Military


Overseas Contingency Operation

Global War on Terrorism [ GWOT ]

The US House of Representatives voted on 17 June 2021 to repeal the 2002 Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) against Iraq. The law was used to provide legal sanction for the 2003 invasion that overthrew Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein, but critics say it has been used to authorize other military actions in recent years, for which it was not intended. The lower congressional chamber voted 268-161 to repeal the law on Thursday, with 49 Republicans crossing the aisle to support repeal alongside 219 Democrats.

The 2002 law had been passed by a wider margin in a Republican-led House in October 2002 and signed into law by then-President George W. Bush. The 2002 AUMF built on a 2001 AUMF passed in the days after the September 11 terrorist attacks that served as the basis for the War on Terror, authorizing military action even in undeclared warzones if the targets were from the Al-Qaeda terrorist group responsible for the attacks or were connected to the group.

The Senate bill also seeks to revoke the 1991 AUMF, which served as the authorization for Operation Desert Storm. If it passes, both chambers will have to reconcile their two versions of the bill before it can be sent to US President Joe Biden to sign into law.

Jeremy Scahill, the National Security correspondent for The Nation magazine, testified before the House Judiciary Committee, December 9, 2010, "Under the Bush administration, US Special Forces were operating in 60 countries. Under President Obama, they are now in 75 nations. The Obama administration's expansion of Special Forces activities globally stems from a classified order dating back to the Bush administration. Originally signed in early 2004 by then-Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, it is known as the AQN ExOrd," or Al Qaeda Network Execute Order. The AQN ExOrd was intended to cut through bureaucratic and legal processes, allowing US Special Forces to move into denied areas or countries beyond the official battle zones of Iraq and Afghanistan. As a Special Operations veteran told me, "The ExOrd spells out that we reserve the right to unilaterally act against al Qaeda and its affiliates anywhere in the world that they operate." The current mindset in the White House, he told me, is that "the Pentagon is already empowered to do these things, so let the Joint Special Operations Command off the leash. And that's what this White House has done." He added: "JSOC has been more empowered more under this administration than any other in recent history. No question." "The Obama administration took the [Bush-era] order and went above and beyond," he said. "The world is the battlefield, we've returned to that.""

During the week of 25 March 2009, the government agency that reviews the public statements of administration officials before they're disseminated sent an e-mail to employees of the U.S. Defense Department. The e-mail read: "This administration prefers to avoid using the term 'long war' or 'global war on terror.' Please use 'Overseas Contingency Operation.'"

Locale

Dates

US Forces

US Order of Battle
CJTF-HOA Orbat
Yukon Journey Yemen Feb 2018
Noble Lance Syria mid-Sep 2016
Determined Storm Yemen 25 Mar 2015
Freedom's Sentinel Afghanistan 01 Jan 2015
Resolute Support [NATO] Afghanistan 01 Jan 2015
INHERENT RESOLVE Iraq / Syria 08 Aug 2014 30 Apr 2018
JUNIPER SHIELD Trans Sahara Africa 2013
Octave Fusion Somalia 23 Jan 2012  
Observant Compass Uganda, Central African Republic
the Democratic Republic of Congo,
South Sudan
? Oct 2011 ongoing
OBSERVANT COMPASS Uganda / LRA 24 May 2010 24 Mar 2017
Copper Dune Yemen 2010? ongoing
Objective Voice North Africa / Sahel Region of Africa 2009 ongoing
FREEDOMS SENTINEL-Horn of Africa Somalia 2008 ??
Enduring Freedom - Caribbean, Central America (OEF-CCA) Caribbean / Central America 2008 ongoing
Nomad Shadow Turkey-Iraq Border 05 Nov 2007 ongoing
US Airstrikes on Al Qaeda in Somalia Horn of Africa Jan 2007 ongoing
Juniper Shield
Enduring Freedom - Trans Sahara (OEF-TS)
Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP)
Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI)
Sahel Region of Africa ? 2013
? Jun 2005
? Jun 2005
? Nov 2002
ongoing
? 2013
ongoing
? Mar 2004
Octave Shield
Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA)
Djibouti / Horn of Africa 200?
Oct 2002
ongoing
ongoing
Georgia Deployment Program - International Security Assistance Force
Georgia Sustainment and Stability Operations Program
Georgia Train and Equip Program
Georgia Aug 2009
Mar 2005
29 Apr 2002
ongoing
2009?
May 2004
Enduring Freedom - Philippines (OEF-P)
Freedom Eagle / Balikatan 2002-1
Phillipines Jul-Aug 2002
15 Jan 2002
ongoing
31 Jul 2002
Objective Voice
Assured Voice
Assured Voice - Africa
AFRICOM AOR
Balkans
North Africa
2009
2002?
2002?
Ongoing
2009
2009



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Page last modified: 24-06-2021 18:04:23 ZULU