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*APPENDIX H

STANDARDIZATION AGREEMENTS



STANAGs are international agreements to facilitate interallied operations. Upon ratification by the United States, a STANAG is binding upon US Army forces (entirely or with exceptions as noted). This appendix addresses STANAG 2934 that deals with the required accuracy of survey data and recording of data for survey control points.

Section I

GENERAL



The following is an extract from STANAG 2934, Section I.

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1101. The purpose of this Chapter is to:

a. Standardize the method of expressing the artillery survey accuracy criteria for weapons, target acquisition, surveillance, and meteorological systems in current use by nations and to establish a common understanding of the criteria used by nations in order to facilitate mutual survey support.

b. Standardize which data is to be recorded for artillery survey control points and the proforma to be used by NATO forces.

1102. Participating nations agree to:

a. Use the method of expressing survey accuracy criteria described in Section II.

b. Take note of the criteria set out at Annex A to this Chapter which lists the terminal survey accuracy required by each nation for weapons, target acquisition, surveillance and meteorological systems.

c. Record the data described in Section III.

d. Use the proforma for artillery survey control points described at Annex B to this Chapter.

1103. An artillery survey control point is defined for use in this chapter as a point at which the coordinates and the altitude are known and from which the bearings/azimuths to a number of reference points are also known.

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Section II

STANDARD SURVEY ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE-TO-SURFACE ARTILLERY



The following data are extracted from STANAG 2934, Section II and Annex A.

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1104. Survey accuracy requirements are expressed in terms of probable error (PE), circular error probable (CEP), and standard deviation (SIGMA). Survey parties may express the accuracy of their work in terms of a ratio (for example, 1 in 10000) which is an absolute accuracy.

1105. PE and CEP are derived from the positive standard deviation of the measurement (Sigma - ) as follows:

a. = Positive standard deviation of the measurement (Sigma).

b. PE = 0.6745 .

c. CEP = 1.1774 .

d. CEP = 1.7456 PE.

Notes. 1. PE is a value which is exceeded as often as it is not; that is, it has a 50 percent probability of occurrence. With respect to fixation (position), the PE applies to both the East-West and North-South axis.

2. CEP is the radius of the circle, centered about the true position, such that any measured or calculated position has a 50 percent probability of lying within that circle.

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Section III

RECORDING OF DATA FOR ARTILLERY SURVEY CONTROL POINTS



An extract of STANAG 2934 is shown below.

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EXPLANATORY NOTES

AGREEMENT

1. This NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) is promulgated by the Chairman MAS under the authority vested in him by the NATO Military Committee.

2. No departure may be made from the agreement without consultation with the tasking authority. Nations may propose changes at any time to the tasking authority where they will be processed in the same manner as the original agreement.

3. Ratifying nations have agreed that national orders, manuals, and instructions implementing this STANAG will include a reference to the STANAG number for the purposes of identification.

DEFINITIONS

4. Ratification is 'The declaration by which a nation formally accepts the content of this Standardization Agreement.'

5. Implementation is 'The fulfillment by a nation's forces concerned of their obligations under this Standardization Agreement.'

6. Reservation is "The stated qualification by a nation which describes that part of this Standardization Agreement which it cannot implement or can implement only with limitations."

RATIFICATION, IMPLEMENTATION AND RESERVATIONS

7. Page iii gives details of the state of ratification and implementation of this agreement by the NATO nations. If no details are shown, it signifies that the nation has not yet notified the tasking authority of its intentions. Page iv (and subsequent) gives details of reservations and proprietary rights that have been stated.

8. If an amendment of substance of a new edition (other than an editorially amended edition) is promulgated, all previous ratification, implementation and reservation/restriction details are deleted from pages iii and iv and the amendment or new edition is processed in the same manner as the original agreement.

Note. The Artillery Survey Control Point Proforma (Amex B to STANAG 2934) has been adapted as a DA form (DA Form 5075-R) and is discussed in Chapter 14, with the exception that datum and ellipsoid must be included. See the sample Artillery Survey Control Point Proforma in Annex B and instructions in Section III, 1107d, located in this appendix, for examples. It is suggested that you still use DA Form 5075-R; just include the datum and ellipsoid data in the UTM ZONE and UTM SQUARE blocks. (See DA Form 5075-R.)

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RESERVATIONS

DA: Denmark will not use the proforma (Annex A), but will use existing Danish Trig Lists with text in Danish and English. In the trig lists all information according to STANAG 2865 is found except:

a. Paragraphs 4b and 5j (direction to orient equipment).

b. Paragraph 5e (accuracy).

c. Paragraph 51 (verification block).

IT: In the space LOCATION DIAGRAM in Annex A, Italy will also record a vertical sketch with indications of the altitude of the different collimation plans.

NO: Norway will use an artillery survey control point proforma with a different layout than that described in Annex A to STANAG 2865. The Norwegian format will not include information on:

a. UTM square.

b. Accuracy.

c. Longitude/latitude.

d. Bearing/azimuth to aiming points in degrees or grads.

e. Method of determination. The Norwegian format will include grid bearing/azimuth to only two reference objects from the artillery survey control point.

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ARTILLERY SURVEY CONTROL POINTS

1106. The functions of an artillery survey control point are to:

a. Provide a point from which survey may be opened or closed.

b. Enable users to fix and orient their equipments on the grid applicable to their particular area.

1107. The artillery survey control point proforma (Annex B) will permit quick identification of the control point and extraction of data without any ambiguity. The following information is required:

a. A control point number and, if desirable, a loclity name.

b. A map series and sheet number.

c. The grid coordinates and the altitude of the control point. (The altitude is that of the ground at the control point above mean sea level unless otherwise stated.)

d. The type of grid, grid origin, ellipsoid, and datum (normally UTM zone and UTM square).

e. The accuracy of the data. (See Section II.)

f. The specification of the survey methods used:

(1) Horizontal, for example, triangulation.

(2) Vertical, for example, altimetry.

(3) Azimuth/orientation, for example, gyroscope.

g. A diagram showing the location of the control point in relation to local topographical detail. The diagram is given in order that the control point may be easily recognized on the ground.

h. The description of the control point; that is, how it is marked on the ground.

j. The grid bearing/azimuths, in mils, to at least four reference objects. Two of these reference objects must be between 100 and 500 meters of the control point.

k. A description and sketch showing the exact point of lay and the approximate distance from the control point, for each reference object.

l. A verification block containing:

(1) The unit.

(2) By whom prepared.

(3) By whom checked.

(4) The date.

Notes. 1. There are several ways of writing numbers by hand. The English-speaking nations, for example, use 17,11. Other nations, for example, use 17,11. Both of these examples can be used but are not to be mixed.

2. When an artillery survey control point is situated near a UTM zone border and two sets of data are available, separate proforma must be prepared for each UTM zone.

3. The Artillery Survey Control Point Proforma may be printed in national languages, but the format must not be altered.

ANNEX B

ANNEX C

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