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SUBJECT: Early Warning Dissemination and Reaction

Observation frequency:1-2QFY963-4QFY961-2QFY973-4QFY971-2QFY98


OBSERVATION 1: Directed early warnings are not rebroadcast in a timely manner to soldier/crew levels. (TA.3.1.1)


1. Breakdowns begin at task force (TF) level because there is no ADA representative in the TF tactical operations center (TOC) during the battle (the ADO fights from his Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV).

2. Breakdowns continue when company commanders do not explain their active or passive air defense measures during rehearsals.

3. The breakdown is complete when the soldiers do not hear or understand the directed early warning.

4. Inadequate rebroadcast of directed early warning reduces the unit's ability to take active or passive measures, resulting in unnecessary attrition to enemy CAS or Hinds.


OBSERVATION 1: (Repeat of Observation 1, 3-4QFY97)

OBSERVATION 2: Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV) platoons do not adequately develop or execute a communications plan to disseminate early warning to company/teams, and do not react to early warning. (TA.3.1.1)


1. Squads are not monitoring the proper early warning NET.

2. When platoons do develop a plan, they do not factor adjustments to their plan based on combat attrition.

3. Company/teams do not react to air attacks with Combined Arms for Air Defense (CAFADS) or passive measures.

4. BSFV crews do not react to "RED TIGHT DYNAMITE" and do not dismount the Stinger weapon in time to defeat the air threat.

for Early Warning Dissemination and Reaction

1. Early warning continues to be the pivotal factor during air defense operations.

a. Directed early warning is designed to alert a particular unit, units, or area of the battlefield of an immediate or possible threat. It is passed over unit command net or nets designated by the unit as flash precedent traffic.

b. Directed early warning defines the local air defense warning (LADW), gives aircraft status (friendly, hostile or unknown), and identifies the approaching cardinal direction.

2. Commanders must ensure that directed early warnings are rebroadcast immediately down to soldier/crew levels.

3. Commanders must ensure that soldiers understand and act on directed early warnings.

a. Air defense operations should be addressed in the unit TACSOP.

b. Cover, concealment and dispersion are key to successful passive air defense measures.

c. Any successful air defense plan must include the consideration of Combined Arms for Air Defense (CAFADS).

4. Company-level actions to defeat the air threat include a CAFADS plan, the use of air guards, and engagement techniques to achieve the following:

a. Destroy the threat.

b. Force the threat away from friendly positions.

c. Force the threat to fly higher.

d. Spoil the hostile pilot's aim.

5. References: FM 44-43, BSFV Platoon and Squad Operations; FM 44-64, FAAD Battalion and Battery Operations.

6. BSFV platoons should follow the communication procedures outlined in FM 44-43.

7. Platoon leaders should develop SOPs regarding adjustments to their commo plan once crews are attrited. The SOP should assign at least one BSFV per section to broadcast early warning to the supported company/team. This will ensure that early warning is passed down to company/team level.

8. The platoon leader should prioritize NETs so crews will know what is most essential to the mission.

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