The Boeing 777-200 is a long range, twin aisle, twin-engine jet manufactured by Boeing, the American aerospace company. Often referred to as the "Triple Seven", it was the world’s first commercial aircraft entirely designed by computer. Its visible features include super large engines, low hanging landing gear and a blade shaped tail cone with a relatively narrow tailfin.
The 777 has already proven to be one of the most popular Boeing airliners of all time. The engines that power the Boeing 777 have over twice the thrust of those used on the C-17. The Boeing Company invested nearly $10 billion in developing the new 777. Instead of allowing a possible schedule slip and late delivery to its United customer, Boeing decided to apply more resources, spend the extra money, overcome its problems, and deliver its 777 on schedule. While Boeing did not state how much it spent, in April 1992 analysts identified $3 billion set aside for research and development (R&D) for the 777. In April 1994 it was estimated that final R&D costs for the 777 approached $5.5 billion. Based on the analysts evaluations one could conclude that actual R&D costs were approximately $2 billion over planned costs.
The airplane is larger than all other twinjet or trijet airplanes and smaller than the 747. It brings the twin-engine economic advantage to medium- and long-range markets. In the 1990s Boeing included in its 777 (a) fly-by-wire, (b) advanced liquid-crystal flat-panel displays, (c) the company's own patented two-way digital data bus (ARINC 629), (d) a new wing the company advertised as the most aerodynamically efficient airfoil developed for subsonic commercial aviation, (e) the largest and most powerful engines ever used on a commercial airliner, (f) nine percent composite materials in the airframe, and (g) an advanced composite empennage. Boeing also invested in new facilities to test the 777 avionics, and to manufacture the composite empennage.
Airbus and McDonnell Douglas included fly-by-wire on the A340 and the C-17, respectively, during the 1980s, and both experienced problems. Boeing was able to learn from the mistakes of Airbus and McDonnell Douglas, and it had the advantage of using new high-powered ultrafast computer chips that increased throughput. In fact Honeywell, the company that McDonnell Douglas dismissed because it couldn't produce the fly-by-wire fast enough for the C-17, was the company that successfully installed it on the 777 -- but not without problems.
Boeing could not assemble and integrate the fly-by-wire system until it solved problems with the ARINC 693 databus, the AIMS-driven Flight Management System, and the software coding. Solving these problems took more than a year longer than Boeing anticipated. In order to maintain its schedule, Boeing did as much as it could without the complete system, then it used red-label1 systems during flight tests. Finally, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified the last link, the primary flight computer, in March, 1995. In April, 1995 the FAA certified the 777 as safe.
The aircraft was designed for two engines that are billed as the largest and most powerful ever built, with the girth of a 737's fuselage and a thrust, or propulsive power, of between 71,000 and 85,000 pounds compared with about 57,000 pounds of the latest 747 engine. Key factors in this performance are new, larger-diameter fans with wide-chord fan blade designs and by-pass ratios ranging from 6-to-1 to as high as 9-to-1. The typical by-pass ratio for today's wide-body jet engines is 5-to-1. Pratt & Whitney is furnishing the PW4000 series of engines, General Electric is offering the GE90 series and Rolls-Royce is offering the Trent 800 series of engines. Engines are so reliable today an airplane could travel on only one engine. Flying with two engines allows redundancy that a pilot wants in order to ensure safety of flight. Flying with more than two engines only increases fuel cost and operating costs unnecessarily.
The 777 currently is available in five models: 777-200, 777-200ER (extended range), 777-200LR (longer-range), 777-300 and the 777-300ER. The 777 program was launched in October 1990 with an order from United Airlines. In June 1995, United flew its first 777 in revenue service. The Boeing board of directors authorized production of the 777-300 on June 26, 1995. The first 777-300 was delivered to Cathay Pacific Airways in June 1998. Launched in February 2000, the new longer-range 777-200 and 777-300 airplanes bring the comfort and economic advantages of the Boeing 777 to non-stop routes that have never before been possible. More. The first 777-300ER rolled out of the Everett, Wash., factory on Nov. 14, 2002.
The 777 wing uses the most aerodynamically efficient airfoil ever developed for subsonic commercial aviation. This advanced wing enhances the airplane's ability to climb quickly and cruise at higher altitudes than competing airplanes while achieving higher cruise speeds. It also allows the airplane to carry full passenger payloads out of many high-elevation, high-temperature airfields.
Market demand sized, shaped and launched the newest member of the Boeing twin-aisle family -- the 777. The airplane design offers features, innovations and approaches to airplane development that set the standard for delivering value to airlines. The Boeing 777 is the first jetliner to be 100 percent digitally designed using three-dimensional computer graphics. Throughout the design process, the airplane was "pre-assembled" on the computer, eliminating the need for a costly, full-scale mock-up.
Boeing is offering its 777 customers new innovations that take advantage of the space in the overhead area of the airplane - the area located between the top of the stow bins and the crown of the airplane. These innovations will allow operators to use the overhead space for crew rest stations and storage.
Thanks to a new wing, more efficient engine, and a lighter structure, the 777 makes efficient use of fuel. And this, in turn, means lower emissions per passenger seat. For every pound of fuel conserved, three fewer pounds of carbon dioxide are generated.
It is uncertain when aircraft-hardening techniques will be implemented. Depending on the technique chosen, protective measures could be retrofitted onto existing aircraft or designed for the next generation of aircraft. According to some industry officials, blast-resistance techniques will most likely be incorporated into the next, rather than the existing, generation of aircraft. Even if developed soon, these techniques were available too late to be incorporated into such aircraft as the Boeing 777.
Boeing and more than 5,000 employees, suppliers, customers and government officials celebrated the 1,000th 777 at a special event March 2, 2012. The 1,000th 777 jetliner will be delivered to Dubai-based Emirates later this month. "As the largest 777 customer, it's very appropriate that Emirates is the recipient of our milestone 1,000th 777," said Jim Albaugh, president and CEO of Boeing Commercial Airplanes. "Emirates has set an industry high bar in providing excellent customer service and we're honored that the 777 is central to its efforts to be a global airline leader." Thet year 2011 was the best year on record for 777 sales with 200 orders from 22 customers – topping the previous record of 154 set in 2005. Production is at an all-time high for the program and a 20 percent rate increase begins this fall, increasing from seven to 8.3 airplanes per month. The program began building 100 airplanes per year beginning in 2013.
The Boeing 777 family is a complete family of jetliners that is preferred by passengers and airlines around the world. Since its entry into service, Boeing expanded the 777 family to five passenger models and a freighter version. The 777 provides the most payload and range capability and growth potential in the medium-sized airplane category -- all with the lowest operating costs. The 777 had received orders for more than 1,400 airplanes by 2013.
The 777X from Boeing’s 777 family will be the primary competitor for the long range A-350 model. A-350 is a twin engine, wide body long range aircraft developed by Airbus. An A-350 can carry 250 to 400 passengers depending on the variant. 777X is expected to be more fuel efficient than A-350 and carry 350 to 400 passengers. About 21% of the airplane’s structural components will be manufactured by Japanese companies. As of Sep 2015, Boeing had a total of 306 unfilled orders for 777x.
The 777X includes new engines, an all-new composite wing and leverages technologies from the 787 Dreamliner. The 777X will be the largest and most-efficient twin engine jet in the world. Advanced technology including a new composite wing, all-new engines and superior aerodynamics will result in the incredible fuel efficiency promised by the 777X family. The 777-9X, with around 400 seats, will be the largest and most efficient twin-engine commercial jet in the world with the lowest operating cost per seat of any commercial airplane and no competitor in its market segment.
The 777-8X will carry approximately 350 passengers, while the 777-9X will carry approximately 400 passengers. The launch of the 777X family was targeted for 2013 and entry into service around the end of the decade. In March 2013 Boeing's included GE as the engine partner in the development study on improvements to the 777X.
The development work on the next-generation 777 continues and includes 777 customers from around the world. On 17 November 2013 Boeing launched the 777X program at the 2013 Dubai Airshow with a record-breaking number of customer orders and commitments for the newest member of its twin-aisle product family. Agreements for 259 airplanes from four customers across Europe and the Middle East provided a strong foundation to support development and production of the airplane. Representing the largest product launch in commercial jetliner history by dollar value, 777X orders and commitments include Lufthansa with 34 airplanes; Etihad Airways with 25; Qatar Airways with 50 and Emirates with 150 airplanes. The combined value of the agreements was more than $95 billion at list prices.
Boeing announced 27 August 2016 the completion of the firm configuration milestone for the 777-9, the first member of the 777X family to be developed. The Boeing 777X team reached this significant design milestone after working closely with airline customers and key suppliers to optimize the configuration of the new airplane.
The 777X family includes the 777-8 and the 777-9 – both designed to respond to market needs and customer preferences. The 777-8 and the 777-9 provide significant range, payload and fuel burn advantages compared to the A350. The firm configuration milestone marked the completion of configuration trade studies required to finalize the airplane's capability and basic design. Wind tunnel test results, aerodynamic performance and structural loads are also evaluated to ensure the airplane meets requirements. This allows the 777X team to begin detailed design of parts, assemblies and other systems for the airplane. As detailed designs are completed and released, production can begin.
The 777X will be the largest and most efficient twin-engine jet in the world, with 12 percent lower fuel consumption and 10 percent lower operating costs than the competition. In addition, the 777X will bring cabin innovations and improved levels of passenger comfort. The 777X program had received orders and commitments for 320 airplanes from six customers worldwide. Production is set to begin in 2017.
The 777X program was named November 18, 2015 among the year 2015 "Best of What's New" winners in the aerospace category by Popular Science, the world's largest science and technology magazine. Popular Science said this of the 777X: "Wing size matters – bigger wings generate greater lift, which can improve an airplane's fuel efficiency. With a 235-foot wingspan, one of the largest in the industry, Boeing's new 777X twin-engine airliner will undercut its competitors in both fuel consumption and operating costs per seat. Thanks to their carbon-fiber composition, the wings are both strong and flexible – and the tips even fold up so today's airports can accommodate their wider span."
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