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AXS Training Ship, Sail

A sail training ship is a service ship that uses wind sails to obtain power for naval academy trainees and sailors to conduct internship training at sea. Even in modern times, when national warships use internal combustion engines as a source of power, the sailboats remain as part of the British naval tradition. The sail practice ship can exercise the basic astronomy, hydrology and navigation knowledge of the trainee, which is very suitable as a primary practice ship; the mast of the sail practice ship is towering, and the operation of lifting and lowering the sails in the wind and waves requires great courage and can hone the sailors skill; all kinds of rigging operations require multi-person cooperation, which can enhance team awareness. At the same time, the sailboat can be used as a diplomatic etiquette in peacetime.

At present, most of the sail training ships are hybrid, equipped with diesel engines and propellers to ensure that ships can sail freely under special weather conditions or when entering or leaving the port. In order to facilitate ocean navigation, sail training ships are generally equipped with modern voyage equipment such as radar, navigation and radio communication.

Although sails are not used in the modern navy, the sail training ship can still provide many exercises that are not the same as ordinary training. The sail training ship helps naval trainees to understand and familiarize themselves with the ocean faster and better. “Ocean perception” is an important subject of the sail training ship. The trainees navigate the sailboat and get in touch with the sea, and experience the weather in the wind and waves. The influence of hydrology, tides, ocean currents, etc. on maritime military operations can form a comprehensive understanding of the integration of people, ships and seas.

The sail training ship also helps the Navy trainees master basic navigation skills. On the sail training ship, the trainees learn from the most primitive sailor work, and can get the most basic navigation skills training such as watching the sky, knowing the hydrology, playing the knot, climbing the raft, and using the sextant to measure the height of the celestial body for the ship positioning. It is a traditional means of marine positioning. Performing such training under informatization conditions is not out of date. In wartime, advanced navigation and positioning systems such as GPS navigation will be used once destroyed by the enemy.

The sail training ship is also a "tool" for training the naval team spirit. Naval students are collective activities on the sail training ship. It takes a lot of people to cooperate in the promotion of sails and sails. This kind of consciousness and habit of "same together" will naturally promote team awareness.

In addition, the most important reason for the navy to retain the sail training ship is to inherit the naval culture.

When the news of the People’s Liberation Army’s naval sailing practice ship was launched, there was a discussion about the nature of the sailship’s unclear nature. There was a discussion that the sailboat was a product of the Western Navy and had nothing to do with the Chinese Navy. If China never had such a warship, then whether it is necessary to build her now. Such an opinion reflected a lack of understanding of the history of the Chinese navy. In fact, the Chinese navy not only had a sail ships, but even more than one ship. As for the nautical practice ship with similar functions as the sail ship.

If a warship with special machine power, a specialized naval organization and organizational system, and professional naval officer education are the hallmarks of the modern navy, then in 1863 the British established a naval officer school on the "Britania" ship. Only three years later, the ship administration founded by the governor of Zhezu Zuo Zongtang opened a court in Fuzhou. In order to cultivate the talents of Western ships and naval science and technology in the spirit of seeking truth and truth-seeking, it can be regarded as the start of the modern Chinese navy. In 1867, part of the teaching points of the court was moved to Mawei to become a post-ship school, imitating the British Navy's military education system for teaching, which was the beginning of modern naval education in China.

JianweiAt the beginning of the establishment of a new navy, the Qing Dynasty began to put the practice ship on the agenda very early. In 1870, the ship administration purchased a Prussian commercial large sailing ship, and it was converted into a sailing practice ship Jianwei, becoming China's first sailing practice ship. The “Jianwei” has a displacement of 340 tons and a length of 38.1 meters. It was equipped with three masts. The sail style is full-sail, that is, the three masts have a horizontal Ship-type sailship yards.

In 1874, the Navy changed the wooden shell cruiser Yangwu to the artillery training ship, and at the same time, it also had the sail sailing training, becoming China's first sail-operated ship with machine power. According to the setting of the British naval teaching system, the sailing practice ship is mainly to complete the navigation teaching. After that, the naval students will be transferred to the gun practice ship to learn the artillery. In 1874 , the ship administration school designated the ship’s flagship “Yangwu” cruiser equipped with a large number of artillery as an artillery training ship. The “Yangwu” also had a full set of sails, and the maritime education was also changed. On the "Yangwu", "Yangwu" became the first naval practice ship in China's history with a combination of navigation and gun education. It was also the first sail-operated ship with machine power in Chinese history.

AgileAfter 1874, the focus of China's naval construction moved northward, and the Beiyang Navy gradually emerged, and later established a naval school in Tianjin. The various systems of the Tianjin Naval Academy are inherited from the Ship Administration School, and the practice ship system is more meticulous. The Beiyang Minister Li Hongzhang has deployed three different practice ships for the Tianjin Naval Academy. In 1886, Beiyang Navy purchased a sailship and renamed it "Agile"; another two practice ships, Weiyuan as a gun practice ship, and sometimes a nautical practice ship; Kangji became the flagship of Beiyang Navy.

After the Sino-French War th Navy purchased a new large sailboat transformed into practice sailing ship, taking the name "Pingyuan". Because the number of students in the driving school of the ship administration school was relatively small, it was changed to a transport ship, and the name of the ship was transferred to the steel armored ship built by the ship administration. Since then, the ship administration school had not been specially used for navigation training. Purely sailing practice ships, but with the ship-built "Jingyuan", "Yuankai" and other warships with machine power. Because of the need of teaching, the two steam-powered warships also retain a full set of sails. The Chinese Navy’s second sailing practice ship “Agile” was captured by the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War, and its whereabouts are unknown.

TongjiAfter the Sino-Japanese War, the Qing government rebuilt the navy. In order to restore the naval education, the Northern Ocean Secretary Wang Wenzhao transferred the "Jianjing" cruiser from the ship administration as a nautical practice ship, renamed "Tongji". The ship has a displacement of 1,900 tons and is equipped with three masts. It is a sail-operated ship with steam power. After the founding of the Republic of China, the Chinese Navy re-defined various systems including education, and then established a naval practice fleet, which included the "Tongji" sail practice ship for nautical training and as "Yingrui" for artillery training. The "Tongji" became the only sailing ship dedicated to maritime education in the Chinese Navy during the Republic of China. Because of its greatage, the Navy school students were nicknamed "Jibo". After Japan launched a full-scale war of aggression against China in 1937, "Tongji" was sunk from the Jiangyin blockage line. Since then, the figure of the sailboat has disappeared from the Chinese navy.

In 1927, the Nanjing National Government was established. Although the civil war continued, the situation in the country was still stable. In 1927, the Central Naval Practice Fleet under the jurisdiction of Yingrui, Tongji, Jing'an three ships; the strong Northeastern Navy, using Zhenhai as a practice ship. The weakest Guangdong Navy does not have a special training ship, but used the Yuhe as a practice ship.

After the reform and opening up, the Chinese navy was growing on the road of formalization and modernization. In April 1987 , it possessed the first special nautical practice ship "Zheng He" of the People's Liberation Army Navy. with the continuous development of the Chinese navy, proposals for rehabilitating sailboats and strengthening naval officer education have gradually emerged in the navy and the local. In 2006 , the Naval Dalian Naval Academy established the first sailing team of the whole army to carry out training activities with small sailboats and windsurfing.

Yantai Land Sailing Training GroundIn 2009, the People’s Liberation Army Navy held a 60th anniversary maritime military parade. Among the national warships invited to visit, the Mexican Navy sailboat attracted special attention. Since then, the Naval Aeronautical Engineering Institute has set up the first Land Sailing Training Ground of the whole army in Yantai on the Yellow Sea coast. In the training ground, three towering masts were erected on land, and the climbing and retracting operations belonging to the modern naval traditional education project began to resume. This series of firsts has been continuously releasing signals that the People's Liberation Army may have to resume the education of the sailboats that have been separated by the Chinese navy for a long time.

In early December 2016, the first domestic training course for sail training ships was built and put into use at the Dalian Naval Academy. The training ground is one of the largest on-ground training grounds for the world's largest sail training ship, covering an area of more than 700 square meters. It is equipped with a steel mast of up to 32.6 meters, which hangs four sails such as front support sail, lower cross sail, upper cross sail and rear longitudinal sail, and has anti-fall safety device, wind direction monitoring equipment and video monitoring system. And more comprehensive comprehensive support facilities.

As a supporting project for the first sail training ship of the navy, the training ground will be mainly used for naval academy trainees and sail training ship crews to carry out basic shipbuilding skills such as climbing, snorkeling, rope knotting and traditional navigation. Skill training, tempering and training the officers and men with courage, teamwork and nautical skills. Through on-the-spot training, it lays a good foundation for the next step of maneuvering the sail training ship.

The comprehensive training ship trains, trains and evaluates professional officers at all levels of the Navy, mainly for the middle and senior officers of the navy. Since the establishment of the PLA Navy, there was a lack of large training ships, and only used modified by landing ships. The basic sea skills training is mostly carried out on the land training center, and the Navy Coastal Exercise Ship "Luliangshan". The PLA Navy reconstructed the original landing ship Luliangshan as a coastal practice ship, with basic navigation, sail cables, sonar, radar, communications, electromechanical, and gun operating platforms to support naval professional sailor training.

In 1986, Zheng He, the first specially built comprehensive training ship of the People's Liberation Army, was launched to meet the demand for a comprehensive training ship. In 1996, the national defense mobilization ship Shichang was launched, and it was possible to carry out offshore internship training in peacetime, and it could be quickly transformed into a logistics support ship during wartime.

Xu Xiake, a large-scale comprehensive support ship that entered service in 2011, provided personnel residence and training services before the PLA’s first aircraft carrier, Liaoning, officially entered service. After the Liaoning entered service, it became a specialized logistics support ship. At the same time, due to its actual conditions, it can also be used for overseas large-scale evacuation of overseas Chinese.

With the rapid expansion of the PLA Navy's strength, the PLA Army, in line with the Navy's maritime strategy, also expanded the size of the Army's ship training, and installed the AL201-type training ship to enhance the PLA's landing operations capability.

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Page last modified: 03-12-2019 18:41:43 ZULU