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PLA Air Force - Air Defense History

The source of China's military air defense force can be traced back to the Air Defense Section of the Red Army General Command established in October 1934. According to military history records, after the establishment of the Air Defense Section of the army, 12 platoons were transferred from the Red Army. After three months of intensive training, three platoons were left to form the Military Air Defense Corps, which was later commanded by the anti-aircraft artillery. Luo Huasheng, the commander of the Ministry, served as the captain and Liao Guanxian as the instructor. The air defense team was equipped with 27 modified heavy machine guns. As anti-aircraft machine guns, they formed an anti-aircraft fire network at the three hills where the Chinese Soviet government stationed. As soon as the enemy aircraft came, they fired into the air. Although the enemy aircraft were not defeated, the enemy aircraft no longer dared to bomb at low altitude, mitigating the Kuomintangs threat to the Central Soviet Area.

After the Long March of the Red Army in 1934, the air defense department and the air defense team disappeared on their own. After the Long March of the Red Army arrived in northern Shaanxi, an artillery school with Zhu Rui as the principal was established in Yan'an. At that time, the artillery school's task was mainly to train ground artillery talents, but also cultivated a small number of artillery talents. These anti-aircraft personnel laid the foundation for the formation of anti-aircraft units by the army in the future.

On November 1, 1945, the first anti-aircraft artillery unit of the army was formed in Benxi, Liaodong. It has 1 anti-aircraft company, 2 anti-aircraft artillery companies, and a 90-type field artillery company. It belongs to the Liaodong Military Region and Liu Dianxi is the captain. Liu Yimin served as political commissar; in July 1947, the first anti-aircraft artillery regiment of the army, the first anti-aircraft artillery regiment, was established in the northeast; in April 1948, the second anti-aircraft artillery regiment was established in Tonghua, Jilin; in November 1948, the artillery column of the Northeast Field Army.

The artillery headquarters was established; in December 1948, the third anti-aircraft artillery regiment was established; on April 24, 1949, the Air Defense Command of the Pingjin Guard Region of the North China Military Region was established in Peiping. Nie Rongzhen served as commander and Bo Yibo served as political commissar; May 1949 In the middle of the year, Nanjing Air Defense Command was established, and Pi Dingjun also served as the commander; on August 11, 1949, the Central Military Commission decided to form 10 anti-aircraft artillery regiments and 10 anti-aircraft machine gun battalions; on August 17, 1949, the Northeast Military Region Anti-aircraft Artillery School Established in Shenyang. As of December 1949, the army had established 18 anti-aircraft artillery regiments, which were deployed in large and medium cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Changsha, Shenyang, Anshan, and Fushun.

The origin of China's radar soldiers developed in the air defense battle after the liberation of Shanghai. In September 1949, the air defense department of Songhu Police Command deployed some cadres and used two Japanese "four-type" radars and 8 technical personnel left by the Kuomintang Army to establish the first radar team of the People's Liberation Army on An Guo Road in Shanghai. Solve the problem of insufficient air defense early warning time in Shanghai. On October 1, the radar team began to undertake anti-aircraft security tasks.

Around the Spring Festival in 1950, Shanghai was attacked 26 times by the Kuomintang Air Force. Due to the obsolete radar and the low technical level of the operating personnel, every time the airborne warning post has sounded the alarm, no trace of the enemy aircraft has appeared on the radar screen. During the "Six Six Bombing" in Shanghai, which shocked Chinese and foreign countries in 1950 (a number of important power supply, water supply and electromechanical companies in Shanghai were attacked), the radar team also failed to detect the enemy aircraft.

Ten days later, in order to strengthen the technical force, with the approval of Chen Yi on behalf of the mayor, the air defense department of Songhu Security Command urgently transferred 21 college students from the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering to the radar team from Shanghai Jiaotong University. The college students overhauled all the radar components according to the circuit diagram, but the enemy aircraft flew to Shanghai many times and still failed to find the target.

On March 10, 1950, the Air Defense Department invited the former chief engineer of Shanghai International Radio Qian Shangping. He quickly found out the problem that was ignored before. After adjusting the frequency of the transmitter and receiver with the instrument, the radar Some tall buildings responded, and fixed echoes appeared on the oscilloscope. It is from this day on that the first radar team of the People's Liberation Army began a real combat duty. After the "26 bombing" in Shanghai, Mao Zedong, who was visiting Moscow, met with Stalin urgently and asked the Soviet Union to help strengthen Shanghai's air defense forces. The two governments soon reached an agreement, and the Soviet Air Force and the Homeland Defense Air Force mixed forces led by Lieutenant General Bakiski were stationed in Shanghai, Xuzhou and other places in China.

On September 7, 1950, the Central Military Commission decided to establish a leading organ for the air defense forces of the whole army-the People's Liberation Army Air Defense Command. At that time, the military air defense force was built as a unit of the Army. Zhou Shis first air defense commander and Zhong Chibing served as political commissars. At this time, 4 regional air defense headquarters, 2 anti-aircraft artillery divisions, and 16 anti-aircraft artillery regiments have been established nationwide.

After the establishment of the Air Defence Command, it was the first office in the cotton alley in Dongcheng, Beijing. In order to meet the needs of the anti-US aid to North Korea and the national air defense, the Party Committee of the Air Defense Force of the Military Commission has stepped up the construction of the air defense force. Northeast, North China, and East China's air defense leadership agencies have been expanded, enriched, and adjusted on the original basis, and the new South Central Military Air Defense Command, Anton Air Defense Command, Xiaofengman Air Defense Command, Southwest Military Air Defense Department, Zhejiang Air Defense Department , Fujian Air Defense Department and Nanjing, Wuhan, Tianjin Air Defense Command, basically established and improved command institutions at all levels.

On March 8, 1955, the Central Military Commission decided to raise the army's air defense force from an army armament to an independent armament of the army, the air defense force, on the same platform as the army, navy, and air force. Yang Chengwu served as the first air defense commander. The Air Defense Air Force has established a leading organization of the Air Defense Force of the Military Commission, four leading organizations of the Air Force of the Air Force, one air defense air force headquarters, three air defense division divisions, eight anti-aircraft artillery division divisions, 36 anti-aircraft artillery regiments and four An independent battalion, 5 military schools, and 3 reserve military schools. A total of 149,000 troops including anti-aircraft intelligence, radar, and search soldiers were built, and a copper wall was built against the blue sky of the Republic.

China's air defense forces include anti-aircraft artillery, radar, searchers, and anti-aircraft intelligence. The weapons and equipment have undergone historical changes, forming a national integrated air defense command and intelligence network.

Anti-aircraft artillery is the main body of the air defense force. Our anti-aircraft artillery was originally equipped with Japanese, American, Soviet anti-aircraft guns and anti-aircraft guns of different millimeters. Since the mid-1950s, my country has been equipped with 55-type 37mm anti-aircraft guns, 65-type double-barrel 37mm anti-aircraft guns, 59-type 100mm anti-aircraft guns, and 59-type 57mm anti-aircraft guns. Since the 1990s, it has been equipped with a batch of 4 25mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun systems and dual 35mm anti-aircraft gun systems developed and produced by China, which have a high degree of automation, fast shooting speed, high probability of damage, strong independent combat capability, and strong resistance. The new ground air defense weapon system with good interference effect and all-weather combat capability has initially reached the world advanced level.

Radar soldiers are the "clever eyes" of anti-aircraft artillery. In September 1949, the air defense department of the Songhu Police Command of the East China Military Region deployed some cadres to build the first radar of the Peoples Liberation Army on Anguo Road, Shanghai, using two Japanese-made four-type old radars and 8 technicians left by the Kuomintang. team. On October 1st, he began to take charge of air defense. On March 20, 1950, over the southeast sea of ??Shanghai, the enemy aircraft was first discovered from the radar screen. On the night of May 11, it provided radar information for the aviation force for the first time in Pudong, Shanghai, and assisted the aviation force in shooting down the Kuomintang B-24 bomber. 1 frame.

On April 22, 1950, the first radar battalion of the army was established in Nanjing, under its jurisdiction of 5 radar squadrons. The number is the 101st Battalion of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Radar, known to the outside as the Telecommunications Brigade of the East China Military Region Aviation Department. Equipped with two Japanese-made four-type security radars, four 313-type security radars and four US-made 602-type look-around radars. Later, 8 radar battalions were established in Shanghai, Beijing, Shenyang, Guangdong, Hangzhou, Anton and other places, with a total of 9 radar battalions.

On November 10, 1952, the first radar regiment of the army's air defense force, the 321st regiment of the PLA's air defense force radar, was established. Since then, seven radar regiments have been established in Beijing, Guangzhou, Anton, and Hangzhou, and a total of eight radar regiments have been established.

After the radar system of the army was well established, countless clairvoyances were deployed under the sky of the motherland, which provided a large number of timely and accurate enemy air conditions for anti-aircraft artillery and air force aviation, and set the fire eye on the anti-aircraft artillery.

Chinese radar soldiers also created the miracle of shooting down US fighter planes with self-defense weapons. On January 18, 1953, the U.S. Navy P-2V patrol aircraft flew over the second company position of the 361st Battalion of the military radar, and the instructor Zhang Zhao decisively issued an order to shoot with a self-defense anti-aircraft machine gun. The fully-connected anti-aircraft machine guns formed a cross fire net. After the enemy responded violently, they climbed high, but it was too late. The belly of the fuselage was hit with sparks, white smoke, and the fuselage swayed and fled to the surface of the East China Sea. In this battle, the company consumed more than 200 rounds of high-altitude ammunition, with no casualties. The following day, the Associated Press reported that it admitted that a P-2V patrol aircraft of the US Navys 72nd Task Force was hit by the Chinese army on the 18th and fell into the sea. On February 9, 1955, two US-based AB fighter jets swept over the Chinese national ship in the Songmen Mountain area of ??Zhejiang Province, and then rushed over the radar station in Baiyan Mountain area. The radar station used self-defense anti-aircraft machine guns to cooperate with the anti-aircraft troops to the US aircraft. Fiercely opened fire and shot down an American plane 3 kilometers south of Dachen Island. After three American pilots jumped into the sea, they were rescued by the Kuomintang Navy.

After the establishment of the radar unit, the first equipped with the captured Japanese and American Radar, later used imported Soviet radar. In May 1953, the domestic 101 radar began to equip troops. This is the first wave warning radar produced in my country. Since then, it has ended the history of the military radar completely relying on imports. Later, a variety of domestic-made police-2 and police-3 radars were installed.

The search soldier is the "night vision device" of the anti-aircraft artillery. The role of the searcher is to use the searchlight to illuminate the enemy plane at night, cooperate with the anti-aircraft artillery unit to shoot at the air, cooperate with the aviation to fight against the air, and even directly shoot the enemy plane down. On August 10, 1950, the first searchlight group of the army was established in Shanghai. Since then, the army has established five searchlight regiments. When the air defense was disbanded, the army had six searchlight regiments and three independent searchlight battalions. A total of 723 searchlights were equipped, including 195 radar lights and 528 tracking lights. During the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, the army had three searchlight regiments participating in the war. They captured more than 1,100 enemy aircraft. They cooperated with the Air Force and the anti-aircraft artillery unit to shoot down and wound more than 50 enemy aircraft.

Anti-aircraft intelligence units are "close-up mirrors" of anti-aircraft artillery. The air surveillance unit is a unit that directly observes the enemy aircraft in the air from the ground with eyesight and a telescope. Its advantage is that when the enemy aircraft passes through the airspace above the observation post, it can be seen by the eyes and heard by the ears. It will not be invisible when the enemy aircraft is flying into the dead end of the radar wave, and the formation of the enemy aircraft formation can be clearly seen. Model and quantity. In April 1949, the first batch of 21 air surveillance posts of the army was established in Beijing. Subsequently, air surveillance posts were also successively established in Jinan, Xuzhou, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Shenyang and other cities; on March 25, 1950, the first air surveillance post of the army was established in Shanghai, which was granted by the General Staff The name of the battalion "No. 141st Battalion of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Surveillance Post".

On July 25, 1953, two batches of four US F-47 aircraft and two F-51 fighters continuously attacked the Shanghai area at low altitude. The 141st Battalion conducted air surveillance when the radar did not find the target. The whistle found the target and reported the enemy's situation accurately. The pilots of the Air Division II took off in time to face down, and shot down and wounded one US F-47 fighter each. By December 1951, the army had established a total of 12 air surveillance post battalions. On May 5, 1952, the first batch of air surveillance missions (later called the air intelligence missions) of the army was established. The names of the three regiments established at that time were: air surveillance, one-two-one regiment, one two-two regiment, one The second and third regiments are armed in Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao respectively. By May 17, 1957, when the Air Defense Force was disbanded, the army established a total of 17 air surveillance missions. At the end of December 1953, the nation's first-line air defense intelligence network was initially formed, and it cooperated with the radar network to basically guarantee air defense combat command and air defense intelligence reporting.

After the establishment of the four major arms of the Air Defense Air Force of China, anti-aircraft artillery operations have been formed. High-altitude and long-range radars provide airborne information, low-altitude and close-range airborne intelligence units have alarms, and nighttime air combat has the cooperation of searchers. The new pattern of armies joining hands with the motherland in the blue sky and joint operations.

In January 1957, the Central Military Commission held an enlarged meeting to implement the spirit of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China to compress military and government expenditures and ensure the construction of socialist industrialization. Merged with the Air Force into one service and established a new system of air defense integration.

On May 17, the Air Force and the Anti-Air Force officially merged. On July 26, the Ministry of Defense issued an order to revoke the IDF designation. Since then, the Air Defense Force has changed from a service of the army to a service of the air force.

The Air Defense Force disappeared as a service in the army. However, the air defense forces have continued to grow in the army. After the air defense force was reorganized into the Air Force, as the surface-to-air missiles joined the anti-aircraft firearm series, the ground-to-air missile force stood out among the anti-aircraft artillery units and became a new arm of the Air Force. On October 7, 1959, the worlds first surface-to-air missile was shot down The history of airplanes.

After the air defense force merged with the air force, anti-aircraft artillery appeared in the army artillery unit. In 1989, the "Army Air Defense Combat Command" issued by the General Staff changed the Army's antiaircraft artillery to the Army Air Defense Force. This marked the formal separation of the air defense forces from the artillery sequence, and grew into an independent arm in the army. At present, the Army's air defense force consists of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missile troops.

In November 1981, surface-to-air missiles joined the Army's anti-aircraft artillery family, and they achieved a mixture of surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery. This has caused historic changes in the army's air defense force establishment system and air defense methods.

In the 1960s, the Air Force and the Army Artillery Corps claim to have shot down 1,742 U.S. aircraft and injured 1,632 U.S. aircraft in the 1960s, and created a new splendor.

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Page last modified: 01-08-2021 14:08:59 ZULU