Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV)
In late 2005 the Marine Corps was searching for a larger, more capable combat transport to replace the High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, better known as the 'Humvee'). The Fires and Maneuver Integration Division of Marine Corps Combat Development Command outlined the requirements for its future vehicle, dubbed the Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV), with the goal of fielding the first CTVs in 2011. As of 2005 the Marine Corps had an inventory of about 20,000 Humvees, while the Army had more than 120,000. The projected life cyle of a Humvee at the time was 13 years, but experienace had shown that they lasted no more than two in Iraq.
The Humvee, while a battle-proven tactical vehicle, showed its limitations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The A2 series of Humvees was a well designed vehicle vehicle, but it had outlived its usefulness in some situations. The Marines added very capable armor to the Humvees in Iraq. Unfortunately, for every pound of armor added, the vehicles capability is affected and its overall carrying capacity is reduced by that weight. The Marines did a lot of modifications to the vehicle, and it was said to be at the end of its capabilities.
Among the improvements envisioned for the replacement CTV was the requirement that it accommodate up to six Marines with their existence loads and three days of food, water and ammunition. The existing Humvee, including up-armored versions, normally seats four Marines or less. The Marines would have to plan for increased mobility of the ground combat element, and need to plan for heavier payloads. This first CTV configuration would be a people mover, not a fighting vehicle, to help rectify this problem.
One of the biggest challenges facing the Marines was what to replace the Humvee with. The Marines are an expeditionary force. They come from the sea. In a lot of cases USMC mission requirements would not necessarily require an armored vehicle. The expeditionary nature of the force requires high mobility, with weight reduction being a constant concern. Armor weighs a lot and has historically been dispensed with in order to reduce overall vehicle weight. What the Marines require is a vehicle not designed like the Humvee. The question, especially with attrition in Iraq and Afghanistan, therefore became one of whether the Marines replace the fleet of Humvees with more Humvees, or an interim vehicle, while working on the replacement next generation vehicle.
The requirements for the CTV, including its ability to transport six combat-ready Marines, would support Operational Maneuver From the Sea and Distributed Operations, as well as the Marine Corps' capstone concept, Seabasing. The planned Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle, the EFV, would hold 17 marines, a reinforced rifle squad. Three CTVs could hold a reinforced rifle squad. It would support the Marine's Distributed Operations concept. This allows that such a type of unit be tactically employed. The EFV would support ship-to-shore type operations and those immediately thereafter, but a smaller vehicle might be desireable for other mission types. To this end the Marines had figured out a way to divide a reinforced squad into packages. This would allow the usage of smaller vehicles, which would reduce the size of any vehicle required to provide mobility, and would also increase survivability. A single vehicle carrying 17 marines means that those marines are rendered less effective or ineffective if their vehicle becomes damaged or destroyed. Splitting them up into more vehicles increases the survivability of the team itself.
The CTV requirements combined a long list of requirements, drawn in large part from the Marine Corps Center for Lessons Learned and the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory. These requirements were designed to respond to the needs of the modern warfighter. All of the requirements that were built into the CTV were traceable back to something that somebody had mentioned, from lance corporal to colonel, who had been to Iraq or Afghanistan or both.
On 20 December 2005 Stewart & Stevenson Vehicle Services, Inc. (A division of Armor Holdings, Inc, and subsequently a division of BAE Mobility and Protection Systems) was awarded a contract (PIIN/SIIN W56HZV-06-P-0277) for the Future Tactical Truck System Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (FTTS ACTD) - Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV - USMC Variant). The Government's total price for full performance of the Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) Modeling and Simulation was $100,000. Of this amount, $100,000 was obligated and currently available for payment. The Contractor was required to deliver the following M&S data and models, as described in the award, as well as the subparagraphs for a conceptual design of the FTTS UV Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) variant. There were no unique CTV trailer requirements and the existing CT designs were adequate for this effort. The final design and data deliverables would to be delivered to the Government no later than 60 days after the contract award.
The Marine Corps was working with the Army, Navy, Air Force and US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) to identify joint requirements that could help turn the CTV into a joint endeavor. The requirements for the Army's concept vehicle were extremely close to that of the Marine's CTV. The Marines and the Army were working very hard to make the CTV a joint program. There were a lot of efficiencies in doing this with one vehicle, both in production and in lifecycle management. By 2006 the CTV had been merged with other requirements under the JTLV.
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