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(Trends are numbered sequentially for cross-reference and are not in any priority order.)

Positive Performance

SUBJECT: Logistical support

OBSERVATION (CSS DIV): The foward support battalion used doctrinally based logistical and tactical concepts to support the brigade throughout the rotation.



(TA.7 Combat Service Support)

SUBJECT: Maintenance

OBSERVATION (AV DIV): Troop-level maintenance is strong.

DISCUSSION: Scheduling services to best support key missions is being conducted.

SUSTAINMENT TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: Ensure scheduled services are conducted.

(TA.7.3.2 Fix/Maintain Equipment)

SUBJECT: Maintenance skills

OBSERVATION (AV DIV): Soldiers at the JRTC display a superior knowledge of aircraft maintenance skills.

DISCUSSION: Aircraft mechanics demonstrate the ability to perform both real-world and notional repairs in a tactical environment. Additionally, AVUM units have made great strides in planning for deployment.

SUSTAINMENT TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: Most maintenance slices now deploy with the appropriate tools, test equipment, and repair parts to support 40 or more aircraft.

(TA.7.3.2 Fix/Maintain Equipment)

SUBJECT: Use of rotary wing aircraft for resupply and casualty evacuation

OBSERVATION (TF 2): Companies are planning the use of aircraft for resupply and casualty evacuation. They are planning landing zones (LZs) along routes and close to objectives.

DISCUSSION: During mission execution, units are confirming LZ suitability with reconnaissance.


(TA. Move/Evacuate Cargo, Equipment, and Personnel)

SUBJECT: Crew coordination

OBSERVATION (AV DIV): Crew coordination is clearly an active program in the field.

DISCUSSION: Crew coordination continues to provide a major risk reduction tool and is an integral part of accident avoidance at the JRTC.


(TA.7.4.5 Train Tactical Units and Personnel)

SUBJECT: Professional image

OBSERVATION (FS DIV): Soldiers display the professional image required by U.S. units to make the force credible with former warring factions and civilians.



(TA.7.4.5 Train Tactical Unit and Personnel)

Needs Emphasis

SUBJECT: Ammunition management

OBSERVATION: Ammunition planning is often an afterthought.

DISCUSSION: Lack of planning and analysis on ammunition types and volumes leads to units not having the proper ammunition and 155mm propellants on hand when needed to support the scheme of fires. Additionally, once the emergency push arrives at the firing battery, proper ammunition management techniques are not followed.


1. The ammunition planning process begins during the brigade's Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP). The fire support officer (FSO) specifies the type and effects of fires needed to support essential fire support tasks. Concurrent planning by the field artillery (FA) battalion S-3/battalion fire direction officer (FDO) allows converting the effects of fires into volumes of fire. During the FA battlion mission analysis these requirements are presented to the battalion XO and S-4. The XO and S-4 work out issues and plan resupply to get ammunition to the firing batteries in a timely manner during course of action (COA) development and wargaming.

2. The chief of firing battery must account for ammunition arriving at the battery and spot check the section chief's segregation of ammunition. Additionally, fire direction centers (FDCs) need to track the ammunition by powder lot versus type of ammunition lot.

(TA.7.1 Arm)

SUBJECT: Brigade ground evacuation system

OBSERVATION (CSS DIV): The brigade's ground evacuation system needs improvement in the areas of planning, command and control, and implementation of security assets.

DISCUSSION: The brigade depended primarily, if not solely, on air evacuation and did not have a viable plan for ground evacuation. Even though the brigade used all of the necessary non-standard ground evacuation platforms, they did not treat it as a combat mission. The brigade must plan for contingencies, such as the inability to evacuate casualties by air due to weather or ADA threat. Planning and coordinating ambulance exchange points and ground evacuation after air evacuation has ceased is too late.


1. The battalion needs to improve sustained logistical support to the brigade in the following areas: casualty evacuation planning and execution, logistical battle-tracking and synchronization, and force protection measures.

2. Commanders need to emphasize that patient evacuation is not strictly a medical mission but rather a unit mission. Non-medical litter bearers are a force multiplier for the combat medic. Medical personnel should be used to supervise litter teams; their expertise is better put to use in the treatment of casualties than in the actual carrying of litters.

(TA. Evacuate Casualties)

SUBJECT: Casualty evacuation and Class V redistribution.

OBSERVATION (LF DIV): Platoons are doing well on treating and evacuating casualties and redistributing ammunition during consolidation periods.

DISCUSSION: Most squads and platoons need to conduct more detailed contingency planning for CASEVAC and ammunition redistribution during movement and during the assault. Routinely, a soldier will go down for heat injury or a sprained ankle, or become a casualty from an OP engagement. The unit normally spends 30 to 45 minutes figuring out what to do with the casualty and his equipment.

TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: The best solution to this problem is to establish and rehearse standing operating procedures (SOPs) that discuss en route casualty collection points (CCPs), who evacuates and/or stays with casualties, and primary and alternate personnel to gather mission essential equipment and ammunition from the wounded soldier.

(TA. Evacuate Casualties)

SUBJECT: Battle-focused training

OBSERVATION (TF 2): Units are not employing the principles established in FM 25-101, Battle Focused Training, to take advantage of the training opportunities provided at the JRTC (dedicated OPFOR, observer/controllers, conditions contributing to the realistic fog of battle).

DISCUSSION: Companies and platoons are performing below the mean level of proficiency on the band of excellence despite participation in the "most realistic training short of combat." (FM 25-101)

TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: Use the training techniques established in Appendix D, FM 25-101, on "The Use of Training Events to Maintain Battle Focus."

(TA.7.4.5 Train Tactical Units and Personnel)

SUBJECT: Methods of training staff in terrain analysis

OBSERVATION (INTEL DIV): S-2s do a poor job in training their staffs in terrain analysis during Home Station training.

DISCUSSION: During Home Station training, S-2s need to train themselves and their sections using a series of terrain walks, map studies, and historical case studies.

TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: S-2s must develop a keen sense of how the terrain will affect their units. S-2s must focus on the terrain portion of their mission analysis brief and the effects of the terrain on friendly and enemy forces, as well as the identification of key and decisive terrain.

(TA.7.4.5 Train Tactical Units and Personnel)

SUBJECT: Aviation employment in CSS

OBSERVATION (AV DIV): Aviation task forces typically find themselves underemployed from a CSS standpoint during most JRTC rotations.

DISCUSSION: The aviation task force usually has about 15 UH-60s and at least 4 CH-47s in addition to attack or reconnaissance aircraft. With the exception of several large-scale air movement or assault missions, these assets spend a majority of their time "standing by for CASEVEC" or other "911" missions.

TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: Execution of the OPORD is all about planning, coordination and modifying the plan as conditions change. All too often a unit has a great plan on D-Day, but the enemy impacts on the plan as soon as the plan is in execution, and so goes the CSS effort, regardless of good intentions.

(TA. Move by Air)

SUBJECT: Planning the CSS effort

OBSERVATION (AV DIV): Units do a poor job of prioritizing supplies for movement.


1. In the JRTC environment, it is recommended that the brigade S-4 establish priorities for movement by class of supply and by unit (with the commander's concurrence).

2. Once the priorities for use of utility and medium-lift assets are established, the aviation LNO builds an air movement table in coordination with the SPO. This table is distributed to the units and updated twice daily.

3. If weather or maintenance should interfere with scheduled deliveries, the S-4 may need to adjust unit priorities accordingly.

(TA.7.5.2 Supply the Force)

SUBJECT: Priorities for movement

OBSERVATION (AV DIV): All too often the unit has a great plan on D-Day, but the enemy can always counter any good plan.

DISCUSSION: By day three or four, the plan is in execution and units are too busy manning the perimeter to rescue the CSS effort. At this point the infantry is running out of water, food, ammunition, and patience.

TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: Execution is all about planning, coordinating, and modifying the plan as conditions change.

(TA.7.5.2 Supply the Force)

btn_tabl.gif 1.21 K
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