Amphibious Landing Craft
The Chinese People's Liberation Army has repeatedly carried out landing operations in history. The larger ones have the landing operations of liberating Hainan Island and liberating Yijiangshan Island. The main amphibious warfare tools are mainly civilian ships and a small number of small landing crafts that have captured the Kuomintang army. After the establishment of the Chinese Navy, a number of amphibious warships were formed, and multi-type amphibious warships were developed and built. China is now one of the countries with the largest number of amphibious warships in the world.
Amphibious landing craft are vessels specially built to transport the landing troops and their weapons and supplies. It includes many different types of ships. The landing craft can land on the beach at the enemy beachhead position without landing facilities, and send the personnel or weapons and equipment directly to the shore.
Landing craft is a boat transport to carry military power that sail in the ocean. Due to the need to properly use them on the beach, most of them are flat-bottomed designs on the hull, and are mostly designed with flat front side suspension bridges instead of normal bow heads. This makes it difficult to control and make passengers very uncomfortable when operating in rough seas.
It is used during an amphibious assault to transport or carry landing military forces (such as infantry and vehicles) from across the sea. Those famous and extensive uses were in the Normandy landings in France during the Second World War, the Mediterranean amphibious operations against North Africa and Italy, and the Pacific War between the United States and Japan. After the Second World War, the traditional landing craft played a role in the Korean War and the August 23rd artillery, changing the situation of the war in the front lines of Kinmen and Incheon.
In the sail age, the dinghy of the big ship was used as a landing craft, but the appearance of the ship caused the boat's boat to shrink too small, so the landing craft was designed and created by the expert for the purpose of landing. By one account the original form of the landing ship is the vessel used by the Russian Black Sea Fleet in 1916 called "El Pidifort" (Greek, meaning "Hope Messenger"). This is a flat-bottom cargo vessel with a shallow draft and a displacement of 100-1300 tons. It is suitable for transporting troops to the beach for landing operations. In 1916, the British fleet was used when landing in Dardanelle. After the ships landed and suffered a series of failures, the British switched to barges and fishing boats. However, because there were no landing ships for special landings, several landing operations suffered heavy losses.
In view of the lessons learned during the Great War, the navies of all countries attached great importance to the development of landing ships after the war. In 1938, not only were there many types of landing ships, but also a large number of them, and the tactical performance has also been greatly improved, and the infantry landing craft appeared. Landing crafts such as vehicle landing craft, tank landing craft and fire support boat?
In the late period of the Great War, Britain and the United States modified and built a number of similar landing crafts with displacements ranging from 10 to 500 tons. The boats were equipped with machine guns or small-calibre guns, and were equipped with hatches to facilitate the landing of personnel and vehicles. These were the earliest landing craft. The landing speed of the landing craft was below 20 km/h and the cruising capacity is only 200-1000 km. In the landing operation, the landing troops usually need to take the transport ship or warship to land in the nearby waters, and then transfer to the landing boat to assault the land.
During the Second World War, due to the needs of large-scale amphibious operations, such as in Europe, the Allies had to land in the German-occupied areas, such as the Pacific Ocean. The US military had to travel across the ocean to capture the Japanese occupation of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, thus speeding up the landing ships.
Due to the need to properly use them on the beach, most of them are flat-bottomed designs on the hull, and are mostly designed with flat front side suspension bridges instead of normal bow heads. This makes it difficult to control and make passengers very uncomfortable and uncomfortable when operating in rough seas.
In the traditional sense, the landing craft usually has special ship type and landing device, such as flat bottom, set door and springboard, etc. It can be used for personnel, tanks and vehicles to land. It has the ability to directly land on the beach. It is often used for short-distance by shore. The main tool for landing operations on the shore, the landing craft can also be used as a transfer tool for land-to-shore landing operations, transporting landing soldiers to land on the beach. The full displacement of the landing craft is usually less than 500 tons. It is an amphibious warship that transports the landing troops and their weapons and equipment directly to land. According to the loading object and the task, it can be divided into infantry landing craft, vehicle personnel landing craft, mechanized landing craft, and rocket landing craft. Divided by displacement, it can be divided into large landing craft, medium landing craft and small landing craft.
The full-load displacement of large-scale landing craft is generally between 200 and 500 tons, and the endurance is about 1000 nautical miles. It can load 3 to 5 tanks or hundreds of landed or 100 to 300 tons of materials. The full-load displacement of medium-sized landing crafts is generally 50 to 200 tons, endurance of 100 to 300 nautical miles, can load 1 to 2 tanks or 80 to 200 or 20 to 100 tons of materials. Small-scale landing craft generally have a displacement of 10 to 50 tons, a range of 100 nautical miles, 30 to 50 landers, or 3 to 20 tons of materials.
The bow of the landing craft usually has a first door and a springboard for landing personnel and vehicles to land, and a tail anchor device is provided at the stern for landing beaches after landing. In terms of weapons, equipped with organic guns or small caliber guns for self-defense and onshore fire support. The landing speed of the landing craft is usually slow, the wave resistance is poor, and the endurance is short. In the 20 century, 70 years, there has been full floating air cushion landing craft, speed can be more than 50 festival, and has a unique amphibious and show jumping performance, landing craft air cushion has become the focus of many countries, including the development of China's navy.
The personnel landing ship is the oldest of all landing ships. It is used to transport landing troops and technical weapons to land. Its size varies from a few tens of tons to a few hundred tons. However, the maximum displacement of the landing craft is generally about 250~750 tons, and the speed is 12~15 knots. Each time you can load an infantry company or an infantry battalion. The ship is equipped with anti-aircraft guns and large-caliber machine guns. There are gates for people to go up and down. Some can also park a small number of tanks when they land on the ship.
The speed of the landing craft is below 12 knots. The bow of the boat has a first door and a springboard that are the same width as the boat. The loading compartment is open. Equipped with organic guns or small caliber guns. The draught is shallow and flexible, and can be drilled into the shallow waters and shores that the landing ship cannot reach; but the endurance is small, the speed is low, the seakeeping is poor, and the range of activities is limited.
The vehicle personnel landing boat is a small landing craft that transports vehicles and personnel directly to land on the beach. The displacement is generally about 15 tons, and it can carry more than 30 landillers or 3 tons of materials . For example, LCVP -class vehicle personnel in the United States landed on the boat, with a full displacement of 13.5 tons, a speed of 9 knots, and a range of 110 nautical miles. It can be loaded with light vehicles or 4 tons of materials.
The mechanized landing craft, also known as the Mechanized Force Landing Craft, is a medium-sized landing craft that transports the Army's mechanized equipment. It is mainly used on transport ships such as armed and amphibious docks for landing tools that are transferred by ship to shore. Mechanized landing crafts typically have a full displacement of 50 to 200 tons and can carry 1 or 2 tanks or 20 to 100 tons of heavy materials. For example, the LCM8 mechanized landing craft in the United States is divided into steel and aluminum. The full-load displacement is 115 tons and 105 tons respectively, the speed is 9 knots, and the endurance is 150 nautical miles. Carrying 1 heavy tank , or 60 tons of materials, or 200 landing soldiers and their weapons and equipment.
The infantry landing craft, also known as the "personnel landing craft", is a small landing craft that transports the landing infantry to implement direct landing. It is mainly loaded on transport ships such as armed and amphibious docks, and is used as a landing tool for ship-to-shore transfer to infantry. Its full-load displacement is usually 10 to 50 tons, and it can carry 30 to 50 landers or 3 to 20 tons of materials. The equipment of the infantry landing craft is relatively simple, and its basic structure and landing mode are the same as those of the general landing craft.
The air cushion landing craft is a full-pad lift hovercraft designed for direct landing. Its power is generally gas turbine, and its speed exceeds 50 knots. Has a unique amphibious performance and good performance beyond obstacles. It is carried by an amphibious dock transport ship and dock landing ship. Transport landing squadrons, tanks and supplies, landing by ship to shore; or landing directly from shore to shore. The Chinese Navy developed the Type 726 air-cushion landing craft in the early part of this century. It is the main supporting project for the Type 071 integrated landing ship, but the development process of the Type 726 air-cushion landing craft was rather tortuous.
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