Military


XM1114/M1114 HMMWV Up-Armored Armament Carrier

Tthe HMMWV M-1114 (also commonly referred to as a Humvee) saw extensive use by the U.S. Military during the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The HMMWV is available from AM General, Inc. and can be purchased with varying degrees of armament. For example an unarmored HMMWV is more likely to be used by the military behind the front lines and out of danger of heavy combat. The behind the line vehicles retail for an approximate price of $65,000. A heavily armored HMMWV is built to operate during combat and retails for an approximate price of $400,000. Late in 2006 General Dynamics started doing "Up Armor" retrofits in country to the vehicles adding heavier doors and bullet proof glass.

The M1114 HMMWV was an Up-Armored Armament Carrier configuration of the HMMWV family. The vehicles were equipped with additional armor both on the sides and underneath to protect the crew from small arms ammunition and mines. The M1114 up-armored vehicle carrier could climb road grades as steep as 40 percent (22 degrees) and traverse a side slope of up to 30 percent (17 degrees). The vehicle could ford hard bottom water crossings up to 30 inches (76 centimeters).

The M1114 was the successor to the M1109 HMMWV Up-Armored Armament Carrier. Like the M1109, the M1114 was an Up-Armored HMMWV that provided ballistic, artillery, and mine blast protection to the vehicle occupants. Unlike the M1109, which was based on earlier A1 series HMMWVs, the M1114 was based on the M1113 Expanded Capacity Vehicle. Principal modifications to the ECV HMMWV on the M1114 included an armor package, high capacity brakes, upgraded suspension and lift points, a reinforced frame, and a large capacity air conditioning unit. The weapon mount, located on the roof of the vehicle, was adaptable to mount either the M60 or M240 7.62mm machine guns, M2 .50 caliber machine gun, or the Mk 19 Mod 3 Grenade Launcher. The weapons platform could be traversed 360 degrees. This confirguration of the HMMWV had the option of being equipped with a self-recovery winch.

The M1114 had an armor kit as standard, but could also be refitted with the various Fragmentary Armor Kits (Frag Kits) developed. These kits provided enhanced protection for the vehicle underbody, sides and fuel tank, doors, and top. Upgraded gunners stations, such as the Objective Gunner Protection Kit, could be fitted. The vehicles could also be fitted with other countermine/counter-IED devices such as the Self-Protection Adaptive Roller Kit and the Rhino passive anti-IED device.

The Up-Armored HMMWV was designed to conduct reconnaissance and security operations as its primary function. Up-Armored HMMWVs were to be organic to the scout platoons of the armored, infantry, and mechanized infantry battalions. Up-Armored HMMWV-mounted scouts would enhance the capability of scout platoons to provide accurate and timely information about the enemy and the area of operations.

During reconnaissance operations, the scouts could provide the commander with a mobile reconnaissance platform to perform detailed route, zone, and area reconnaissance; prevent surprise by enemy forces; and help retain the freedom to maneuver. The speed, mobility, and stealth of the Up-Armored HMMWV would also allow the scout to extend the depth of reconnaissance, providing increased security and additional time and maneuver space for the commander. Due to its small signature relative to the M3 Bradley Cavalry Fighting Vehicle, the Up-Armored HMMWV could provide the stealth necessary to conduct detailed reconnaissance in areas where contact with the enemy was possible. This information would then be rapidly reported to higher headquarters through secure radio means or by physical delivery (particularly during periods of reduced electronic communications).

Security operations were also significantly enhanced by Up-Armored HMMWV-mounted scouts. In screen missions, scouts operating independently, or in conjunction with other reconnaissance elements, could be used to establish observation posts to the front or flank of the maneuver force, patrol between observation posts, and cover gaps between forces. In rear areas, Up-Armored HMMWV-mounted scouts would enhance security by patrolling primary lines of communication, providing threat early warning to rear area units, and reconnoitering potential threat landing and drop zones.

The Up-Armored program came into being as a result first because of experiences by scout elements during the first Gulf War in 1991. Subsequent experiences during peacekeeping efforts throughout various parts of the world during 1992 and 1993 further reinforced the need for an armored, mobile vehicle that provided a high level of ballistic protection against sniper fire and mine blasts.

The land mine hazards in Bosnia, plus the patrol requirements and terrain requirements, led the Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) to contract with O'Gara-Hess and Eisenhardt, then a component of the Armor Holdings Company's Mobile Security Division in Fairfield, Ohio, to produce armor for an "up-armored" HMMWV variant. The vehicle was based on the Expanded Capability Vehicle M1113 and was subsequently designated the M1114. This version of the HMMWV quickly became the vehicle of choice for operations in that relatively benign AO due to its increased mobility and lowered maintenance needs relative to tracked vehicles. Requirements in Bosnia and Kosovo did not seem to require logistical and other "soft-skinned" vehicles be similarly "up-armored." The up-armored M1114 weighed about 2,000 pounds more than the standard HMMWV and included 200-pound steel-plated doors, steel plating under the cab and several layers of bonded, ballistic-resistant glass to replace zip-up plastic windows.

The Army units that entered Iraq in March 2003 did not employ the M1114 because it was not part of their standard equipment. Nor were any of the Combat Service Support vehicles in these units armored. With few exceptions, ground combat in Phase III of OIF was conducted with vehicles specifically designed for battle. As units transitioned to full spectrum operations, however, the greater mobility, speed, and lower maintenance needs of wheeled vehicles made them the favored vehicle for most units. The nature of operations faced by Coalition forces meant essentially that every Soldier and vehicle had to employ some protective measures in every direction at all times.

M1114 HMMWVs fell under the US Army's Level I armor protection category. Factory-produced, they provided all-around protection, both glass and on the armament on the side, front, rear, sides, top and bottom.

The M1114 had been the only armored logistics vehicle in production when OIF began. In May 2003 production lines could produce 30 M1114s per month. Increasing demands for such vehicles in Iraq meant that by December 2004 production had reached 400 per month, and by September 2005 the rate had increased to 650 per month. The Army's armor contractors had produced 13,000 armor kits in total by May 2005.




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