Military Regions - Early History
The military region is a military-level organization set up according to the country’s administrative region, geographic location, strategic battle direction, and combat missions. It is the highest military leadership and command organization within its jurisdiction. It is generally named after the location, jurisdiction, geographic location or ordinal number of the leading organ. In the ninety years since the People's Liberation Army established its army, it has made many adjustments to the setting up of military regions in accordance with the needs of military struggle and army building in different periods.
The army established the earliest military region during the Agrarian Revolution. The military region of the army during the war and the military region after the founding of the People's Republic of China cannot be the same. Especially during the initial period, the functions and structure of the Red Army’s military area are very simple. They only lead local troops and the masses, are responsible for defending the base areas and cooperating with the Red Army’s regular army, and supplementing the Red Army’s regular army.
In May 1931, in accordance with the instructions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi Military Commission was established on the basis of the Military Committee of the Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi Provincial Committee, which was cancelled in October of the same year. This is the first military region in the history of the military (there were previous data that the Jiangxi Military Region was the first military region of the military).
Soon afterwards, in order to strengthen the unified leadership and command of the local forces and mass armed forces in the various revolutionary bases, the Central Revolutionary Military Commission decided to establish military-level institutions in the Chinese Workers, Peasants and Red Army since 1932. In January 1932, the Jiangxi Military Region and the Xianggan Military Region were established. By November 1934, military regions such as West Fujian (later renamed Fujian), Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Fujian, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, and Guizhou Provinces were successively established in each Soviet area. The establishment of each military region is not uniform, and it generally governs several independent divisions and military divisions. Famous warlords such as Chen Yi, Ye Jianying, Peng Xuefeng, Zuo Quan, Zhang Yunyi, Xiao Jinguang, Luo Binghui once served as military commanders.
After the fifth campaign against "encirclement and suppression", the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the main Red Army had to abandon the Central Soviet Area and were forced to march in October 1934. The original military area retained only a few troops and persisted in the struggle. The military region at this time was very different from the previous military region, and its mission, scale, and role had undergone major changes. By early 1935, most military regions ceased to exist. The Xiang-E-Jiang Military Region, the Min-Zhe Military Region, and the Min-Jiang Military Region insisted on reorganizing the New Fourth Army after the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War.
The first military area with the nature of a strategic area was built during the Anti-Japanese War. After the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan, the main force of the Red Army was reorganized into the Eighth Route Army, advancing behind the enemy in North China. In November 1937, Nie Rongzhen, the deputy commander of the 115th Division of the Eighth Route Army, led the 1st and 5th Division, and centered on the Wutai Mountain area in Shanxi to establish the first military area behind the enemy's anti-Japanese war, the Jinchaji Military Area.
During this period, the Jinchaji Military Region and the Shandong Military Region, Jinxi Northwest Military Region (Jin Sui Military Region) and the Jinji Luyu Military Region established before the victory of the Anti-Japanese War were military regions of strategic regional nature. In the later period of the Anti-Japanese War, the major strategic areas have successively established second-level military areas, such as the Binhai Military Area of ??the Shandong Military Area, the Jizhong Military Area of ??the Jinchaji Military Area, and the Luliang Military Area of ??the Jinsui Military Area. Military area-military area.
During this period, the military region system of the army had the following characteristics: the military regions were established under the jurisdiction of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army respectively. The military region of the Eighth Route Army was mainly in North China, and the military region of the New Fourth Army was in Central China. Japanese invaders; the main force and the local military region not only lead the local forces and the masses, but also lead the main force. The military region has become the leading organization of all the military forces of the local army. Commanders of the first and second military regions are commanding generals, such as Ning Rongzhen, commander of Jinchaji Military Region, He Long, commander of Jinsui Military Region, Chen Geng, commander of Taiyue Military Region, Lu Zhengcao, commander of Jizhong Military Region, and Xu Shiyou, commander of Jiaodong Military Region , Su Yu, commander of the Suzhong Military Region. The size and functions of the military region greatly exceeded that of the Red Army period. For example, the Jinchaji Military Region had grown to 99 regiments and 320,000 people before the victory of the Anti-Japanese War in August 1945.
In the later period of the Liberation War, a four-level military system was established. At the beginning of the Liberation War, the major strategic areas of the army still used the names of the anti-Japanese war period, such as Jinchaji Military Area, Shandong Military Area, Jinsui Military Area, Jinji Luyu Military Area.
From the beginning of 1947 to the first half of 1948, with the development of the war situation, five strategic military regions were established in the five field military activity areas, namely the Northeast Field Army-Northeast Military Region, North China Field Army-North China Military Region (formerly Jinchaji Military Region and Jinji Luyu Military Region 1), East China Field Army-East China Military Region (formerly Shandong Military Region), Central Plains Field Army-Central China Military Region (formerly Jin-Ji-Lu-Yu Military Region), Northwest Field Army-Shaanxi-Gansu Ningsui Joint Defense Military Region (former Jinsui Military Region) And various military divisions in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia).
In the later period of the Liberation War, in order to meet the needs of strategic decisive battles, on November 1, 1948, the Central Military Commission issued a general order on the organization and designation of the entire army. The military was divided into a first-class military area (ie, a large military area) and two. The first-class military region, the third-class military region and the military divisions implement the four-level military region system, that is, set up a first-class military region in the corresponding region of the Central Bureau, set up a second-level military region in the corresponding region of the Central Branch, and set up a third-level military region in the provinces and administrative regions. (Special) The district has military divisions. Military regions at all levels are named after the region or location of the region.
At this time, the large military region generally had several provinces under its jurisdiction, and its military strength was around two to three hundred thousand. It could independently undertake commanding combat missions.
On February 1, 1949, the Shaan-Gan-Ning-Jin-Sui Joint Defense Military Region was renamed the Northwest Military Region. On May 26, the leading organization of the Fourth Field Army and the leading organization of the Central Plains Military Region merged to form the Fourth Field Army and Central China Military Region. By the time the People’s Republic of China was established in October 1949, there were five first-level military regions directly under the Central People’s Revolutionary Military Commission, namely the Northeast Military Region, North China Military Region, East China Military Region, Central China Military Region, and Northwest Military Region.
At the beginning of the founding of the People's Republic of China, six military regions were established, which was consistent with the division of the Central Bureau and the six administrative regions.
When the People's Republic of China was founded, the war of liberation was not over. With the development of the Liberation War situation, new military regions were continuously established, and the original military regions were also adjusted.
In January 1950, the Central China Military Region was renamed the Central South Military Region; in February, the Southwest Military Region was established. Peng Dehuai, He Long, Lin Biao, Chen Yi, Nie Rongzhen and other founding fathers served as the major military regions, each led the military, and defended the Quartet. As of July 1950, there were six first-level military regions in the country: Northeast, North China, East China, Central South, Southwest, and Northwest; 18 second-level military regions and 25 third-level military regions; more than 200 military divisions. The establishment level of military command at all levels is: first-level military command (field army), second-level military command (corps), third-level military command (military), and military subdivision (division).
At that time, the four leading organizations of the field army were also the first-level military region organs: the first field army and the northwest military region, the second field army and the southwest military region, the third field army and the east China military region, and the fourth field army and the central and southern military region. The leading organs of the second-level military region are mostly composed of corps organs, such as Xu Guangda Corps (the Second Corps) and the Gansu Military Region, and Yang Dezhi Corps (the 19th Corps) and the Shaanxi Military Region; The First Army and the Qing Navy District, the 60th Army and the Western Sichuan Military Region; many military divisions are divided by the Infantry Division Division. At this time, the first-level military area is consistent with the central bureau and the major administrative regions; the second-level military area is no longer the area where the central branch is located, there is no obvious difference between the second-level military area and the third-level military area, and the two are tied in terms of affiliation. , Are all subordinate to the first-level military region, under the jurisdiction of military divisions. Moreover, the vast majority of the second-level and third-level military regions are consistent with the provincial-level divisions, but they are not called "provincial military regions", such as "Hebei Military Region" and "Jiangxi Military Region".
By 1954, after adjustment and merger, only five second-level military regions of Shandong, Fujian, Yunnan, Tibet, and Xinjiang were retained, and the other provincial military regions were all third-level military regions.
In 1955, the six major military regions were adjusted to the twelve major military regions, and the system was implemented for 30 years. On February 11, 1955, in order to adapt to the needs of the modernization of the army and the establishment of the party's central bureau and central branch, the State Council and the Ministry of National Defense issued the "Decision on the Re-division of the Military Areas of the Whole Country" and decided to reorganize the six major military areas into 12 major military regions: Shenyang, Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Chengdu, Kunming, Tibet, Lanzhou, Xinjiang Military Region. In July 1955, the State Council and the Central Military Commission decided to rename the former first-, second-, and third-level military regions uniformly as military regions and provincial military regions. The entire military was changed from the original four-level military region system to a three-level military region system of military regions, provincial military regions, and military divisions.
After the determination of the new military area division, the Central Military Commission pushed a group of young and powerful young generals to the forefront to take charge of the major military commanders.
Looking at it today, the ages of the commanders and political commissars of the major military regions are incredible: the youngest are only in their early 40s, such as Beijing Military Region Commander Yang Chengwu, Chengdu Military Region Commander He Bingyan, Tibet Military Region Commander Zhang Guohua is only 41 years old, Xinjiang Military Region Commander and Political Commissar Wang Enmao is 42 years old; most are around 45 years old, such as Lanzhou Military Region Commander Zhang Dazhi 44 years old, Shenyang Military Region Commander Deng Hua, Jinan Military Region Commander Yang Dezhi 45 years old, Wuhan Military Region Commander Chen Zaidao, Shenyang Military Region Political Committee Zhou Huan is 46 years old.
This is the first major military area adjustment after the founding of the People's Republic of China. In addition to doubling the number of military areas, it also has the following characteristics: First, the division of military areas is no longer consistent with the Central Bureau and the major administrative areas (the major administrative areas have been cancelled in 1953) , But mainly from the future battlefield considerations. Second, the military region was changed from a four-tier system to a three-tier system. The original first and second military regions were merged into one, the second military region was upgraded to a large military region, and the provincial military region and military division remained unchanged. The third is to solve the problem that some military areas are too large, the depth of the hinterland is too long, and it is inconvenient to command in wartime. Fourth, the newly added major military regions are all upgraded from the original provincial military regions, and some of them no longer have the status of strategic regions. In addition to the Wuhan Military Region, the military regions of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Kunming, Jinan, and Fuzhou are all on the frontier of border and coastal defense, reflecting the characteristics of national defense construction in peacetime.
In April 1956, in order to solve the problem of overly broad frontal defense in the East China battlefield and to strengthen the leadership of the Fujian front-line struggle against the enemy, the State Council decided to separate Fujian and Jiangxi Military Regions, which originally belonged to the Nanjing Military Region, to form a separate Fuzhou Military Region. So far, there are 13 major military regions across the country. Among them, 10 military regions are named after the resident city, and 3 military regions are named after the autonomous region.
In the late 1960s, due to the needs of the border defense situation, it was readjusted from 13 major military regions to 11 major military regions. In May 1967, in order to unify the battle command in the North China battlefield, the Central Military Commission decided to downgrade the Inner Mongolia Military Region to the Provincial Military Region and place it under the leadership of the Beijing Military Region. In December 1969, in view of the particularity of the Tibet region, in order to facilitate the support of the southwest border defense, the Central Military Commission decided to change the Tibet Military Region into a provincial military region and placed it under the leadership of the Chengdu Military Region. In May 1979, the Xinjiang Military Region, like other military regions, was also renamed the Urumqi Military Region under the name of the city where the leadership organ resides.
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