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Needs Emphasis Graves Registration

* Unit graves registration operations. [Combat Service Support]:

1. Supply companies are not prepared to conduct graves registration operations.
2. Line companies do not have sufficient equipment nor personnel identified and trained to conduct search and recovery operations.

Technique: Deploy prepared to accomplish the following specific graves registration tasks for search and recovery teams-
1. Prepare for the search.
2. Team leader supervision of the search, recovery and evacuation.
3. Team conduct of the search.
4. Recovery of remains.
5. Site sketch preparation.
6. Team leader supervision of emergency burials.
7. Team conduct of emergency burials. Provide Public Affairs Services

* Brigade-level media handling procedures. [CSS-Public Affairs]:

PROBLEM: Procedures for handling the media vary greatly within brigades.

Technique: Standardize media handling procedures throughout the sector.

- Checkpoints should report the presence of media, including their names and agency
- Escorting the media from one checkpoint to the next, when feasible, helps maintain control, while concurrently providing an opportunity to tell the unit=s story.

7.4.4 Provide Health Services

* Combat Health Support (CHS) planning. [Combat Service Support]:


1. Often, there is no plan.

2. When there is a plan, the following weaknesses are usually apparent:

- Lacks a concept of support. EXAMPLE: how ambulance exchange points move to support the task force scheme of maneuver.

- If a concept of support exists, it may not support the scheme of maneuver. EXAMPLE: in a defensive mission, the CHS plan may call for ambulance exchange points jumping forward into the enemy, while planning no sites in the rear area.

- Work load estimates and lift estimates are not done. RESULT: Poor evacuation asset allocation.

- Failure to coordinate the CHS plan with the support operations officer, ambulance platoon leader, medical platoon leader and the brigade S-3 and S-4. RESULT: CHS plan does not appear in the brigade OPORD or in subsequent FRAGOs.

- MEDEVAC not integrated into the overall CHS plan.

- Forward support MEDEVAC team leader not involved in CHS planning.

- Failure to plan for CHS execution in a contaminated environment.

- CHS plans not rehearsed.

1. Develop a plan that supports the brigade scheme of maneuver.
2. Coordinate the plan.
3. Rehearse the plan.
4. Doctrinal references: FM 63-20, ARTEP 8-058-30-MTP, FM 8-10-1, FM 8-55.

* Ambulance platoon leader training to operate ambulance exchange points (AXP). [Combat Service Support]:


1. Asset management:

- Use of non-standard evacuation vehicles (NSEV) is weak because of link-up problems with the ambulance platoon leader (APL) caused by lost drivers, drivers with no mission brief, and drivers without maps. APLs too often do not have their assets under control.

2. Poor battle tracking, often resulting from a lack of knowledge about the concept of the operation and the concept of support.

3. Movement of assets in support of the brigade:

- How, when and where to move ambulance exchange points (AXP).
- Coordination with supported elements.

4. Triage at AXPs: casualties are not retriaged to ensure prudent ambulance use.

5. Rehearsals:

- APLs seldom rehearse their operations.
- Platoon that rehearse are more successful than platoons that don=t rehearse.

1. At Home Station, build proficiency in all AXP tasks, including maintenance, land navigation, and situational awareness.
2. Rehearse how to rehearse at Home Station.
3. Doctrinal references:

- FM 8-10-6
- ARTEP 8-058-30 MTP Evacuate Casualties

* Mass casualty location command and control. [Combat Service Support]:

1. Unit TACSOPs generally do not contain mass casualty procedures specifying command and control at the site.
2. Medics and combat lifesavers serve as litter bearers rather than render first aid and/or perform triage.
3. Site OIC/NCOICs are not routinely designated and trained to respond to mass casualty emergencies.

RESULT: Medically trained personnel must waste their time performing administrative tasks at the site.

Procedure: TACSOP should address the command and control of mass casualty sites, including specifying OIC/NCOIC duties. Establishment of procedures should result in medical personnel being used to perform medical duties rather than administrative tasks. Provide Preventative Medicine

* Task forces field hygiene and field sanitation planning and execution. [Combat Service Support]:

1. Task forces do not ensure hand washing facilities are available before eating.
2. Units do not properly prepare for the disposal of human waste.
3. Units fail to use field sanitation kits.
4. Too many units place trash and water dumping areas too close to food preparation areas.

1. Field sanitation requires command emphasis.
2. Use available medical personnel for advice on how best to execute field hygiene and sanitation.
3. Refer to FM 21-10 for construction of field expedient latrines; avoid using Acatholes.@
4. If the situation will allow, use portable toilets. Remember they must be requested in advance.

* Battalion-level field sanitation operations during extended deployments. [Combat Service Support]:


1. Soldier hygiene is inadequate.

2. Plans for disposal of human waste are either haphazard, or do not exist.

3. Hand washing facilities are not provided at latrine and dining sites.

4. Field feeding operations are not conducted IAW the standards in FM 10-23, Field Feeding Operations.

5. Field sanitation teams, if trained, are not used.

6. Soldiers are not required to wash their hands before dining.

7. Servers are not required to wear gloves.

8. Human waste is found virtually anywhere outside the perimeter and sometimes inside the perimeter.

9. Slit trenches or other latrine facilities are not planned for or constructed.

10. Wash lines and soakage pits are not properly established in dining facilities.

11. Trash and garbage is allowed to sit on the ground.

1. Acquire the raw materials needed to construct adequate slit trenches, soakage pits, and incinerators. Include them in unit load plans.
2. Inspect field sanitation kits to see if required supplies are on hand, used and replenished.
3. Train soldiers in field sanitation, establishing the proper standard. Enforce the standard.
4. Train, and then use, the field sanitation team. Empower them to make corrections.
5. Conduct field feeding to the proper standard.
6. Involve the Physician=s Assistant in helping to train units.

7.5 Distribute

* Unit supply distribution systems flexibility. [Combat Service Support]:

PROBLEM: Units initially planned for and used supply point distribution. However, they quickly realized that on-hand stocks were needed in all lodgement areas to provide continued support in all conditions.

1. Units should deploy with initial stockages to sustain them until supply lines are established.
2. Use supply point distribution during the build-up and until secure bases can be established.
3. The preferred long term condition is forward stockages. This provides the units with flexibility and freedom to operate without a constant concern about LOC security and conditions. Move/Evacuate Cargo, Equipment and Personnel

* Convoy operations. [Combat Service Support]:

1. Missed SPs, and RPs.
2. No echeloning of key assets.
3. No pre-combat inspections. RESULT: vehicles running out of fuel and unsecured items falling off vehicles.
4. Failure to harden vehicles.
5. Poor actions on contact.
6. Convoy safety briefs not IAW FM 55-30.

Technique: The problems noted above are usually the direct result of failures by unit leaders to follow the Troop Leading Procedures.

7.6 Provide Sustainment Engineering

* The exercise of field services, such as latrine construction. [Combat Service Support]:

PROBLEM: Initial distribution of Class IV material, particularly plywood and 2 x 4s, contributed to unit failures to not provide field services such as constructed latrines.


1. Establish a total CL IV requirement for STABOPS.

2. Include material for slice and attached/OPCON elements.

3. Determine requirements based on the number of:

- checkpoints to be established
- signs required
- latrines to be built
- fighting positions to be built
- living area requirements

4. Plan for local procurement and establish contracting officers at company level.

5. Include CL IV requirements in overall resupply operations.

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