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(Trends are numbered sequentially for cross-reference and are not in any priority order.)

Needs Emphasis

TREND 1: Directed early warnings during air defense operations.

PROBLEM: Directed early warnings are not rebroadcast in a timely manner to soldier/crew levels.

  1. Breakdowns begin at task force (TF) level because there is no ADA representative in the TF TOC during the battle (the ADO fights from his BSFV).

  2. Breakdowns continue when company commanders do not explain their active or passive air defense measures during rehearsals.

  3. The breakdown is complete when the soldiers do not hear or understand the directed early warning.

RESULT: Inadequate rebroadcast of directed early warning reduces the unit's ability to take active or passive measures, resulting in unecessary attrition to enemy CAS or Hinds.


1. Early warning continues to be the pivotal factor during air defense operations.

  1. Directed early warning is designed to alert a particular unit, units, or area of the battlefield of an immediate or possible threat. It is passed over unit command net or nets designated by the unit as flash precedent traffic.

  2. Directed early warning defines the local air defense warning (LADW), gives aircraft status (friendly, hostile or unknown), and identifies the approaching cardinal direction.

2. Commanders must ensure that directed early warnings are rebroadcast immediately down to soldier/crew levels.

3. Commanders must ensure that soldiers understand and act on directed early warnings.

  1. Air defense operations should be addressed in the unit TACSOP.

  2. Cover, concealment and dispersion are key to successful passive air defense measures.

  3. Any successful air defense plan must include the consideration of Combined Arms for Air Defense (CAFADS).

4. Company level actions to defeat the air threat include a CAFADS plan, the use of air guards, and engagement techniques to achieve the following:

  1. Destroy the threat.

  2. Force the threat away from friendly positions.

  3. Force the threat to fly higher.

  4. Spoil the hostile pilot's aim.

5. References: FM 44-43, BSFV Platoon and Squad Operations; FM 44-64, FAAD Battalion and Battery Operations.

(TA.3.1.1 Select Air Targets to Attack)

TREND 2: Establishing air defense artillery (ADA) priorities.

PROBLEM: Units are not establishing air defense priorities during NTC rotations.

RESULT: STINGERs are usually allocated piecemeal instead of being positioned to provide mass at critical points and times on the battlefield.


1. Defining ADA priorities of protection and integrating that information with the air IPB will facilitate the allocation and positioning of ADA assets.

  1. The air defense officer (ADO) develops and recommends air defense priorities to the supported commander in concert with the IPB and the supported commander's intent.

  2. The commander approves or refocuses those priorities.

2. The ADO must have considered criticality, vulnerability, recuperability, and threat (CVRT) as defined below:

  1. Criticality: The degree to which an asset or force is essential to mission accomplishment.

  2. Vulnerability: The degree to which an asset or force is susceptible to surveillance and attack or to damage if attacked.

  3. Recuperability: The degree to which an asset or force can recover from inflicted damage to continue its mission.

  4. Threat: The probability an asset or force will be targeted by enemy air.

3. Often BSFV are positioned with company/teams with little consideration of CVRT. When using these factors, the ADO must determine what is most important to the commander and weight that factor. Priorities should be made specific to an area or unit.

EXAMPLE: Prioritizing maneuver is too general and would not provide the needed focus. Using CVRT, the ADO can assist the commander in allocating ADA assets to the force. The commander should determine which factor is most important for the operation and apply weights to the factors of CVRT and integrate them into the unit TACSOP

4. Incorporate air defense doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), ADA principles, and ADA employment guidelines in Home Station training.

5. Reference: FM 44-100, Air Defense Operations.

(TA.3.3 Integrate Air Defense Fires)

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