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Military

TA.6 MOBILITY/SURVIVABILITY BOS & NUCLEAR/BIOLOGICAL/CHEMICAL (NBC)


Positive Performance

6.1 Provide Mobility

* Task force engineers are moving behind reconnaissance forces to breach obstacles during the reconnaissance phase of the attack. [Mobility/Survivability]: Task force engineers are being dismounted to reduce obstacles during the reconnaissance phase preceding the task force attack. The engineers move behind the TF scouts to clear major routes of unobserved enemy obstacles and friendly obstacles from previous battles. They also provide the TF with detailed reconnaissance of the attack routes. They free the TF scouts and other reconnaissance assets to move forward quickly to deeper reconnaissance objectives.

Needs Emphasis

6.1 Provide Mobility

* Use of the M9 Ace during offensive operations. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEMS:
1. Task forces are protecting the M9 Ace for use in the defense by keeping them in the combat trains.
2. TF commanders depend on tank plows and rollers for breaching operations.

RESULT: When multiple breaches are necessary, assets are not readily available. EXAMPLE: When the enemy reseeds an obstacle with mines after the initial breach, and subsequently speed is important when proofiing a lane, the TF has no plow or roller because of the initial breach effort.

Technique: Use the M9 Ace to help provide offensive mobility. Use it as a mobility reserve, placing the M9 at a safe distance from the breach site.

* Non-metallic/buried mine detection. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEMS:

1. Units do not use vehicles with mine rollers as the lead vehicle during initial route clearance, or during a deliberate sweep of a route or lodgement/assembly area.
2. Units are not routinely positioning tow cables across the rear of the lead vehicles when conducting road clearing, route proofing, or lodgement/assembly area clearing operations.

Techniques:
1. Lead with mine roller vehicles during route clearing, route proofing or lodgement area clearing.
2. Develop SOPs for using MICLICs and probing while breaching non-metallic/buried minefields.
3. Position tow cables across the back of the lead vehicle to allow that vehicle to be towed backwards in its tracks if it strikes a mine. This prevents further vehicle damage, and facilitates necessary first aid.

* Minefield marking. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEM: Units do not have standard mine/UXO (unexploded ordnance) marking kits.

Technique: Each vehicle in the unit carry materials for standard marking, such as:

- 15 short, U-shaped pickets
- one roll of engineer tape.

Using the marking material, use GPS to Aslug in@the corners of the minefield and annotate the location for plotting on a dirty battlefield overlay and on a tracking matrix.

6.1.1 Overcome Obstacles

* Establishing and operating lodgement areas. [Maneuver]:

PROBLEMS:
1. Units have problems clearing lodgement areas of mines because too often the clearing element is not properly task organized with engineer support to identify, mark and clear mines.
2. Too many sentries do not understand their duties, and/or lack communications with command post.
3. Poor lodgement area security exists because of a lack of clearly defined responsibilities.

Procedures:

1. Establish a lodgement area SOP covering occupation and operation.

2. The SOP must establish responsibility for:

- lodgement area security
- guard mount
- communications
- conduct of dismounted patrols

3. Refer to ARTEP 71-2-MTP, Task # 7-1-3001, Occupy Assembly Area.

6.1.2 Enhance Movement

* Route status marking. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEM: Units do not have a standardized method of tracking route status within their area of responsibility.

RESULT: Units cannot receive continuous route verification which would allow the unit to adjust their risk assessment appropriately, and to task organize based on the updated risk assessment.

Technique: For routes or segments of long routes (times are METT-T dependent)

- GREEN: cleared or verified within the last 2 hours.
- AMBER: cleared or verified within the last 2 - 6 hours.
- RED: cleared or verified within the last 6 - 12 hours.
- BLACK: uncleared.

6.2 Provide Countermobility

* Commanders are developing defensive plans based on the assumption of success of scatterable mines. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEMS:
1. The systems that deliver Volcano and other artillery-delivered minefields are enemy high priority targets.
2. The use of artillery-delivered minefields tie up a weapon system and prevent its use for other critical munitions.
3. If the mines get to the right location, but the enemy does not go where or when expected, the mines are normally set to self-detonate.

RESULT: In too many instances, the munitions never achieve their intended result.

Techniques:
1. Do not assume success for scatterable mines in achieving their intended result.
2. Plan for redundant obstacles, and reinforce with the higher risk scatterable minefields.
3. Develop a contingency plan in case mines are not delivered.
4. Only obstacles emplaced prior to enemy attack can be effective in an engagement area.

6.2.3 Mark Obstacles

* Heliborne mine marking and reporting SOPs. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEM: Aircrews discovering minefields in the Zone of Separation (ZOS) do not have a system in place to assist ground forces in identifying minefield locations.

Technique: Use weighted, high-visibility streamers thrown from the helicopter. The streamers must be compact for storage under the seat or in a helmet bag. They must be at least 10 feet long to be seen. Once ground forces identify the minefield, proper marking procedures can be used.

6.3 Enhance Survivability

* LZ/PZ planning and preparation for lodgement areas, checkpoints, observation posts and other areas of troop concentration. [Combat Service Support]:

PROBLEM: STABOPS execution often result in isolated groups of soldiers spread throughout the Area of Responsibility (AOR). The ground routes in/out of these locations are vulnerable to being cut off by enemy action and/or weather. This isolates the soldiers and puts them at risk.

Technique: Plan for and designate LZ/PZs at each site to facilitate the rapid insertion/extraction of personnel, and/or resupply as necessary. Train soldiers how to mark the LZ/PZ, and how to conduct the necessary communications and security at each site.

6.3.1 Provide Battlefield Hazard Protection

* Prepare the maintenance company for operating in an NBC environment. [Combat Service Support]:

PROBLEM: Too often maintenance company personnel are not proficient in the planning, preparation and execution of NBC operations.

Technique: Use the following tasks as a sequential training guideline -
1. Company commander and company leaders plan NBC defense preparation tasks.
2. Platoon/section leaders implementation of the NBC defense equipment plan.
3. Section leader supervision of NBC defense preparation.
4. Company-level performance of NBC defensive tasks.

* Company-level NBC operations proficiency. [Combat Service Support]: This trend specifically refers to the handling of casualties in an NBC environment.

PROBLEMS: The following tasks are deficient -

1. Identifying the type of agent.

2. NBC reporting

3. Understanding decontamination requirements, especially for patients.

4. Patient decontamination.

5. Rehearsing evacuation and decontamination procedures.

6. Basic NBC defense

- M-8 alarm placement
- use of M-256 kits, M-8, M-9 paper
- posting of Chemical Downwind Messages
- MOPP discipline

Techniques:
1. Commanders must plan to conduct health service operations in a contaminated environment.
2. Plan/rehearse patient decontamination and evacuation.
3. Use every training opportunity at Home Station to train NBC survivability.

6.3.1.1 Protect Individuals and Systems

* Battalion-level extended cold weather operations. [Combat Service Support]:

PROBLEMS:

1. Battalions do not have, or did not bring, the cold weather equipment required to sustain soldiers in a cold weather environment.

2. Battalions do not have, or did not bring, sufficient tents and tent stoves to protect soldiers from the elements.

3. Some organizations that had tents, opted not to set them up. Instead, they allowed soldiers to sleep in vehicles.

4. Too many battalions neither plan for nor conduct adequate maintenance on tracked vehicle heaters. EXAMPLE: in one battalion 23 of 57, or 40%, of the tracked vehicle heaters were inoperative. Many vehicle heaters are inoperative when the unit deploys.

5. The remaining heaters operate around the clock until they too burn out.

6. Heaters remain broken because of the lack of a maintenance plan and PLL shortages.

Techniques:

1. Deploy with adequate tentage and tent stoves.

2. Properly erect the tents with tent stoves.

3. Check existing load plans for adequate tentage and cold weather equipment; adjust as necessary.

4. Train soldiers how to safely use tent stoves.

5. Repair vehicle heaters.

6. Track vehicle heater status.

7. Maintain Afloat@heaters at battalion level.

8. Train an organizational mechanic in heater repair.

9. Maintain an adequate heater PLL at battalion level.

6.3.1.2.2 Provide Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Support

* EOD elements must be included in the force package. [Combat Service Support[:

Because of the considerable amount of unexploded ordnance within the Area of Responsibility (AOR), EOD units will be instrumental in enhancing force protection from this threat.

6.3.2.1.1.1 Employ Physical Security Measures

* Use of picket pounders and the proper gloves when pounding pickets or handling concertina and barbed wire. [Mobility/Survivability]:

PROBLEMS:

1. Engineer units have only sufficient Apicket pounders@for their use. Other non-engineer elements do not have them. Picket pounders are fabricated devices used to drive a picket into the ground. RESULT: difficulty in driving pickets into the ground when attempting to quickly establish checkpoints to standard.

2. Soldiers without proper gloves handling concertina and barbed wire injure their hands and take longer to establish checkpoints and/or construct obstacles.

Techniques:
1. Deploy with adequate picket pounders to issue down to section/platoon level.
2. Deploy soldiers with serviceable work and barbed wire gloves (NSN 8415-00-926-1674).
3. Train non-engineer soldiers proper handling techniques.


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