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Navy-Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System (NMESIS)

Navy-Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System (NMESIS)Raytheon Missiles & Defense and the US Marine Corps successfully tested the new Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System (NMESIS). NMESIS (read as nemesis - retaliation) combines the anti-ship missile Naval Strike Missile (NSM) with a remote-controlled launcher (Remotely Operated Ground Unit for Expeditionar, or ROGUE), manufactured by Oshkosh Defense. As a result of the first test, the NSM missile launched from a mobile land platform successfully hit a surface target at sea.

The system is expected to be used primarily in the Asia-Pacific region to counter the Chinese Navy (PLA Navy). Under the new ILC doctrine, Marines will use NMESIS to support the US Navy, striking enemy ships from shore. It will be recalled that the US Marine Corps is awaiting a 10-year radical reform - the loss of all tanks, most of the artillery and part of the aircraft in favor of mobile anti-ship systems, MLRS and marine unmanned systems.

Commander-in-Chief of the USMC, David Berger, hopes that the money saved by reducing staff, tanks, reducing air squadrons, etc., will be spent on rearmament to realize his vision of the Corps. At the heart of Berger's plan is the creation of naval expeditionary units, whose mission will be to confront the Navy of the PLA.

Unlike other types of US troops, the USMC does not expect to be able to conduct large-scale confrontation operations and plans to fight almost exclusively in the area of ??weapons destruction of a potential enemy in need of reformatting and rearmament. The new Marine Littoral Regiments (MLR) will be landed on islands in the South China and East China Seas in small mobile groups of 50 to 100 Marines. Armed with anti-ship missiles, aircraft, ground, surface and submarine drones, the Marines will target Chinese warships before they go out to sea, and will provide targets for missile strikes by the Air Force and Navy. In addition, the ILC will now rely on "smart autonomous Marines" rather than "thoughtless executors", for which changes have already been made to the training program. Marines must be able to act independently, without total control of staffs and commanders.

The inaugural test proved the system’s ability to fire a Naval Strike Missile, or NSM, from a U.S. Marine Corps ground launcher and score a direct hit against a surface target at sea. NSM is a multi-mission cruise missile designed to destroy heavily defended maritime and land targets; it is the U.S. Navy’s over-the-horizon weapon system for littoral combat ships and future frigates.

“Our Naval Strike Missile is a vital weapon for denying enemies the use of key maritime terrain,” said Kim Ernzen, vice president of Naval Power at Raytheon Missiles & Defense. “This test further demonstrates our partnership for advancing the Marine Corps’ modernization priorities of enabling sea control and denial operations.”

The Marines will use NMESIS to support the U.S. Navy from the shore against enemy ships. NMESIS is comprised of the Raytheon Missiles & Defense-made NSM and a Remotely Operated Ground Unit for Expeditionary (ROGUE) Fires vehicle, produced by Oshkosh Defense. NSM is the latest product from a partnership Raytheon Missiles & Defense has with Norway and its defense leader Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace. The companies have teamed to bring more than half of NSM production to the U.S. The missile is already in service with Norway’s navy and Poland’s coastal defense squadrons.

The United States is committed to a free and open Indo-Pacific, which includes freedom of navigation in the region. China has deployed “anti-ship missiles, surface-to-air missile systems, and electronic jammers” in a series of disputed islands in the South China Sea region that are claimed by Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam as well as China. China’s continued militarization of disputed features in the South China Sea only serves to raise tensions and destabilize the region. As an initial response to China’s continued militarization of the South China Sea, the US disinvited the PLA [People’s Liberation Army] from the 2018 Rim of the Pacific [known as RIMPAC] Exercise. This followed a warning from the White House in early May that there would be consequences if China’s militarization in the South China Sea continued.

As the stand-in force in the first island chain, it is critical that Force Reconnaissance Marines are capable of being employed across a myriad of U.S. Navy platforms in order to enhance the lethality of the fleet in the littoral environment. U.S. Marines refined their ability to rapidly deploy to remote regional islands in order to control key maritime terrain as 3rd Marine Division and 3rd Marine Logistics Group conducted operations 23-25 September 2020 centered on the Okinawan island of Ie Shima. During this operation, elements of 12th Marine Artillery Regiment partnered with Marines from 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion and U.S. Air Force Special Operations Squadron to develop the unit’s ability to rapidly insert and employ a range of military capabilities from remote islands within littoral areas of the region.

Simultaneously, Marines from Combat Logistics Regiment 3 and 9th Engineer Support Battalion, at nearby locations in Okinawa, established an expeditionary advanced logistics base and practiced the ability to resupply the forward-positioned element on Ie Shima. Their efforts included surface reinforcement and resupply of Ie Shima and tested the ability to move fuel ashore under expeditionary conditions. The exercise represented a step forward in demonstrating how III Marine Expeditionary Force units can leverage the unique capabilities of joint partners in rapidly dispersing to and operating from key maritime terrain, sustain these distributed positions, and quickly displace or withdraw as necessitated by the tactical situation.

Nemesis Nemesis was the most implacable of all the gods to haughty men. The idea of the righteous control of human life, which did not conspicuously appear in the cults that have just been examined, essentially belonged to the worship of Nemesis. This figure lost much of its personal force in proportion as it developed in moral significance. In the beginning the name denoted more than a mere moral abstraction; for there is reason to suppose that both Nemesis and Upis were connected titles or surnames of Artemis or Artemis Aphrodite.

It is important to find the right interpretation of this title. It is impossible perhaps to decide about its original meaning and to say whether this was moral or physical ; but it is clear that the Greeks themselves interpreted it as the 'watcher' or overseer of right and wrong, of human life and conduct in general. It occurs as a synonym of Nemesis, the Rhamnusian goddess, who 'gazes at the deeds of men.' This application of the title, as the moral connotation of Nemesis, not only serves to illustrates the connexion surviving in a late period of Nemesis and Artemis.

In Homer, Nemesis is not a personal figure; in Hesiod she is, but probably only as a mere personification. But in the fragment of the Cypria her figure has life and vivid personality. She flies over land and sea, like Dictynna of Crete, to escape her lover, and assumes different shapes of animals ; Zeus overtakes her in Rhamnus and in the form of a swan becomes the father of Helen. The locality and this latter transformation is not indeed mentioned in the lines of the Cypria; but three is fair reason for supposing, as the account given by Cratinus agrees in most details with the story of the Cypria, that it agreed also in the close of the legend, which has not been preserved in the epic fragment.

Those Persians who landed at Marathon met with vengeance from this goddess : for despising the difficulty of capturing Athens, it is said they brought Parian marble to make a trophy of, as if they had already conquered. This marble Phidias made into a statue of Nemesis, and on the goddess' head is a crown with some figures of stags, and some small statues of Victory: in one hand she has a branch of an apple tree, in the other a bowl, on which some Ethiopians are carved. Neither this statue of Nemesis nor any other of the old statues of her are delineated with wings, not even the most holy statues at Smyrna: but in later times people, wishing to shew this goddess as especially following upon Love, gave Nemesis wings as well as Love. They say Nemesis was the mother of Helen, but Leda suckled her and brought her up: but her father the Greeks generally think was Zeus and not Tyndareus. Oceanus was Nemesis' father. For indeed Oceanus is not a river but a sea, the remotest sea sailed on by men, and on its shore live the Spaniards and Celts, and in it is the island of Britain.

For Shakespeare, Nemesis involved an artistic link between sin and retribution. The artistic connection may be of the most varied description. There is a Nemesis of perfect equality, of Nemesis. Shylock reaping measure for measure as he has sown. When Nemesis overtook the Roman conspirators it was partly its compare suddenness that made it impressive: within fifty lines of their appeal to all time they have fallen into an attitude of deprecation. For Richard, on the contrary, retribution was delayed to the last moment: to have escaped to the eleventh hour is shown to be no security. Jove strikes the Titans down Not when they first begin their mountain piling, But when another rock would crown their work. Nemesis may be emphasised by repetition and multiplication ; in the world in which Richard is plunged there appears to be no event which is not a nemesis.

Retribution may be made bitter to the sinner by his tracing in it his own act and deed : from Lear himself, and from no other source, Goneril and Regan have received the power they use to crush his spirit. Nay, the very prize for which the sinner has sinned turns out in some cases the nemesis fate has provided for him; as when Goneril and Regan use their ill-gotten power for the state intrigues which work their death. In the great crisis of The Tempest the whole universe seems to resolve itself into nemesis upon a single crime. And most keenly pointed of all comes the nemesis that is combined with mockery: Macbeth, if he had not essayed the murder of Banquo as an extra precaution, might have enjoyed his stolen crown in safety; his expedition against Macduff's castle slays all except the fate-appointed avenger. Richard disposes of his enemies with flawless success until the last, Dorset, escapes to his rival. Such is Nemesis, and such are some of the modes in which the connection between sin and retribution may be made artistically impressive.

Death had marked the Knight for his own, and he commenced that last journey which was to end with his life, -and yet it was not given him either to behold the King of Terrors mounted on a lame horse who rode beside him, or to hear the clank of the knell, which with solemn sound rang from the bell which hung around the horse's neck. Deceiving himself with the intention of future repentance, the Knight disregarded the Monitor, and passed on. Deplorable error; fatal step never to be recalled; salvation thus wilfully abandoned; immediate condemnation followed, and the power of Satan prevailed. Death holds the hour-glass aloft, — but a few grains of sand remain to pass, – the fearful proximity of the Phantom King indicates that the Knight's mortal existence has come to a close, the outstretched claw of the Demon, and his hideous exultation prove his knowledge that in another instant the victim will be his.

What an awful lesson has Durer thus left us for our contemplation and advantage, and how incomparably has he depicted it. The depth and significance of his symbolic designs surely cannot be better illustrated, nor his deep-souled genius be more powerfully exhibited than by the peculiar and unique manner in which he has treated this mysterious point of the Christian faith.

The interest connected with the engraving does not end with the explanation of the allegory. At lesat one other point yet remained to be cleared up, viz., whether Durer ever gave the engraving a distinctive name, for which the inconclusive description of“ The Knight, Death, and the Devil” has since been substituted. De Murr, in the 7th volume of his “ Journal,” page 67, started the theory that the “Nemesis,” indicated by Durer in his Diary of 1520-21, was the small engraving described as “ Justice," wherein “a man is seated on a lion, holding a sword in his right hand, and a pair of scales in his left.” Von Murr repeated this notion in the catalogue he prepared of the “Praun” collection at Nuremberg, page 78, No. 73. Adam Bartsch, in the 7th volume, page 94, of “Le Peintre Graveur," 1818, in a Note to his description of the figure of “ Justice, No. 79,” asks in evident doubt whether Durer really intended to call this engraving “Nemesis”? Subsequently, both Heller and Nagler adopted the theory, and lastly M. Galichon mentions “the probability, that judging from the extreme care with which the figure of Justice'is engraved, it is that which Durer in his · Journal' designated under the name of Nemesis,' and which he loved to present to those grand personages, whose patronage and good will he desired to secure.”

On the other hand, some very distinguished authorities upon Art have declared the “ Nemesis” mentioned by Durer to be his celebrated engraving known as “The Great Fortune.” Among those authorities may be mentioned M. Hansman, of Hanover, M. J. D. Passavant, and Dr. Waagen. With great submission, however, to these eminent writers, their theory has no solid foundation, there being nothing whatever in the “Great Fortune ” to justify the attribution for one moment, The subject, is, therefore, for all practicable purposes, left just as unsatisfactory as it was by the original guess of Von Murr. As this point will be found to be hereafter very fully entered upon in considering the allegory of the “Great Fortune,” it is unnecessary in this place to go into those details which will be found to conclusively set at rest any possibility of the “Great Fortune ” ever having been called “ The Nemesis" by Durer. The idea that “The Christian Knight,” the knight who “ with tranquil mind goes straight forward without fear of death,” could possibly come within the definition of Durer's “Nemesis," seems never to have ever occurred to any one.

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Page last modified: 24-06-2021 18:04:51 ZULU