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XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon
25mm Airbursting Weapon System

Development of the XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon began as a Pre-Science and Technology Objective (Pre-STO) in FY92. The development was initially specifically for dismounted applications. The development of the system transitioned to an STO in FY95. It further transitioned to the Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the Objective Crew Served Weapons (OCSW) program in FY99.

In FY03, the Advanced Crew Served Weapon (ACSW) program successfully transitioned from the Objective Crew Served Weapon Advanced Technology Demonstrator, the predecessor program on which the ACSW was based. ACSW's key capabilities included the successful technology demonstration of the 25mm air bursting munitions, warheads, recoil management, and fire control required to increase the lethality of the weapon over the systems it was targeted to replace, the M2 .50 caliber machine gun and the Mk 19 Mod 3 40mm grenade machine gun. The 25mm ACSW was subsequently designated as the XM307.

General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products was developing the XM307, a lightweight, portable grenade machine gun that utilizes 25mm airbursting ammunition. A next-generation replacement for existing heavy and grenade machine guns, the weapon efficiently managed recoil and was highly portable in small soldier units. General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products was the prime contractor with total system integration.

General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products was the lead developer and systems integrator for the XM307 25mm ACSW system. Design and development of the weapon would occur at General Dynamics' Burlington, Vermont facility. General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems of St. Petersburg, Florida was developing the family of 25mm ammunition. Kaman Dayron, Inc. was developing the ammunition's programmable fuze. Raytheon had responsibility for the design and development of the full-solution fire control. The XM307 program was being managed by the Joint Services Small Arms Program Office. The program transitioned to management by the PM Crew Served Weapons in the fourth quarter of FY03.

The ACSW system was selected to serve as the Common Close Support Weapon (CCSW) system for the Future Combat Systems (FCS) Unit of Action in FY04. It entered the system development and demonstration (SDD) acquisition phase as part of the FCS Unit of Action in December 2003. The XM307 25mm ACSW was a core complementary system to the FCS Unit of Action, intended to support FCS Unit of Action vehicle-mounted applications on both manned and unmanned platforms as a remotely fired weapon system. Other planned potential applications for the ACSW included ground-mounted and pintle-mounted applications. The XM307 remotely fired system was later termed the XM307 Remotely Operated Variant (ROV), while weapons intended for ground usage were sometimes referred to as XM307Gs.

The ACSW team identified several lessons learned during the process, of which 2 stood out as most important. First was the crucial nature of planning and not simply planning as an overview of what milestones and events need to happen. Planning had to discuss and address every aspect of how, when, and where alpha contracting negotiations would take place. Second was the absolute necessity for teamwork. There was a common enemy, the calendar, and a primary team goal, to build a great system at a fair price to meet or exceed customer expectations, while ensuring that the contractors made a fair profit.

Perhaps the toughest call for the program management team came near the end of the Statement of Work (SOW) generation process. The entire program had been generated and was considered by the full Integrated Program Team (IPT) to be the best technical effort required to conduct the critical components properly and meet the FCS Unit of Action deliverables. The program was within the overall budget allocation for the entire program, but it was not within the yearly budget allocation. Further reduction in scope or delay of development would result in a broken program. The program management team decided that the yearly deltas would be manageable within Program Executive Office Soldier. This last decision was the key to proceeding with an affordable program that met all the critical technical objectives.

The very complex proposal covered 4 years of effort at a cost of $94 million. A 4-part award fee plan was implemented consisting of program management, technical performance, deliverables, and cost saving criteria. The program management component, an evaluation of earned value and risk management, was weighted more heavily toward the beginning of the system design and development (SDD) phase. The technical performance award fee was concentrated on the performance data submitted for the critical design review and the results of the government-conducted development testing (DT) and limited user testing (LUT). Deliverables were heavily weighted toward the end of SDD when the contractor delivered the DT/LUT hardware. Award fee was also earned through the contractor's efforts on cost saving: the contractor could earn a percentage of contract costs saved over the course of the contract as profit by finding more efficient ways to conduct the proposed contracted efforts.

When the XM307 ACSW program began the SDD phase in FY04, the XM307 did not have a Joint Requirements Oversight Council-approved operational requirements document or a capability development document. After the award of contract W15QKN-04-C-1093, the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller) withdrew approximately $117 million in research, development, test, and evaluation funding for the XM307 Program. The Assistant Secretary withdrew the funds because the XM307 Program did not have a valid requirements document, according to a representative from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology). To compensate for the funding shortfall, the FCS Program Office decided to fund the XM307 Program based on the CCSW requirement in the 14 April 2003 version of the FCS operational requirements document.

As of early 2004, the Advanced Crew Served Weapon had met all Advanced Technology Demonstration exit criteria, and had entered the System Development and Demonstration (SDD) phase.

On 16 February 2004, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products received 2 increments totaling $7.1 million as part of a $63.8 million sole-source contract for the continued development of the XM307 ACSW system. This award, from the US Army's Product Manager Crew-Served Weapons and Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command-Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, extended the scope of work through December 2004 and funded the continued maturation of the weapon, additional ammunition testing, and fire control improvements under the Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) contract.

Early in 2004, the ACSW team completed the award of a $94 million development contract using an alpha contracting approach in a total time of only 16 weeks from approval of the justification and authority (J&A) document on 8 January 2004, by Claude Bolton, Army acquisition executive, to contract award on 30 April 2004. Meeting this aggressive schedule was a significant accomplishment for the ACSW team.

On 10 May 2004, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products received a cost-plus-award-fee contract with a total potential value of $94.8 million from the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armament Command for system development and demonstration of the XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon system. The award funded development work through December 2007.

The selection of the ACSW for the FCS CCSW program led to interest in the system for the Stryker series of vehicles the in development. Phase 2 of the integration of the ACSW system into the Stryker remote weapons station (RWS), that of the XM307, was accomplished during third quarter 2005. The XM307 was integrated onto the Kongsberg Block 2 RWS. The tests showed successful integration, operation, targeting, firing, and air-bursting of 25mm rounds. The dispersion of fire was 70 percent of the XM307 SDD Exit Criteria.

The 11 July 2006, version of the operational requirements document for the FCS contained essentially the same wording for the CCSW requirement as 14 April 2003 version. As written, the operational requirements document for the FCS did not provide detailed requirements to develop the XM307.

The House of Representatives Conference Report 109-676, titled "Making Appropriations for the Department of Defense for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2007, and for Other Purposes," and dated 15 September 2006, appropriated funds for the XM307 Program. The Conference Report appropriated $3.25 million in FY07 research, development, test, and evaluation funds for the XM307 25-millimeter, Advanced Crew Served Weapon System.

To meet upcoming challenges while addressing budget constraints, in January 2007 the Army directed adjustments to the existing FCS program. These adjustments during the 2008-2013 Program Objective Memorandum (POM) included halting work on the XM307 ACSW. The FY09 budget request included no funding for the XM307. The XM307 ACSW requirement was approved as part of the FCS Operational Requirements Document, dated 4 April 2003. The FCS lethality integrated product team recommended the XM307 as either the primary or secondary armament solution for nine of the manned and unmanned ground vehicles of FCS.

The XM307 Program Office was determined to have begun developing the XM307 in the SDD phase of the acquisition process before the Joint Requirements Oversight Council approved the warfighter requirements for the XM307. As a result, the FCS and the XM307 Program Offices prematurely spent about $98.1 million in research, development, test, and evaluation funds on developing the XM307 program. In this regard, the FCS Program Manager planned to spend an additional $93.3 million in those funds for the program without assurance that the XM307 would satisfy warfighter requirements. In 2007 the Army initiated plans to withdraw $80.1 million of the $93.3 million from the program and to use the remaining $13.2 million to close out the contract.

As of May 2007, the XM307 Program Office had spent about $400,000 in FY07 research, development, test, and evaluation congressional plus-up funds on the dismounted version of the XM307 (referred to as the XM307G). The Program Executive Officer Soldier rescinded the acquisition decision memorandum that allowed the XM307G Program to enter the SDD phase. Further, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller) withdrew $2.697 million in FY07 research, development, test, and evaluation congressional plus-up funds.

In response to a draft version of a Department of Defense Inspector General report, which was later published on 5 June 2007, the Program Executive Officer Soldier rescinded the acquisition decision memorandum that allowed the XM307G Program to enter the SDD phase. Further, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller) withdrew $2.697 million in FY07 research, development, test, and evaluation congressional plus-up funds and plans to withdraw an additional $18,000 in remaining congressional plus-up funds. The Assistant Secretaries of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology) and (Financial Management and Comptroller) were directed not to fund any additional work on the XM307G Program until the program had an approved requirements document and an acquisition decision memorandum approved by a properly designated milestone decision authority.

In May 2007, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products reported that it had successfully completed the preliminary design phase of the dual feed for the XM307 ROV. The dual feeder concept hardware functioned per design intent. The dual feeder was to have High-Explosive Air-Burst (HEAB) capability with either feed path, remotely change feed paths with first round response, and be self powered by the operation of the host weapon.

With the termination of the manned components of the FCS program in 2008, the decision was made to effectively shelve the ACSW program. The experience gained in the development of an advanced lightweight .50 caliber machine gun to replace the existing .50 caliber M2 machine gun was spiraled out into the development of what became the XM806 machine gun.

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