type. In the course of the construction, the 6610 type ship was transformed into a hydroacoustic research ship. The 6605 and 6610 warships became the main minesweepers for the People’s Navy for quite some time. In the successive decommissioning of this class of ships, some of them were converted to reserve. Three ships were replaced by survey ships, and one was replaced by a rescue ship (J-141). The incumbent ships also had patrol tasks in addition to minesweeping.
At the beginning of 1954, the T43 minesweeper had 3,558 Russian-language materials of the 6605 ship, totaling 27,530 pages, and 2711.23 square meters arrived in China for translation and reproduction. On the other hand, the Soviet expert delegation arrived in China in April of the same year to help the First Shipbuilding Bureau confirm that the Wuchang Shipyard was a fixed-point construction plant for the Type 6605 ship, and proposed amendments to the reconstruction of the ship.
According to the agreement, ships No. 1 and No. 2 are directly supplied by the Soviet Union with hull sections, semi-finished parts and complete sets of equipment materials, and the hull ship is only responsible for the final assembly. After the expansion, the martial ship also met the construction requirements. In March 1955, the first type of ship of the 6605 was started at the Wuchang Shipyard. It was launched on April in 1955, launched in March 1956, and delivered to the ship in December 1956. On December 19, 1957, four Type 6605 minesweepers were built and delivered to the troops.
After the first ship trial, the factory carried out some modifications to the first ship (and subsequent ships) at the request of the Navy, including: increasing the sky cover; improving the pipe system to make the boiler water tank communicate with the fresh water tank, and the boiler oil The cabin is changed to the fuel tank; the modified stove is a Chinese stove; the engineering cabin is equipped with an electric fan. Among them, the problem of stoves and electric fans is almost an improvement project after each type of Soviet ship arrives in China.
During the construction of the 6605 ship, in June 1956, the Soviet Union used a total of 4,919 original texts of the 6610-type minesweeper, totaling 25,043 pages and a total area of 2,852.57 square meters, which was handed over to China. The first product design office of the Shipbuilding Industry Bureau translated and reproduced it, and the Wuchang Shipyard organized the production according to the Soviet transfer drawings and the main materials and equipment provided by the company. After preparation, the 6610 ship first ship was started in Wuchang Shipyard in July 1956, launched on the shipyard in February 1957, launched in April 1958, and delivered to the Navy on September 13, 1958. The factory number is A 65. The back side number is 933.
Since then, the remaining three of the first 6610 ships were constructed and completed at the end of 1958. The first ships were not built in full accordance with Soviet drawings, but were modified in a Chinese design for 12 projects including the ship's ventilation system, storage room and generator equipment.
After 1958, China ordered a batch of materials and equipment for the 6610 minesweeper from the Soviet Union. However, the Soviet Union had already produced the next generation of products, and many products could no longer be provided. After 1960, Sino-Soviet relations broke down, and the Soviet side withdrew experts and stopped supplying. Faced with this situation, the Navy and the Ministry of Machinery decided to organize domestic forces to solve the problem of supporting products, and to take advantage of the opportunity to modify the design of the 6610 ship to adapt to the East China Sea conditions, and to add equipment that can be provided in China to the drawings.
Later, the No. 5 ship was changed to the underwater acoustic research ship, and the space for the mine-sweeping equipment was changed to the underwater acoustic work room. The No. 6 ship was first planned to be converted into a hydroacoustic research ship, and later restored as a mine-sweeping ship. The two ships were All served in June 1960. Ships No. 7 and No. 8 were responsible for the revision of the "South China Sea Plan" by the Marine Product Design Institute, and then built by Guangzhou Ship. The main changes of the "South China Sea Program" include: the first double 37mm gun was changed to 85mm gun, and the original manual bomber was changed to electric chain gun machine to strengthen the firepower of the ship.
This was the change requested by the Navy’s head. : Add a refrigeration system, completely modify the ventilation system, cancel the boiler and heating system, and change the air conditioning system; increase the power of the diesel generator unit. Since then, the 389 ship that participated in the Xisha naval battle in 1974 is the No. 2 ship of the "South China Sea Plan". Therefore, at the time of the battle, there was an 85 mm gun on the ship. Ships No. 7 and No. 8 were completed and serviced in 1963.
At that time, the equipment of the Huangpu Shipyard was quite rudimentary. By 1957, the largest vessel built was only a 320-ton boomer. However, relying on a spirit of science and desperation, the factory has successfully completed the construction task. For example, at the time there was only a 15-ton crawler crane in the factory, and because of the position of the ship's platform, it could only be driven on the right side of the vessel under construction. However, the hoisting staff used their imagination to use the soil hanger with the crane, which was completed in advance. Lifting task of the machine.
After 1958, China ordered a batch of materials and equipment for the 6610 minesweeper from the Soviet Union. However, the Soviet Union had already produced the next generation of products, and many products could no longer be provided. After 1960, Sino-Soviet relations broke down, and the Soviet side withdrew experts and stopped supplying. Since then, the two 6610 ships being carried out by Wuchang Shipyard and Guangzhou Shipyard have been suspended for about two years.
Faced with this situation, the Navy and the Ministry of Machinery decided to organize domestic forces to solve the problem of supporting products, and to take advantage of the opportunity to modify the design of the 6610 ship "adapt to the East China Sea conditions", and to add equipment that can be provided in China to the drawings.
The later 6610 "Donghai Plan" type of ship modifications include: increase air conditioning system, ensure air conditioning in summer, heating in winter, update boiler, heating and daily steam system, etc., after the "East Sea Program" modified design Type 6610 the ships 9 and 10 were delivered the end of 1964. However, since many domestically produced equipment could not be produced at the moment, there were still many slow-loading projects on the ship, which were reserved for later replenishment. Thereafter, in order to change this situation, the Sixth Machine Department decided to completely "Chinese-modified" the 6610 ship, which was later called "65 revision"; in addition to implementing the "East Sea Program", it also applied to air-conditioning equipment, bullet-lifting machines, communications and radar. The equipment had been modified. In August 1966, GSI began the 398 and 399 ship, the first ship of the "Chineseization". The two ships were commissioned in 1969 and 1970 respectively.
During this period, according to the judgment of the future war, the Navy believed that it was necessary to focus on the development of other mine-clearing equipment such as harbors, river minesweepers, etc., and believed that the performance of the 6610 was backward, lacking the value of continuing construction, plus the "Cultural Revolution" and other reasons. Impact: From 1967 to 1974, the shipbuilding industry did not start a new 6610 ship.
However, since 1972, due to the comprehensive mine-based blockade by the US of coastal ports and waterways in Vietnam, the importance of anti-mine warfare increased. In addition, the new anti-mine warships have not been successfully developed, and the domestic political situation has become new. The change, the production of the 6610 ship began to recover in 1974. At the same time, the Sixth Machine Department began to study the type of the 6610 ship. The design modification made 818 changes to the “65 Modifications”, including the replacement of new sonar and new pitch propellers. By December 1981, the 6610 minesweeper Formally produced and finalized, it has been 23 years since the first domestic 6610 ship was launched.
In the 1980s, the 6610 ship was improved twice. The first time was the modification of the electromechanical parts of some ships. Previously, the power of the 6610 mooring generator set was greatly improved after the “Chinese modification”. The vibration and noise (noise exceeds 100 decibels) affect the rest and life of the soldiers cabin occupants below it. After adding shock absorbing equipment and sound absorbing and soundproofing equipment, the noise of the terracotta cabin is reduced to a more comfortable range. Since then, this result has been widely used in other ships. The second improvement was to install sewage treatment equipment on the ship and improve the living facilities of the cabin.
The 6605 ship was equipped with 1 to 2 seats of 63 type 37mm guns (the later modified type is called "Southern Plan", equipped with one 85mm main gun), and 60 type 25mm double guns are 2 seats, 14.5mm. Two pairs of online guns (partially equipped). The ship is also equipped with 2 large BMB-2 deep-bomb launchers and 20 deep-water bombs. The ship's mine-sweeping equipment includes 2 sets of MKT-2 marine cutting and sweeping tools, 1 set of BAT sound-sweeping tools (another sounder is spare), and 1 set of TEM-52 electromagnetic sweeping tools.
Among them, the MKT-2 marine cutting minesweeper is the same as the previously introduced MT-3 sweeping cable. It is only a passive towed cutting and sweeping cable. The effect is the same, but the model is different. BAT audio sweeping device is a kind of sounding sweeping device. It has a sounder in the mine sweeping device, which is equipped with a motor vibrating hammer and a vibrating plate. The minesweeper energizes the sounder according to the need of minesweeping, so that the vibrating plate emits a strong noise similar to that of a ship. Its radius can reach 100-200 meters, which provokes sound water mines.
The TEM-52 electromagnetic sweeping device is an "open" electromagnetic sweeping device. Specifically, it relies on two underwater electrodes that are far apart, using the powerful current provided by the onboard generator to release electrical pulses of different operating conditions, resulting in a strong closed magnetic field between the two electrodes - much like a ship's navigation process. The magnetic field generated in the field, thereby detonating the magnetic induction mine. This type of mine clearance must be achieved by using seawater as a medium to conduct electricity.
The 6610 was equipped with two double 37mm guns, two double 25mm guns and two 14.5mm machine guns. The specific layout is that the ship's head is a double 27mm gun (the South China Sea program is 85mm main gun), the bridge The front platform is equipped with 2 double 14.5 mm machine guns. Two double 25 mm guns are arranged on both sides of the rear chimney of the hull. A 37 mm gun is arranged on the central axis of the rear of the hull. As a type of minesweeper, the ship's firepower is quite strong, especially the ship's R gun has a fast rate of fire, which is quite threatening at close range.
In addition to the 350-type mine hunting, the mine-sweeping equipment also has two sets of blasting cutting-type mine-sweeping tools, a set of audio sweeping tools and a set of electromagnetic sweeping tools. Among them, the replacement of the MKT-2 medium-sized mine-sweeping device with a large MKT-1 type of mine-sweeping device doubled the width of the mine-sweeping. Moreover, the blast chain can be blasted; the electromagnetic sweeping device is improved to the TEM-52M type with various current pulse conditions, and the mine sweeping range is greatly improved; the audio sweeping device is improved to the BTAK type, with multiple acoustic pulse working conditions, and the total mine sweeping capability is large. The range is increased.
After the T43-class minesweepers 6605 and 6610 minesweepers were in service, they were welcomed by the Chinese naval forces. Among the various Soviet-made ships equipped by the Chinese Navy surface warships at the time, these two types of ships were of moderate size, with relatively large endurance, self-sustaining power, and good airworthiness, and were fully equipped, with strong firepower and basic voyage. Meet the needs of China's coastal defense.
This class of warfare can perform tasks such as mine clearance, mine-laying, anti-submarine, patrol, warning, escort, etc., and can perform various training tasks in peacetime, and can undertake certain transportation tasks of personnel and military supplies. Its performance is between the requirements of peacetime warfare. A good balance has been reached. In particular, it has played a very good role in promoting the urgently needed mine clearance capability of the Chinese Navy. It is also through the introduction and manufacture of these two types of ships that China has learned the world's advanced mine-sweeping technology and has truly formed a more advanced mine-sweeping capability.
At 7 o'clock in the morning of 16 May 2016, along with the majestic national anthem, the military flags on the Xingcheng ship and the Panshan ship slowly descended, indicating that the Xingcheng ship and the Panshan ship were officially retired. All officers and men signed their names on the flag. For more than 30 years since the service of the two ships, under the command of the party, they have experienced ups and downs, ploughing and ploughing the waves, bravely thundering the sea, and had sailed more than 60,000 hours, with a range of more than 300,000 nautical miles.
More than 200 tasks, participated in the implementation of the Sino-Russian joint performance, the advance series, the sacred series, the eagle series and other major exercises research and training activities, outstanding for the Olympic security, wrecked aircraft search and rescue and other special tasks, they are the practice of the "death squad" at sea The walker, for many years, has inherited the spirit of “sweeping and sharpening” that has been arduously hard-working and has never been in the forefront. 130 medals, 300 awards, more than 80 banners, 30 trophies, 60 ribbons, more than 300 certificates of honor, witnessed the glory of the Xingcheng ship and the Panshan ship.
The "Xingcheng Ship" was once commended by the Navy as an advanced ship-building company at the grassroots level; the "Panshan Ship" was commended twice by the Navy as an advanced party branch, and the two ships acquired the fleet, the base military training unit, and the grassroots unit for more than 30 times. The construction of advanced units, advanced grassroots party organizations and other honors, won the collective third-class work twice. They have made outstanding contributions to the construction of the Navy, the removal of mine obstacles, and the security of the sea area, leaving a glorious history.
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