DD-43 Casin - Design
The hulls are of steel, galvanized in all parts below the water line, except structure wholly within the fuel-oil tanks. Each vessel has the customary raised forecastle, which is carried aft to frame No. 46. On the forecastle deck are located the anchors, capstan, and pilot house, with bridge above. Above the bridge is a searchlight platform on which is mounted one searchlight. The customary engine-room and fireroom telegraphs, gongs, telephones, voice tubes, etc., are fitted for transmitting orders and signaling to the machinery compartments and other parts of the vessel.
The 1,000-ton class includes all vessels from the Cassin, No. 43, to and including the Shaw, No. 68. Vessels of this class have a high forecastle extending from the stem to a point just abaft the pilot house, where it breaks off to a low main deck which is extended to the stern. The high forecastle of these vessels plays an important part in their manoeuvring qualities; acting as a permanent jib, which, while helpful under some conditions, is a serious handicap under others. It must always be kept in mind and allowed for, its principal effect being, of course, to make it difficult to bring the vessel up to the wind. Caution must be used when such a vessel is run into a small harbor into which the wind is blowing and where it will be necessary to turn her within the harbor in order to get out. Under such conditions the ship may get beam to wind, and, lacking space to gather headway, refuse to turn into it, and may drift ashore broadside on.
Several narrow escapes are on record resulting from failure to appreciate this feature. In turning with a vessel of this type, it is desirable to turn in such a way as to take advantage of the jib effect instead of having to work against it. The effect of the wind upon the bow is particularly important in going alongside a dock. Destroyers of this class had a large after dead-wood, which resulted in greater steadiness of sea route but produced an excessively large turning circle, the tactical diameter being as great as one thousand yards with rudder angle of twenty degrees.
The main deck is a weather deck aft of frame No. 46. On this deck and under the forecastle are located a small store room, lamp and windlass-engine room, wardroom officers' quarters, pantry and ship's galley. Aft there is a deck house in which are located the crew's water closets and washroom and wireless room. There are two masts fitted with signal yards and wireless outfit.
The berth deck is in two parts, extending from the stem to frame No. 48 and from frame No. 134 aft, the space between being interrupted by the deep fuel-oil tanks, cofferdam and machinery compartments. On this deck forward are located store rooms, paints and oils room and crew's quarters, and aft are located crew's quarters and store rooms.
In the hold, from forward aft, are the forward trimming tanks, chain lockers, stores, fuel-oil tanks, magazines and handling rooms, fuel-oil tanks, cofferdam (extending to the main deck and arranged to be used as a reserve-feed tank), boiler, engine and auxiliary machinery rooms, fuel-oil tanks, magazine and handling rooms, fuel-oil tanks and the after trimming tanks. There is a reserve-feed tank, built in the ship's structure, in the forward end of the engine room, and similarly constructed fresh-water tanks in the forward fire- room outboard of boiler No. 2, port and starboard. There is also an engineer's store room in each fireroom, and a small coal bunker for galley purposes in the port forward corner of the forward fireroom.
The battery consists of five 4-inch rapid-fire guns, one on the forecastle, commanding ahead and broadside fire, two on the main deck forward, port and starboard, at break of forecastle, one on the main-deck center line abaft of deck house, and the other on the main-deck center line well aft. The torpedo outfit consists of four 5.2-m. by 45-cm. twin torpedo tubes mounted on the main deck ; two abaft of the engine hatch at frame No. 118, port and starboard, one at frame No. 95, starboard, and one at frame No. 76, port. There is a four-stage Ingersoll-Rand air compressor for the torpedoes, located in the auxiliary machinery room. Its capacity is 20 cubic feet of air at 2,500 pounds per square inch per minute. The steam cylinder is 8 inches in diameter and the compressor cylinders are for the four stages, with a common stroke of 5 inches. No accumulator is fitted.
The anchor windlass is located on the main deck at frame No. 12. It is of the Hyde Steam Windlass Co.'s vertical type. There are three steering stations: (i) The pilot house, fitted with combined steam and hand gear; (2) top of the pilot house, steam gear only ; (3) the hand gear on the main deck aft. The steering engine, of the Hyde Steam Windlass Co.'s horizontal type, is located in the pilot house.
The fire main extends throughout the machinery space on the starboard side close under the main deck beams. It is 2 inches in diameter, which size is carried forward to frame No. 38 and aft to frame No. 137 in the crew's spaces. The main is supplied by two fire and bilge pumps, located in the auxiliary machinery room, the pump connections being the full size of the main. Branches for the various fire plugs are taken off the main at convenient locations. All fire plugs are 1 inches in diameter. In addition to the regular fire plugs there is a 1-inch hose valve on the discharge manifold of each fire and bilge pump.A 1-inch connection is taken off the fire main aft for flushing out the stern-tube bearings, a full size branch being led to each bearing.
The flushing system is taken off the fire main direct. There is a 1-inch connection forward supplying the officers' water closet and ship's galley, and one of 2 inches aft for the crew's water closets and wash room. Fresh water is carried in the ship's tanks, located in the forward fireroom, port and starboard, and having a combined capacity of about 3,920 gallons. The tanks have two 2-inch filling connections, port and starboard, respectively, fitted with hose valves at the ship's sides. There is also a 1-inch. filling connection from the distilling apparatus to the starboard tank. Located on the forecastle deck, immediately abaft the pilot house, is a small gravity tank of 50 gallons capacity for supplying the galley and officers' showers. The tank is fitted with steam coil to prevent freezing in cold weather. A hand pump is provided in the galley for filling this tank.
A main drain is led throughout the machinery spaces and connected to the fire and bilge pumps by suctions the full size of the main. Macomb strainers are fitted in these suctions close to the pumps. The main is 4 inches outside diameter in the auxiliary room, engine room and after fire-room, reducing to 2\ inches outside diameter in the forward fireroom forward of the bilge-suction connection. There is a full size bilge suction connection from the main drain in each fireroom and auxiliary machinery room, and two in the engine room, fitted with plate strainers at the bilge ends and aft and fitted with connections to the various compartments requiring drainage and the trimming tanks. In addition to the drainage system proper, the engine room is provided with a 7-inch independent bilge-suction connection to the circulating pump for emergency use.
The ventilation of all living spaces, etc., is by natural means, except in the boiler rooms, which are ventilated by the forced-draft blowers. The usual heating system, with brass-pipe coil radiators, is installed. Steam for the quarters forward is taken off the auxiliary steam line in the forward boiler room, and that for the after compartments from the auxiliary steam line in the engine room.
For performing minor repairs one small motor-driven engine lathe, of 12 inches swing and 6-foot bed, is installed together with all the necessary tools and attachments. The driving motor is a direct-current, Reliance, adjustable- speed type, with speed ranges from 500 to 1,500 r.p.m.
The dynamos are located in the auxiliary-machinery room. The installation consists of two horizontal, compound-wound, direct-current, lo-kilowatt, General Electric generators, each driven by a Curtis steam turbine. Each generator will deliver at normal load 80 amperes of current at 125 volts, when running 5,000 revolutions per minute. Each line of shafting is fitted with a Gary-Cummings tor- sionmeter for ascertaining the shaft horsepower of the main turbines.
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