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TA.6 MOBILITY/SURVIVABILITY BOS & NUCLEAR/BIOLOGICAL/CHEMICAL (NBC)


Positive Performance

6.1.1.1.1 Breach Minefields

* Locate Mines By Visual Means [Mobility/Survivability]: Soldiers effectively locate surface and buried mines using visual means.

Techniques:

1. Minefield indicators, ie. destroyed vehicles and equipment, often cause units to halt and employ the most expedient means available to maintain their momentum.

2. Knowing enemy obstacle templates and by task organizing engineers forward in the order of march, further improves the units' ability to maintain momentum.

3. Report obstacles using the enemy minefield report. See FM 2032, page B3 for a sample.

6.1.2 Enhance Movement

* Use of Night Vision Devices [Battalion Maneuver]: Leaders and soldiers are properly wearing NODs on head/helmet harness and properly mounting night sights on weapon systems during limited visibility. This greatly enhances night movement and serves as a significant combat multiplier when used against an enemy not similarly equipped.

6.2.2.1 Emplace Mines

* Install/Remove M15/M21 AntiTank Mines [Mobility/Survivability]: Given time and resources, engineers effectively emplace antitank mines.

Techniques:

l. Mines are most effective when buried and camouflaged.

2. Tiltrod fused mines are most effective when buried and camouflaged amongst tall grass.

3. When employing tiltrod fused mines in low grass or sandy areas, consider increasing the density of the minefield and/or the depth of the mines.

6.3 Enhance Survivability

* Tactical Operations Center Survivability [Battalion Command and Control]: TOCs continue to dig in their vehicles to enhance their survivability.

Techniques:

1. Units develop and then follow TOC SOPs.

2. Units employ trained reconnaissance parties.

3. Units coordinate for the support of available digging assets.

Needs Emphasis

6.1.1.1.1 Breach Minefields

* Mine Sweeping Operations [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEM: Units demonstrate a consistent weakness in the proper use of mine detectors. EXAMPLE: During minefield reduction and clearance operations, soldiers often sweep haphazardly and without a pattern. They also do not mark the left or right limits of their sweeps, often missing AT and AP mines.

Technique: Train mine detector operators lAW the applicable TM and develop squad level minesweep SOPs.

6.1.2.3 Facilitate Movement on Routes

* Combined Arms Route Clearance Operations [Mobility/Survivability]: Brigades do not develop a continuous route clearance plan to support their sector of responsibility.

RESULT: units resort to detection by detonation, as personnel move freely about the brigade sector.

Techniques:

1. The assistant brigade engineer and the engineer company commander must synchronize and develop an enemy obstacle template to assist in the IPB analysis, and in the development of a combined arms route clearance plan.

2. Integrate the Deployable Intelligence Support Element capabilities as part of the analysis, to the extent they can execute.

3. The brigade engineer must push to develop an R&S plan with the S2 and the S3 to confirm or deny the enemy obstacle template.

6.2.2 Emplace Obstacles

* Mine Dump Operations [Mobility/Survivability]: During the preparation and execution of defensive operations, task force engineers establish mine dumps to support their obstacle emplacement in sector.

PROBLEMS:

l. The mine dumps are not centrally located to ensure minimal travel time and reduce security requirements.

2. Platoons make minimal effort to properly camouflage and protect the critical mine supply dumps.

3. Units have digging assets available, but don't use them to dig in mine dumps.

4. Engineers are often given the responsibility to operate the mine dumps, but this detracts from available engineers for obstacle emplacement.

Techniques:

l. TF engineers must properly conceal and protect their primary means of obstacle supply (Class V, mines).

2. Task forces must develop a Class IV/V supply point and mine dump SOP for defensive operations.

3. Use brigade or higher level haul assets to get mines to the mine dump and/or nodes.

4. Establish a mine dump for each obstacle group.

5. Maneuver units must provide support personnel to uncrate, inspect, configure and transport the mines for emplacement by the engineers.

6. Reference: FM 2032, Mine/Countermine Operations, Chapter 2, pg. 233 thru 241.

6.3 Enhance Survivability

* Force Protection [Aviation]: Aviation units are habitually weak in force protection.

PROBLEMS:

l. Unit chains of command fail to check their assigned sectors to ensure that fighting positions have overlapping fields of fire, range cards, clear fields of fire, and appropriate locations.

2. Crewserved weapon positions are not constructed to standard for protection from indirect fire and are not camouflaged.

3. Most units do not properly utilize Class IV and early warning devices.

4. First sergeants fail to establish a sergeant of the guard, which results in soldiers falling asleep in their positions.

Techniques:

l. Identify and prioritize asset protection; key assets include the FARP, aircraft, command and control nodes.

2. Consider displacing key assets prior to the most likely time of enemy attack.

3. When possible, obtain and integrate infantry support into the assembly area defense.

4. Train force protection at Home Station at every opportunity.

5. References:

FMs 78,2175,5103,203. GTA761 STP 2l series

* Security and Defense of Stinger/Avenger/LSDIS Positions [Air Defense]: Air defense elements experience very high casualty rates, primarily from direct, small arms fire and from minefields.

PROBLEMS:

1. Air defense units are generally deficient in basic fieldcraft.

2. Ineffective coordination with supported and adjacent units.

3. General lack of situational awareness.

* Force Protection Against Terrorists [Mobility/Survivability]: Units generally fail to provide force protection against terrorists and subversives.

PROBLEMS:

1. Access to brigade TOCs, traffic control points and base clusters/troop concentrated areas is easily accomplished along mounted and dismounted avenues of approach.

2. Checkpoints are often easily bypassed.

3. Checkpoints provide guards and guard vehicles little direct/indirect fire protection.

4. Early warning devices are not employed on the outside of perimeter wire within hand grenade range of tents, vehicles, and positions.

Techniques:

l. Commanders must assess the threat and specify a level of force protection for the area of operations.

2. References: FM 5730, pgs 51 thru 59 for guidance on developing and executing a brigade force protection plan. FM 5114, Appendix A for guidance on countering potential threats.

* Force Protection and Site Defense of Signal Sites [C2Signal]: Most signal units lack the training and equipment to adequately defend themselves from enemy attack.

PROBLEMS: Units are generally untrained in the following skills

1. Individual and element tactical movement.

2. Patrolling.

3. Preparation of individual and crewserved fighting positions.

4. Proper emplacement and operation of LP/OP.

5. Planning, construction and maintenance of tactical and protective obstacles.

Techniques:

l. Refer to FM 534, Engineer Field Data, for construction of tactical and protective obstacles.

2. Refer to GTA 761, Fighting Position Construction Infantry Leaders' Reference Card, for construction of common types of individual and crewserved fighting positions.

6.3.1 Provide Battlefield Hazard Protection

* Maneuver Force Protection [Battalion Maneuver]: Leaders and soldiers are not taking the proper steps to protect the force.

PROBLEMS:

1. Improper movement techniques.

2. Inadequate preparation of individual fighting positions.

3. Poor dispersion during halts, or in patrol bases.

4. Poor noise, light and litter discipline.

5. Inconsistent use of LP/OPs.

6. Lack of understanding of the tactical rules of engagement.

7. Inadequate use of passive/active air defense measures.

Techniques:

1. Focus on basic skills:

practice preparing individual fighting positions with emphasis on sector stakes, clearing fields of fire, and drawing range cards and sector sketches (priorities of work). focus on squad and platoon movement techniques. 2. Every halt should be treated as a hasty defense. If units halt more than 15 minutes, soldiers should begin to prepare hasty fighting positions.

3. Enforce disciplined response to hostile air.

4. Use vignettes to drill the rules of engagement.

5. Use R&S patrols to confirm or deny enemy presence and to provide early warning and security.

6. References:
FM 78,
Chapters 1,2 FM 720, Appendix C

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