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T-36 Halcón

In a joint venture with Spain, Enaer developed a version of the Spanish CASA 101 Aviojet fighter, called the T-36 Halcón (Falcon), to replace the Cessna T-37 in the advanced trainer/light-strike role. Fifty-six of these aircraft were in service with the FACh. A radar-equipped maritime strike version, designated the A-36M and armed with the British Aerospace Sea Eagle air-to-surface missile, was also developed; it was flown in prototype form in 1992.

This small advanced trainer is built under license from CASA in Chile by ENAER and is used also as a light attack plane. The Spanish designation is CASA C-101 Aviojet and the Chilean one is Halcón. Two versions are in use in the FACh, the CASA 101BB known locally as the T-36 tasked with the advanced training and the CASA 101CC known locally as the A-36 tasked with the COIN/Light Attack function. The FACh see them as replacements for the T-37 and A-37 respectively. Some 14 T-36 and 23 A-36 have been ordered. All of the T-36 are in use with the Grupo 1 in charge of the advanced training for fighter pilots while most of the A-36 are being use by the Grupo 3 in the COIN and Light Attack role.

A-36 Halcon Light Multipurpose Attack plane

The A-36 Halcon is a version of the CASA C-101 Aviojet assembled and part manufactured in Chile by ENAER. In 1975, the Ministry of the air of Spain signed a contract with the CASA company, to design and build several prototypes of a plane of advanced instruction in low-cost, that had ability to attack targets on the ground, easy maintenance and operation. The aircraft design should be replaced to the already aged has 200/220 Saeta and T-33 of the air force.

On June 27, 1977, it made its test flight, in which demonstrated great maneuverability, low noise and low infrared emission due to the mixture of cold air on your Garrett TFE-731-2-2J engine of 1500 kg of thrust. It was called model C-101 Aviojet, version EB or E-25 Blackbird, in the aviation of Spain.

By that date, the FACh conducted studies for the acquisition of a combat aircraft that would be able, in the long term, to replace its fleet of Cessna T-37 and A-37 aircraft. It was required that the aircraft have the real possibility of being employed in attack missions, as reflected in the statements of that then by General Mario Lopez Tobar: "Chile does not can afford to have a line of jets without tooth and claw". After lengthy negotiations and analysis in the early 1980s, the FACh selected the CASA C-101 Aviojet. To be able to comply fully with the demands made by the air force, Chile replaced the original engine for a Garrett TFE-731-3 1700 kg of thrust. This modified version of the C-101, is known in Spain as C-101BB and Chile as T-36 BB Falcon, which entered service in 1982, with the Group N ° 4 in Iquique.

Subsequently, the FACh requested the company CASA to develope a more powerful version of the C-101, trained to perform the missions carried out by the A-37 Dragonfly. This new version of the C-101 was called the C-101 CC or CC A-36 Halcón. This version can carry out missions of attack on Earth, recognition, escort, armed training, etc. It can carry 1800 kg of tactical load, distributed in six brackets Alar, besides its cannon or machine guns. It is powered by a Garrett TFE-731-5 that gives you a maximum thrust of 2132 kg and an intermediate 1900 kg. The horizontal speed of the aircraft gets to the 3500 mt of altitude and is 833 km/hr with maximum thrust and 815 km/hr with intermediate thrust to 6100 mt.

Its tactical possibilities are wide-ranging, both because of the variety of weapons that can be carried by its quantity. Available as fixed armament barrel DEFA 553 30 mm and 1200 shots per minute housed in a ventral nacelle in the fuselage, with a capacity of 130 shells. The barrel is equipped with a damping system that significantly reduces recoil and empty cartridges are thrown outside storing staples in a special compartment.

A-36 Halcón has six stations of weapons under the planes, coupled with the low specific fuel consumption of its turbine, allowing that the same are always occupied by armament not need for any flight profile the use of extra fuel tanks. Your tactical cargo arrives at 1800 kg between rocket launchers, general purpose of different milimetraje and missile air air pumps.

In the mid 1990s, a comprehensive plan for the modernization of the A-36 Halcon, which included the incorporation of a new navigation and attack system, began a small telemetric manufacturing national radar called the Toqui, HUD similar to those employed by the Elkan and the installation of missile Rafael Shafrir Pedro II in underwing pylons - this being the most important detail - which would enable it to perform air missions or punctual air superiority, capacity similar to the acquired by the Hawk 100 RAF. All these works resulted to the A-36 Halcón II, which was presented to the press on July 31, 1996. A contract was awarded in early 1996 to SAGEM as prime and ENAER as subcontractor to upgrade the navigation and attack system on one squadron of its A-36 Halcon aircraft. The first of 12 aircraft was delivered to the Chilean Air Force by SAGEM in December 1996, and deliveries were soon completed.

Nowadays the A36 are divided into 2 groups. The first group (Aviation Group No. 1) it has as basis the BA Los Condores, Iquique, and its main function is the instruction and training. The second lot belongs to the Grupo de Aviación N ° 3 whose airbase is Maquehue, Temuco. This second group has as main function the narrow support or ground attack, and of course, these are aircraft converted to the Falcon II standard.

Year deployed 1983
used by Spain, Chile, Honduras and Jordan
Wing span, m 10.6
Length, m 12.50
Height, m 4.25
Wings area, m2 20.00
Weight, kg
empty aircraft3500
normal take-off5000
maximum take-off6300
Internal fuel, kg1822
Engine 1 TJE Garrett TFE731-5-1J
Thrust, kN
dry19.13
afterburner20.91
Maximum speed, km/h
in altitude834
on sea level769
Cruising speed, km/h656
Range, km3706
Combat radius, km370-964
Rate of climb, m/min1859
Service ceiling, m12800
Maximum overload7.5
Crew2
Armament
  • 1 30-mm cannon DEFA 553 with 130 rounds
  • Warload - 2250 kg in 6 hardpoints
  • 2 500-kg bombs or 4 375-kg bombs or 6 250-kg bombs, or
  • 4 napalm bombs BLU-27, or
  • 4 ML LAU-10 4x127-mm or
  • 6 LAU-68 19x70-mm or
  • 6 Matra 155 18x68-mm or
  • 6 CASA 06.070 6x70-mm or
  • 6 CASA 18.070 18x70-mm UR
  • 2 AAM AIM-9 Sidewinder, 2 ASM AGM-69 Maveric,
  • 2 anti-ship missile Sea Eagle




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