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Joint Strike Missile (JSM)

Joint Strike Missile (JSM) The JSM is Norway’s advanced anti-surface warfare missile designed for the new F-35A Lighting II’s internal weapons bay. The missile can be employed against sea- and land-based targets. Norway is a partner nation in the development of the fifth-generation Joint Strike Fighter. The JSM development was completed in mid-2018 after a series of successful verification tests, while the completion of the JSM integration on the F-35 fighter jet is expected during 2022-2024. The Joint Strike Missile (JSM) is an air launched variant being designed for the F-35 (internal and external carriage) to meet Royal Norwegian Air Force requirements. Similarities include seeker, software, mission planning, warhead, and engine. Differences include the JSM will introduce Link-16 and overland capability, to be retrofitted in NSM. The JSM outer mold line is changed to fit F-35A/C internal weapons bay.

The missile is equipped with air intakes, wings and tail fins. It measures 4 meters in length and weighs 416 kg. The front section of the JSM includes an Image Target Seeker to distinguish between ground and unintended targets. The middle section is equipped with a fuel tank and a 125 kg HE Fragmentation warhead. The high-mobility JSM system is equipped with an accurate navigation system to support flying close to terrain. An advanced engagement planning system was installed to accurately engage targets using geographic information in the area. The missile provides a stand-off launch capability to detect land or sea targets. The missile is also capable of providing naval fire support and strike missions from long distances.

In March 2008, the DOD issued an urgent operation needs statement to fill a capability gap in anti-surface warfare capabilities. In response to this statement, DARPA and the Office of Naval Research jointly began a technology demonstration program known as the LRASM program. The program was initiated with the publication of a broad agency announcement (BAA), DARPA-BAA-08-41, on June 6, 2008, seeking competitive proposals for a research and development effort to “[r]apidly develop and demonstrate a ship launched standoff anti-ship strike weapon.” Agency Report (AR), Tab 6, BAA, at 5. The BAA advised that the extension of the system to future delivery vehicles and launch platform flexibility were of interest, and that “[a]though the intended demonstration under this effort is a ship launched anti-ship missile, solutions which could be adapted to other launch platforms, such as aircraft and submarines . . . are considered advantageous.” Id. at 27. The BAA was for a research and development effort only, and did not require a contractor to develop and deliver a production version of an anti-ship strike weapon. Nine offerors submitted proposals in response to the 2008 BAA, including Lockheed and protester Raytheon. Following the evaluation of all proposals, Lockheed’s proposal was selected for funding. On June 29, 2009, DARPA awarded a contract to Lockheed for the LRASM demonstration program.

Joint Strike Missile (JSM)On December 20, 2013, DARPA posted the sole-source notice challenged here, DARPA-SN-14-14, publicizing its intent to award a sole-source follow-on contract to Lockheed, for continued maturation of the LRASM subsystems and system design. The follow-on effort was to include “further sensor and avionics hardware development based on previous results achieved under the current contract,” and the “fabrication of missile hardware to enable additional missile flight tests.”

Raytheon, in its white paper, stated that it disagreed with DARPA’s intent to award a sole-source contract, and described technology upgrades to its Tomahawk Block IV missile, which it asserted would enable the Tomahawk Missile to meet the Navy’s unmet anti-surface warfare capabilities. According to Raytheon’s white paper, the Tomahawk Missile upgrades established that the government should not move forward with any anti-surface warfare acquisitions without formally evaluating Raytheon’s weapon systems.

Kongsberg, in its white paper, stated that it is developing its existing Joint Strike Missile for long-range precision strike missions. Kongsberg claimed that the Norwegian Ministry of Defense has invested approximately $1 billion in development of the missile and ongoing integration on the F-35 aircraft. Kongsberg asserts that the Government has a unique opportunity to leverage the Norwegian investment to achieve near-term long-range anti-ship capabilities at a reduced cost.

On March 5, 2014, DARPA responded to each protester advising that, on review of the white papers, it had determined that the proposed technical solutions would not enable DARPA to complete technology maturation of the LRASM within 24 months, and would result in substantial duplication of costs and unacceptable delay.

Raytheon Company and Kongsberg Gruppen formed a teaming agreement in July 2014 to provide new solutions for the Offensive Anti-Surface Warfare (OASuW) mission. As a centerpiece of the agreement, the companies will develop the Joint Strike Missile (JSM) for air-launched OASuW applications. The Joint Strike Missile is already funded for development for the Royal Norwegian Air Force at a time when the United States Navy is considering cost-effective solutions for next-generation OASuW weapons systems.

"The U.S. and its allies gain new and innovative options in the OASuW arena through this agreement," said Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence, Raytheon Missile Systems president. "Raytheon's global development capability allows us to identify and offer the advanced and affordable solutions our customers require for the complex missions of the future."

Raytheon and Kongsberg have already collaborated successfully in the global market for ground-based air defense systems and in other fields. "Our companies have worked together for decades on several projects and are ideally positioned to bring the Joint Strike Missile to customers worldwide," said Harald Ånnestad, Kongsberg Defence Systems president. "OASuW is a market where we can effectively team to deliver products that address the key requirements of the warfighter."

Raytheon Company, of Tucson, Arizona, and Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace AS, of Kongsberg, Norway, jointly protest the intended award by the Department of Defense (DOD), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), of a sole-source contract to Lockheed Martin Corporation, of Orlando, Florida, pursuant to sole-source notice No. DARPA-SN-14-14, for the Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) Follow-on Development Program. The protesters argue that the sole-source award is not justified under applicable law and regulation, and prohibited by the 2014 National Defense Authorization Act. GAO denied the protest 24 June 2014.

Joint Strike Missile (JSM) Lockheed Martin Corp., Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co., Fort Worth, Texas, on 05 Februar 2015 was awarded a $35,600,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee delivery order against a previously issued Basic Ordering Agreement (N00019-14-G-0020) to complete a Joint Strike Missile (JSM) risk reduction and integration study of the F-35 Air System for the Government of Norway. The objectives of the study are to further mature JSM weapon design and to ensure compatibility of the weapon with the F-35. Work will be performed in Fort Worth, Texas (50 percent) and Kongsberg, Norway (50 percent), and is expected to be completed in March 2018. International partner funds in the amount of $10,000,000 are being obligated on this award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity.

The Joint Strike Missile (JSM) successfully completed a missile flight test in the United States in November 2015. The missile was launched at 22,000 ft from an Edwards Air Force-based F-16 over the Utah Test and Training Range and performed a number of challenging flight maneuvers. The test proved the maturity of the missile, which is specifically designed to fit inside the F-35A weapons bay, and the missile flight control software.

In June 2018 a team of U.S. Air Force engineers, test pilots, and Norwegian government and industry personnel completed a large phase of testing for the Joint Strike Missile. Before proceeding with integration testing on the F-35A, the JSM was tested at Edwards AFB on F-16 Fighting Falcons from the 416th Flight Test Squadron.

“The F-16 is a much more proven and mature platform in terms of technology development,” said Collin Drake, 416th FLTS JSM project engineer. “The F-35 is still undergoing its own technology development and design iterations, which brings its own challenges. It made it a lot more efficient and effective to use F-16s to be able to test, mid-cycle, a new type of weapon.”

Drake said the weapons development program at Edwards AFB began in 2015. The JSM missile system was matured and proven with ground testing, captive carriage testing (flight test missions to ensure the weapon would perform its designed functions prior to being released from the aircraft), and live-drop testing to verify the JSM’s ability to safely release from the aircraft and perform its autonomous functions.

Testing included multiple variants of the JSM that increased in complexity and capability throughout the course of the program. The first JSM was a glide-only weapon with an active autopilot, but without a live engine, according to Drake. The next several tests used a version of the JSM that still did not have a warhead, but had a live engine and navigation avionics. The different variants proved the JSM could sustain extended periods of flight under its own power and successfully navigate over different terrain.

All variants of the JSM were inert until the final flight test events where it hit a target with full mission systems software and guidance. Throughout the test program, numerous software and hardware changes and updates were made. All live releases of the weapon were conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range. “The multi-national test team, including the 416th [FLTS], was able to work with the weapon developer over the course of the program to improve the JSM in an incremental fashion, which has resulted in a reliable and high-performance missile system,” Drake said. “It was an enormous milestone to release the final, all-up-round weapon.”

Drake said Edwards AFB’s airspace, personnel, assets and the American-Norway alliance make it the ideal situation to test the JSM. “The weapons ranges needed simply don’t exist in Norway,” Drake said. “So they were able to come here and utilize the Edwards [AFB] airspace and ground test facilities for the captive carriage flight and ground testing. The 416th FLTS has a long and storied history of testing systems with our foreign partners, especially with Norway. Norway has been a partner in F-16 development since its inception, so it was a natural fit to work with the Norwegian Ministry of Defense to make this technology development program a reality. The 416th [FLTS] is equipped to provide flight test expertise and is adaptable to accommodate the testing of first-of-its-kind hardware and software, such as that of the Joint Strike Missile.”

Key JSM Missile Attributes

  • Seeker stablized on horizon
  • 2-way datalink Avionics
  • Thermal management system for F-35 internal bay conditions
  • Propulsion Throttle modulates to achieve desired TOT
  • > 1:1 thrust to wt in end-game
  • Carrier suitable Airframe reqmt
  • Lugs stow after launch
  • Range >300 nm high, high, low profile
  • Range >100 nm low, low, low profile
  • Length – 157 in
  • Weight – 887 lbs
  • Fits inside F-35A/C weapons bay
  • CVN recoverable load

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Page last modified: 24-06-2021 18:04:51 ZULU