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Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais - CFN
Brazilian Marine Corps - History

Corpo de Fuzileiros NavaisThe Royal Brigade of the Navy was the origin of the Marine Corps of Brazil. Established in Portugal in August 28, 1797, by Charter of Queen d. Maria I, arrived in Rio de Janeiro in March 7, 1808, accompanying the Portuguese royal family to Brazil, safeguarding it from the threat of Napoleon's invading armies. Charter: "I, the Queen, know that this Charter with the force of law could, having myself been present at serious disadvantages, to my Royal service, and the discipline of My Royal Army, and the increase in expenditure which experiences because there are three distinct bodies on Board ships and other vessels of the Royal Navy. The soldiers Sailors: necessary consequences of this organization are, firstly, the lack of discipline that is difficult to establish between the bodies belonging to various offices: second, the lack of order, which is born of the artillery and Infantry services, which are very different at sea than on land; and be necessary that the bodies again shipped learn new exercises that are not used. I definitely create a body of Gunners Sailors, Marines and Sailors and Ballasters Artificers underneath the Title of Royal Brigade of the Navy ..."

The baptism of fire of the Royal Marines occurred in the expedition to French Guiana (1808/1809), with the capture of Cayenne, cooperating actively in the fighting locked up the victory, ensuring for the Brazil the current state of Amap in Brazil. That same year, 1809, d. Joo Rodrigues S e Menezes, count of Anadia, then Minister of the Navy, determined that the Royal Brigade of the Navy occupied the fortress of So Jos, Ilha das Cobras, where until today the Marines have their "headquarters". After the return of the King d. Joo VI to Portugal, a battalion of the Royal Brigade of the Navy remained in Rio de Janeiro. Since then, the soldiers-sailors were present in all important episodes in the history of Brazil, as in wrestling by consolidation of Independence, in the campaigns of Silver and other armed conflicts that engaged the country.

Over the years, the Marine Corps received several designations: Naval Artillery Battalion of the Rio de Janeiro, artillery corps of the Navy, Naval Infantry Battalion, Marine Corps, Naval Regiment and finally, since 1932, Marine Corps (CFN). Until the beginning of the expansion of the CFN with the creation of regional companies, the duties of the Commander-General was whittled down to a unit Commander, with the peculiarity of responding, also, through training and staging of squares and, in some periods, wholly or partially by their officers. As more and more effective left the fortress of So Jos, grew in volume, specialization and importance the responsibilities of the master-General. To assist in its duties, initially consisted of a departmental organization focused on personnel and material, so that, from the Regulation of 1934, went on to have a staff, organized in Special and General staff.

During the second world war, a detachment of Marines was installed on the island of Trinidad, to defend against a possible basic establishment of enemy submarines and, still, Regional Companies were created along the coast, which later turned into Groupement of Marines. Amphibious fighters boarded also on major warships of the Navy of Brazil.

In the Decade of the 1950s, the CFN structured itself to operating employment as landing Force to qualify as part of the Navy for land operations and actions necessary to a naval campaign. More recently, the Marines, as military observers of the United Nations Organization (UNO), acted in conflict areas, such as Honduras, El Salvador, Bosnia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Peru and Ecuador. In Angola, as peacekeepers, attended the UN Verification Mission (UNAVEM-III) with a company of Marines and an engineering Platoon.

The progressive increase of the powers of the Commander-General, together with the elevation of the effectives of troop of Ilha das Cobras, showed the desirability of creating an independent organization, emerging, so, in 1950, the command of the garrison headquarters.

With the creation and implementation of major components of the force of Marines of the Squadron (FFE), the Commander-General was assigned command of the same, having the other subordinates, yet, the garrison headquarters, the instruction Centre and the Centre for recruits. The latter two received in 1966 an organ of framework, geared toward instruction activities, the Organization's Command, later transformed into support support command, origin of the current staff of Marine Corps Command and the Marine Corps Material command.

During the counterinsurgency fighting against leftist armed groups in Brazil from 1968 to 1974, the military governments suspended democratic rights and lost control over sectors of the security organizations and armed forces. The three main guerrilla movements in Brazil occurred in the Caparao Mountains, the Ribeira Valley and the Araguaia Region. Successes in locating and capturing the guerrillas were mostly due to using smaller numbers of specialized troops and information operations. The longest of the campaigns conducted by the military was in the Araguaia Region, the most dangerous of all the insurgent areas, from 1972 to 1974. The first campaign was executed by forces comprised mostly of recruits, without effective military training, and therefore did not succeed in exterminating the guerrillas. The Armed Forces did not achieve success until the government deployed specialized troops from the Parachutist Brigade and the Marine Corps. The fighting was extremely violent. Since there was no formal declaration of war, prisoners would not be protected by the Geneva Convention. Brutal methods of intimidation were used by both sides, such as cutting off the heads of dead bodies and execution of detainees. Finally, in this historical evolution, the year 1981 represented a significant milestone by profound changes which have taken place. Thus, with the command-level elevation generally Sectoral steering Organ (ODS), reporting directly to the Minister of the Navy, there was the restructuring of the body, while remaining an Operational Force, represented by FFE and by Regional Grouping of Marines under the Command of naval operations, while the supporting organs if appropriate industry positioned.

It should be noted that, in spite of that setorializao, was kept the unit design of CFN, regarded as "Portion of the Navy for land operations and actions necessary to a naval campaign, as well as the custody and security of naval installations or interests of the Navy, and to its specific support".

In the new position, established in 1981, was assigned to the General command of the Marine Corps (CGCFN) the purpose of "Exercising the Sectoral Direction to specific support activities peculiar to the force and Marine Corps Troops units". As ODS, his performance was marked by two major changes: -no longer take care of matters directly connected with employment of FFE; and -received the appropriate authority for the treatment of charges of financial, technical and administrative character, ensuing from the needs of supporting Force of Marines.

To assume their new tasks, the CGCFN was reorganized, adopting a structure geared to human resources, Material, and research and doctrine. For if they are in different subjects as opted by the departmentalization, which better accommodates the specific jobs. Succinctly, it can be said then that it is for the CGCFN provide the force of Marines with human resources professionally prepared, according to the different levels, specializations and qualifications, and fitted with suitable material, to be submitted in the Operating Sector, the training and employment planning, compatible with the foreseeable situations. Such situations may require new human and material resources, with increasing levels of quality and/or specialisation, which makes set up a relationship of mutual essentiality and preserves the peculiar relations with General Commander of all Marines.

Approximately 1,000 Marines and sailors from seven countries came together in the opening ceremony for Exercise Southern Exchange 2009 (SE09), hosted by the Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais (CFN) Amphibious Division at the Governors Island Naval Complex. The multinational combined exercise is meant to train various countries forces together to effectively learn to operate as one force, as well as to bolster overall stability and security throughout the region. The countries participating this year are the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia and Uruguay. During this two-phased exercise, Law of War and Human Rights classes were taught daily, and training will be taught by various experts from each participating nation. Training focused on fundamentals that are common amongst all Marine Corps' throughout the Americas: convoy operations, first aid, water survival, amphibious training, martial arts, patrolling, and checkpoint operations in order to enhance each nations peacekeeping and humanitarian disaster relief capabilities, should the need arise. A successful Southern Exchange enables participants to return to their respective nations to further train and share their experiences and lessons learned with their colleagues. Through this collaborative sharing of mission-focused knowledge and expertise, each participating country was able to improve its own core capabilities in what it considers key mission areas resulting in enhanced regional security.

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Page last modified: 01-12-2011 19:08:15 ZULU