Type 271 Yupen Landing Craft, Mechanized [LCM]
According to Chinese Defence Today "The Type 271 utility landing craft was developed by 708 Institute in 1967, with the first ship launched in 1968. The improved Type 271-II was introduced in 1974. Several hundred boats of this class were built between the 1960s and the 1980s, and they are still the backbone of the PLA Navy's amphibious lift capability today." The most reecnt "Combat Fleets" from 2016 reports that about 300 were built over a two decade period, with only 15 remaining in service. By 2019 IISS does not report any remaining in service.
The original army boat unit used for inland rivers and along the island reef garrison supplies the largest boat is the 271III type landing craft, with a full displacement of more than 800 tons, carrying 150 tons, can be loaded with a 59 type medium tank (3) and 1 infantry reinforcement platoon (70 people); or 2 62 type light tank platoons (7 vehicles); or 2 63 amphibious tanks (6 vehicles).
This one is a puzzle. There is distressing diversity in the nomenclature associated with these small craft, and the classification used by Chinese Defence Today is at variance with that of the United States Navy. US Navy Landing Craft, Mechanized [LCM] feature a bow ramp for onload and offload. The larger US Navy Landing Craft, Utility [LCU] have both bow and stern ramps for onload/offload at either end. The main problem is that other sources make little mention of of this class, nor does any other source allow for such a large number of craft of this type. All other sources are in general agreement on the numbers and types of Landing Craft, Mechanized [LCM] in China's Navy, and the claimed "several hundred boats" is roughly equal to the total of all other LCM classes combined.
After the 1980s, as the Chinese navy moved from the near shore to the distant sea, the landing fleet also developed into a large-scale, high-speed development. The conventional landing craft of less than 500 tons was basically used only by the army boat unit. The launch of the assault force was transferred. Small landing ships, air-cushion landing craft and helicopters are responsible. Introduced here is the Type 271 landing craft of the Army Boat Force. Due to its large tonnage, it can also participate in the Taihai landing operations.
In 1966, on the basis of the development of the 067, 068 small landing craft, the PLA Army proposed to design and build a universal landing craft with a capacity of 100 tons and capable of navigating in the Class II navigation area (six-level wind and sea area), code 271. The mission of the boat is to carry out logistics transportation tasks, transport various materials, equipment and fresh water supply to the non-docked islands. In the offshore landing operations, transport infantry, tanks, artillery and vehicles to land directly at the beach.
271 Type I
The 271 medium-sized landing craft completed its final design in December 1967. In August 1968, the first boat was started at the Qingdao Shipyard. In June 1970, the construction of the first boat was completed. It is mainly used as an amphibious assault to land or transport troops, vehicles and cargo to land on rivers and coasts without ports. Tested in Qingdao in September and found that the performance was not ideal, and then improved.
271 Type II
The 271 Type II design was completed in 1971, started at the Qingdao Shipyard in December 1972, launched in September 1975, and delivered on November 30. In 1976, the boat was landed and returned to the beach. The performance indicators met the design requirements. After the identification in 1978, the batch was built.
The 271II is 54.0 meters long, 9.2 meters wide, 1.7 meters draught, 400 tons of empty displacement, 507 tons of normal displacement, 100 tons of carrying capacity and 150 tons of overload. It can carry 3 medium tanks or 7 trucks, or 300 fully armed soldiers. The main engine is two 6300ZC diesel engines with a power of 2x600 hp. The maximum speed is 13 knots, the endurance is 1000 nautical miles/10 knots, the self-sustaining power is 20 days, and the crew is 36 people. The self-defense weapon is a 69-type sea 14.5 mm double-barrel machine gun.
271III Jade landing craft
In 1985, the 271III type landing craft was designed. In March 1987, the Changsha Shipyard started the first boat and was delivered in December 1989. The improvement of the boat is similar to the evolution of the small landing ship from 074 to 079, from the flat door to the V-type open door, and the tonnage was increased.
This type of landing craft is 58.4 meters long, the ship width is 10.4 meters, draft is 2.28 meters, normal displacement is 613.7 tons, full displacement is 634 tons; main engine is 2 MAN 8L20/27 diesel engines, 2X600 horsepower, speed is 16 knots, endurance is 1000 nautical miles; Level 8, self-sustaining for 15 days, 25 crew members, self-defense weapons equipped with a 61-type 25-mm double-barreled artillery, and a 14.5-mm double-barreled high-altitude machine gun. The self-defense weapon consists of four double 14.5 mm heavy machine guns mounted in the same position as the four-seat gun on the 079. The boat is equipped with advanced navigation equipment.
The 271III jade-class landing craft carries 150 tons and can carry one type of 59 medium tank (3 units) and one infantry reinforcement row (70 people); or two 62 type light tanks (7 units); or 2 63 type amphibious tanks (6 vehicles).
The 271 series landing craft has a large loading capacity, long range and strong wind and wave resistance. It is the main equipment for the logistics transportation mission of the Chinese Army Boat Force. It has contributed to the construction, construction and logistics support of the island, especially the 271 boat can supply the island. Fresh water, which played an important role in the life support of the island defense forces.
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