AOT Oiler, Transport
AOT Oiler, Transport provide worldwide delivery of petroleum products to Department of Defense users and augment and support fleet operating units when required. The T-AOT ships comprise both commercially-owned and -operated ships chartered by the US Government, and Government-owned ships operated by civilian crews, all under the administrative control of the Commander, Military Sealift Command (COMSC). There is a wide variety of design configurations among the T-AO. There is no requirement for specific ROCS and POES tailored to each configuration. As commercial ships, the T-AOT class ships are civilian manned in accordance with regulatory requirements, and time charters or operating contracts. They are capable of loading, transporting, preserving and storing on-station bulk petroleum products.
The T-AOT mission is to provide transportation and storage of bulk petroleum products. The mission requires each ship to be capable of conducting Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) operations from in stream, pierside, afloat prepositioning and point-to-point ocean transport. All ships are capable of consolidation while alongside.
One of the Navy's activities is to arrange for Department of Defense (DOD) ocean transportation of bulk petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) products. Almost all of the demands placed upon the Navy for this liquid-cargo transportation are for long distances, generally from the refineries, where crude oil is converted into POL products, to established military distribution terminals. Throughout the world, as of 1972 there were 117 distribution terminals: 26 Army, 31 Air Force, and 60 Navy, To service these terminals, the Navy employs a fleet of both Government-owned and commercially chartered tankers. The tankers are civilian-manned, contract-operated, commercial-type ships. The principal products carried are (1) Navy special fuel oil, a product used as ship fuel, (2) jet aircraft fuel (JP-5 and JP-8), (3) gasoline for piston aircraft, (4) motor gasoline, and (5) diesel fuel.
As of October 1971 the Military Sealift Command tanker fleet consisted of 56 tankers having a total capability of 1,316,OOO dead weight tons (DWT). Dead weight ton (DWT) is the measurement of a ship's total carrying capacity in tons weight including cargo, fuel, passengers and crew, when fully loaded down to her permitted loadline. Of the 56 tankers, 32 were commercial charters, representing about 75 percent of the total DWT capability. The remaining 24 tankers were Government owned: 10 were T-l or T-5 tankers, representing about 9 percent of the total DWT capability, and 14 were T-Z tankers, representing about 16 percent of that capability. On the basis of Navy and DOD studies made from 1965-69, Navy officials stated they needed 9 new tankers to replace the 14 T-Z tankers which were of World War II vintage. Because the T-2 tankers were more than 25 years old, the Navy believed operating and repair costs had increased to the point where it was not cost effective to continue their operation.
Those ships that are part of the Merchant Ship Naval Augmentation Program (MSNAP) have added underway replenishment mission capabilities for alongside delivery of fuel.
The T-AOT class ships are capable of conducting Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) and Assault Follow-On Echelon (AFOE) operations, including cargo discharge either in the stream using the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS), or at a pier. The are capable of getting underway on 24 hour notice after normal protracted periods on station, at anchor, or alongside a pier (prepositioning ships only).
Required Operational Capabilities (ROCS) are reported under readiness conditions having major significance in determining the unit's total manpower requirements.
Under Condition III, Wartime/Increased Tension/Deployed Cruising Readiness, systems are manned to a level sufficient to counter possible threats. While in Condition III, the ship shall be capable of meeting the following criteria: able to keep installed systems manned and operating as necessary to conform with prescribed ROCS ; able to accomplish all normal underway maintenance, support and administrative functions.
Under Condition IV, Peacetime Cruising Readiness, the ship shall be capable of meeting the following criteria: able to keep installed systems manned and operating to the extent necessary for safe and effective ship control, propulsion, and security; able to accomplish all normal underway maintenance, support and administrative functions. Maximum advantage is taken of training opportunities.
Under Condition V, Inport Readiness, designated inport maintenance and training period. While in Condition V, the ship shall be capable of meeting the following criteria: able to keep installed systems manned and operating to the extent necessary for effective operation as dictated by the existing situation; able to man watchstations as required to provide adequate security; able at all times to meet anticipated inport emergencies and to perform inport functions as prescribed by unit ROCS; able to accomplish all required maintenance, support and administrative functions. Maximum advantage is taken of training opportunities.
ROC symbols are used to specify the desired level of achievement of readiness or other work for or during a particular readiness condition. Readiness normally applies to watches and/or evolutions, while other work refers to non-watch activity such as performing maintenance or running the galley.
The bulk petroleum distribution system includes a network of storage facilities (intermediate and base-level) required in support of worldwide military fuel requirements, and in some cases other Federal civil agency requirements. Sufficient tankage shall be available for peacetime and war reserve stocks. Planning for wartime petroleum requirements shall rely on host-nation support (HNS) when feasible. Storage facilities are designated Defense Fuel Support Points (DFSPs) wherein DLA-owned fuel is stocked for distribution to multiple military end user O&M accounts (e.g., aircraft, vehicles, ships or tanks, for which fuel is purchased through multiple O&M accounts). DFSPs range in size and scope from a single tank to a pipeline system with a network of multiple terminals.
Consolidated Cargo (CONSOL) represents MSC-controlled tankers supplying cargo fuel to fleet oilers at sea. Using PREPO tanker to deliver Navy CONSOL requirements allows CONSOLs to be conducted without disrupting other tanker cargo operations; thus, DESC pays the OSD APF per diem rate and the Navy shall pay all charges over the APF per diem rate when PREPO tankers are used for this purpose. Using PREPO tankers for CONSOL duties shall be coordinated with the appropriate CINC-JPO and DESC-B. There are three categories of CONSOLs.
CHARGER LOG IV is an opportune CONSOL whereby fleet oilers rendezvous with an MSC-controlled tanker along the tanker's prearranged routing (load port to designated discharge ports) for refueling at sea. Opportune means the cargo (type of product and quantity) was not scheduled by the Navy but, circumstances are such that the fleet oiler has an opportunity to use the MSC tanker; in such cases, transfer of the contracted or DLA-owned fuel must be prearranged/approved by DESC-BI. If CHARGER LOG IV is not prearranged/approved and the circum-stance justify, an emergency CONSOL action may be initiated to fill the requirement. Tanker diversions of less than 24 hours will be paid for by DESC. If the tanker is diverted for longer than 24 hours, the Navy shall be charged at the vessel per diem rate for the entire time (including the 24 hours) the tanker is diverted. The number of days the tanker is diverted is defined as the difference between actual tanker transit time from the last load port to the first port of discharge (includes time-on-station performing the CHARGER LOG IV) minus the normal transit time between the last load port and the first discharge port.
Procedures for MSC tankers operating in direct fleet support roles (Charger Log IV - Scheduled UNREP) are as follows. Fleet commanders submit requirements to DESC-BI within the timeframe in which support is required, and notify DESC-BI at least 20 days prior to the required support date. DESC provides product from contract sources by appropriate ordering office preparing DD Form 1155 or from DFSPs. COMSC nominates tanker and position it to receive fuel being supplied by DESC.
Scheduled CONSOL is a scheduled replenishment at sea where all or part of the MSC tanker load is on board to support US Navy requirements. Usually, fleet units load out at land based DFSPs. Delivery of the fuel directly to the fleet saves the cost of fleet oilers making round trips to DFSPs and may save the cost of resupplying DFSPs drawn down by Navy oilers. Scheduled CONSOLs shall be requested through DESC-B at least 20 days in advance of the CONSOL date. In theory, CONSOLs save costs for both DESC and the Navy; therefore, where the CONSOL tanker is on station for 72 hours or less, each agency shall absorb half the cost of the complete CONSOL cargo cycle. The number of days in the cargo cycle will be calculated IAW subsection O.3., above. DESC shall pay full per diem for half the number of days and the Navy shall pay full per diem for the other half. Additionally, if the CONSOL tanker is required to remain on station for more than 72 hours, each day of additional tanker per diem will be paid by the Navy.
Emergency CONSOL represents a requirement certified by the Navy to be a bona fide emergency which cannot be supplied in any other manner. Emergency CONSOLs may be scheduled with DESC, provided they are approved by the Navy Petroleum Office, Ft. Belvoir, VA. DESC funds transportation costs.
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