*To support current Army doctrine, survey operations must be responsive, accurate, and flexible. The artillery surveyor's primary mission is to provide accurate orientation and determine the coordinates and height of weapons and target-locating systems relative to one another. This is known as establishing a common grid. The task of providing a common grid involves different levels of command and echelons of survey. Beginning at the echelon above corps, topo surveyors establish third-order or higher SCPs in the corps and EAC areas for Patriot, corps general support units, and other units. Topographic surveyors also provide SCPs in the division area for the div arty surveyors. Div arty and TAB surveyors extend control to battalion areas, where the battalion surveyors extend control to the weapons and target-locating devices. This chapter discusses the survey operations typical of the following:
- Common grid.
- Cannon battalion.
- Missile and rocket battalions.
- Division artillery.
- Target acquisition battery and detachment.
- SPCE (corps and brigade).
- Special environments.
CANNON BATTALION SURVEY
The primary mission of the surveyors in a cannon battalion is to provide timely and accurate survey control to the firing batteries and any other battalion assets as required. Survey control consists mainly of establishing a line of known direction and determining the locations, both horizontally and vertically, of the weapons and the target-locating systems. In addition, FA battalion survey must provide control for other weapons, instruments, and electronic equipment as required.
*Accomplishment of the battalion survey mission provides a common grid for firing units and target-locating systems within prescribed accuracies. A common grid allows the cannon battalion to do the procedures below.
a. Mass Fires. Accurate survey permits rapid and economical massing of fires. For artillery to mass fires accurately without survey requires an observed adjustment of all units on the target or prior registration of all units on a common registration point.
b. Deliver Surprise Observed Fires. If survey is not available and all batteries are required to adjust on a target, the element of surprise is lost. Complete surprise is impossible without survey.
c. Deliver Effective Unobserved Fires. Without survey, consistently effective unobserved fires are possible only if the target has been fired on previously and replot data have been computed.
d. Transfer Target Data Between Units. Transfer of target data between units is possible only when units are located relative to each other and to the target (on a common grid).
Starting control for FA survey consists of the coordinates and height of a survey control point and a starting azimuth. Although there are several ways in which starting control can be obtained, the best control available for the area should be used to begin a survey. The variations of starting control can be grouped into three general categories as follows:
- Known coordinates, height, and azimuth.
- Assumed coordinates and height and correct grid azimuth.
- * Known or assumed coordinates, height, and azimuth.
a. Known Coordinates, Height, and Azimuth. Starting control for which the station data are known may be points established by survey done by a higher echelon, or it may be confirmed data established before the start of military operations. Data for stations established by engineer topo units and data for survey control established before the start of military operations are in trig lists prepared and published by the DMA. Survey data for survey stations established by div arty are published in trig lists prepared in the div arty SPCE and distributed to all using units in the area.
*(1) If the PADS is to use starting control established by conventional survey methods, the SCPs at both ends of a PADS survey must be on a common grid.
*(2) If conventional survey starts from a point established by the PADS or GPS, the survey must close on that same point.
*b. Assumed Coordinates and Height and Correct Grid Azimuth. When survey control is not available in the area, the coordinates and height of the starting station must be assumed. Correct grid azimuth can be determined through astronomic observation, an azimuth gyro, or the PADS. Correct grid azimuth should always be used whenever possible. If both higher and lower survey echelons initiate surveys by using correct grid azimuths, any discrepancy between surveys that is due to assumption of coordinates will be constant for all points located (Figure 14-1). The approximate coordinates and height of the starting point can be determined from a large-scale map and should closely approximate the correct coordinates and height to facilitate operations. Starting data determined from a map must always be considered as assumed data. A survey starting on an assumed point must close on that same point.
*c. Known or Assumed Coordinates, Height, and Assumed Azimuth. Assumed azimuth should be used for a starting azimuth only when azimuth cannot be determined from astronomic observations, an azimuth gyro, the PADS, computation, or a published trig list. The assumed azimuth should approximate the correct grid azimuth as closely as possible. The approximate grid azimuth can be determined by using a compass (preferably declinated) or scaling from a large-scale map. If either a higher or lower survey echelon or both initiate survey operations with assumed azimuths, differences of varying magnitude will exist between the coordinates of points located by their surveys (Figure 14-1). This variation complicates the problem of conversion to common control. For this reason, an assumed azimuth should never be used if the correct azimuth can be determined.
a. A battalion SCP is a point provided by a higher survey echelon for the purpose of initiating survey control for the battalion. More than one of these points may be required for a battalion. SCPs on the grid of the next higher echelon may be available in the form of one or more trig points in the vicinity of the battalion installations. When available, trig points from DMA or other published trig lists should be used as the basis for all echelons of survey operations. When one or more SCPs have been established by the next higher echelon, these SCPs should be used as the basis for battalion survey operations. In either situation, the common grid is established.
*b. The mission of the subordinate unit requires it to initiate survey operations without waiting for survey control to be established by a higher echelon. Thus, a battalion assigned or attached to a div arty may have to operate first on the grid established by the battalion (battalion grid) and finally on the grid established by corps (corps grid). When survey at one or more echelons is based on assumed data, data established by the lower echelon should be converted to the grid established by the higher echelon. An exception to this rule would be when prescribed accuracies are met or when the tactical situation, time constraints, or SOP causes the commander to decide otherwise.
*c. When both higher and lower survey echelons start PADS or conventional survey operations with correct grid azimuth but one or both of them start with assumed coordinates and height, the lower echelon must apply coordinate and height corrections to the location of each critical point in its survey to convert to the grid of the higher echelon. This coordinate and height conversion is commonly known as sliding the grid (Figure 14-2) and is done as follows:
*(1) Determine the differences in easting coordinates, northing coordinates, and height between the assumed starting point and the common grid starting point provided by the higher echelon. The difference, with its appropriate sign, becomes the correction. (See the example below.)
*(2) Apply the corrections (differences) to the assumed data to make the assumed data equal the common grid data (coordinates and height) at all critical points.
*d. Whenever survey operations are started with an assumed azimuth, regardless of whether the coordinates and height are known or assumed, the coordinates of each station and the azimuths determined will be in error. To convert the assumed data to correct grid data, all azimuths and coordinates determined in the scheme must be corrected. Application of the azimuth correction when using known coordinates and height with an assumed azimuth was referred to as swinging the grid. When both assumed coordinates and height and azimuth are used, it is known as swinging and sliding the grid. With the acquisition of more rapid means of computing (BUCS and FED MSR), these methods are no longer required. The procedures for converting assumed azimuth and/or coordinates to common control are discussed below.
*(a) If the survey data that needs converting is still in the BUCS, recompute the entire survey. This is done by going to the top of file (T, END LINE) and exchanging the assumed data with the correct (common) data. Then repeat by pressing END LINE and recording all critical data as they appear.
*(b) If you have started computing another survey or the survey that needs converting is no longer in the BUCS, you must recompute the entire survey again. This is done by entering the correct (common) starting data and all field data and by following normal computational procedures.
*(2) When using the FED MSR, recompute the entire survey by recalling the survey that needs converting to common control and exchange the assumed data with the correct (common) data. Then repeat by pressing the C button and recording all critical data as they appear.
Note. The FED MSR will hold three computations of each type of survey. However, if the survey requiring conversion is no longer in the FED MSR, you must recompute the entire survey by entering the correct (common) starting data and all field data and by following normal computational procedures.
Survey control is required in the position area of each firing battery of an FA cannon battalion. The HQ battery survey section using the PADS or a conventional survey team performs the survey. Position area survey requirements are identical for light, medium, and heavy artillery batteries. (See Figure 14-3.) If the battery is using the split-battery concept of operations, survey control is provided for each firing platoon. (See Figure 14-4.) Requirements for position area survey are described in paragraphs a through g.
a. Battalion and Battery Survey Control Points. As mentioned earlier, survey control for artillery units may be available in the form of SCPs established by higher echelons or trig lists containing data for stations located near the unit. The locations of SCPs established by div arty must allow for the survey capability of the battalion. An SCP must be provided within 5 km of the center of the battalion position area if the PADS is the primary method of survey. When the battalion is limited to conventional survey methods, div arty survey must provide SCPs within 2,000 meters of the firing positions. If the firing elements are widely dispersed or operating separately, it may be necessary to establish more than one SCP. If there are no SCPs in the battalion area, the battalion RSO will select a convenient point near a prominent terrain feature and assume starting control. The div arty survey officer (survey platoon leader) may task direct support (DS) battalions to provide survey control for supporting units located in the battalion area of operations.
b. Firing Battery Positions. Survey requirements in each firing battery position are described in (1) through (3) below.
(1) Orienting station. The OS is a station used by the firing battery or platoon personnel to orient the weapons. The coordinates and height of the OS and a line of known direction are required. The position of the OS is usually selected by the battery commander or executive officer (XO), but it can be selected by the survey personnel. The frequent moves and the many positions required will not always allow the battery commander and/or XO to select all OSs. The relative locations of the OS and EOL usually are addressed in the unit survey SOP.
(2) End of the orienting line. The EOL is a survey station used as an azimuth mark for the OS. The EOL must be located so that it is visible and at least 100 meters from the OS.
(3) Orienting line. An OL is a line of known direction materialized on the ground in each position area. It is used as a reference direction for orienting instruments and for laying weapons for direction. When the PADS is used to establish the OL, the two-position mark is the preferred method. If autoreflection is used, a one-position angle must be measured. When the OL is established by conventional survey, it should be a main scheme leg to ensure accuracy.
c. Field Artillery Radar Locations. One weapons-locating radar (WLR) section (AN/TPQ-36) normally is attached to each DS howitzer battalion. The coordinates and the height of the radar position (near stake) and a line of known direction to an azimuth mark (far stake) are required. The distance and vertical angle to an azimuth mark are also required. The battalion survey section is responsible for determining these data. Usually, the WLR (AN/TPQ-37) will be located near one of the artillery battalions. Div arty may task the nearest battalion to provide survey control. The radars require coordinates and height of the radar position and distance and direction to an azimuth mark. (See Figure 14-5.) The PADS is the primary means of obtaining survey control for the Firefinder radars (AN/TPQ-36 and AN/TPQ-37). When the PADS is not available before the radar section occupies the radar site, fifth-order survey will be provided by a conventional survey team or the radar section will conduct a hasty survey. The hasty survey will provide the data for initializing the radar. If the PADS or conventional survey team arrives after the hasty survey has been completed, the data determined by the PADS or conventional survey will be entered into the radar computer instead of the hasty survey data. Azimuth required by the Firefinder radars must be accurate within 0.4 mil. The position accuracy required is 10 meters. The vertical interval accuracy is 10 meters for the AN/TPQ-36 and 3 meters for the AN/TPQ-37. However, the weapon location accuracy of the AN/TPQ-36 is greatly enhanced by keeping the vertical interval accuracy within 3 meters. This accuracy is within the capabilities of the PADS and fifth-order survey.
*d. Declination Stations. A declination station should be established at a place that is convenient to using units. It may be established by an FA battalion, a div arty, or a TAB. The ideal declination station should have known grid azimuths to four prominent features (for example, a church steeple, radio towers, quad markers). Preferably there should be one prominent feature in each quadrant and at least 1,000 meters from the declination station. When time, tactical situation or lack of prominent features limit operations, azimuth marks can be established (for example, range pole). However, a minimum distance of 300 meters should be used if possible.
(1) In establishing a declination station, the direction of each azimuth mark may be determined by computing the azimuth (if the coordinates of the declination station and azimuth marks are known), by applying a measured angle to a known direction, by astro observations, or by using PADS with optical transfer. The theodolite is used in measuring angles or making astro observations to determine the azimuths for the declination station.
(2) Declination stations should be established in an area free from local magnetic attraction. The following minimum distances from common objects with magnetic attraction are prescribed:
- Power lines and electronic equipment: 150 meters.
- Railroad tracks, artillery, tanks, and vehicles: 75 meters.
- Barbwire and personal weapons: 10 meters.
(3) Whenever a declination station is established, the vertical angle to each azimuth mark should be determined. The vertical angle correction for the aiming circle can then be determined at the same time it is being declinated.
(4) Any SCP with an azimuth mark may be used as a declination station if the area is free from local magnetic attraction.
e. Intelligence Electronic Warfare Sites. When IEW sites are established in the battalion area, the div arty survey officer may task the battalion survey section to provide survey control.
f. Meteorological Sites. Met sites usually do not require survey control. A map spot and the met section declinated theodolite usually are accurate enough. However, when the map accuracy is doubtful or maps of the area are not available, the nearest artillery battalion may be tasked to provide survey control.
g. Alternate, Supplementary, and Offset Registration Positions. Survey of alternate, supplementary, and offset registration positions should be performed as soon as survey operations for primary positions are completed. Survey requirements for alternate positions are the same as those for primary positions.
*a. Any conventional survey method or combination of methods may be used to perform the position area survey. The method most commonly used is traverse, electronic or taped. The position area survey starts at an SCP, moves to its destination, and ends on another SCP (on the same common grid) or the starting point. All surveys should be started and closed on an SCP of greater accuracy than the survey being performed. All position area survey requirements are executed to fifth-order accuracy.
b. When a firing battery or platoon position is surveyed, an OS is established from which all weapons will be visible. This point is used as one EOL, and the traverse leg used to establish the station is used as the OL. This makes the OL a leg of the closed traverse and thus permits the detection of any error in the OL should the traverse not close in azimuth. The OL should be checked by using a compass. Marking of the OS and EOL is established by unit SOP.
a. Connection area survey, when required, is that part of the survey operation performed for the purpose of placing target area surveys and position area surveys on a common grid. Surveyors performing the connection area survey may establish the actual OPs or provide only a target area SCP. If only a target area SCP is established, then survey control must be extended to the desired target locators by FA surveyors during target area survey operations.
b. The connection area survey normally is started from the battalion SCP and is closed on either the starting point or any other SCP on the same grid network. When the PADS is unavailable and time is critical, the connection area survey may be limited to a directional traverse or astro observation performed at the OPs. The OP locations can then be determined by resection or map spot if the common grid and the grid of the map are the same.
c. Additional requirements in the connection area survey may include providing survey control for mortars within the supported brigade and combat electronic warfare and intelligence (CEWI) target-locating devices located within the area. The div arty survey officer will designate priorities. Control is extended to these installations as provided in the survey plan. Priorities of the FA battalion requirements must be indicated in an SOP or in the operation order (OPORD).
a. The need for target area survey performed by the FA surveyor decreases as new positioning and/or navigational devices are fielded. As the capability of target locators to locate themselves and targets increases, the requirements for target area survey will eventually disappear. Also, the emplacement of fixed OPs does not complement ALB doctrine, and the fast-moving battlefield situation will require the survey effort of the entire survey section to provide survey control for weapons and target-locating systems. However, until the target locators are totally self-sufficient in providing accurate target data and for environments that favor fixed OP locations (static situations), the FA surveyor must be able to perform target area survey. For surveyors, this means being able to effectively mix conventional survey methods with PADS operations. When target area survey is required, the PADS crew will establish an SCP with an azimuth mark as close as possible to the OPs as part of the connection area survey. The conventional survey team will then perform the target area survey.
b. Accomplishment of the target area survey mission requires that a base be established from which the targets and critical points can be surveyed. The requirements for establishing a target area base are to locate two or more OPs relative to each other that overlook the target area, to determine the azimuth and distance between the two, and to determine an azimuth to a visible azimuth mark for each. The OPs are designated O1, O2, and so forth; and O1 is considered the control OP. O1 may be on the right or left of the base. However, it is always the OP requiring the least amount of fieldwork to establish its location. This is because less directional accuracy is lost through angular measurements when the number of main scheme angles is held to a minimum. (For example, if the OP on the left can be established in two traverse legs from the target area survey control point [TASCP] and five traverse legs are required to establish the OP on the right, then the OP on the left would be designated as O1.) (See Figure 14-5a.)
a. Paladin Element. The Paladin is an M109A6 self-propelled howitzer equipped with a modular azimuth positioning system (MAPS). With MAPS, the Paladin has more flexibility and requires fewer crewmen and less equipment. The Paladin battery normally operates in a two-platoon configuration (three howitzers per platoon). Normally, an M109A2/A3 platoon is allocated a position area goose egg of about 1,000 meters in diameter. In contrast, a Paladin platoon requires a position area on the order of 2,000 by 1,000 meters and it uses all of that terrain during normal operations. Limitations of the on-board navigational system restrict the howitzer displacement distance. The Paladin must be updated every 16 miles or 27 kilometers to ensure it meets position accuracy requirements.
b. Survey Requirements. If the Paladin battalion is to accomplish its mission effectively, survey operations must be continuous and carefully coordinated. The battalion S3 and RSO must use their limited survey assets (two PADS and one conventional team for six platoons) wisely. The primary responsibility of the PADS teams are to establish update points along the routes of march and two update points per platoon position area to ensure that no Paladin has to travel more than 16 miles/27 kilometers without updating. If the battalion has set up a rearm, refuel, resupply, and survey point (R3SP), update points should be set up next to the fuel trucks so the howitzers can perform an update while refueling. If no R3SP is set up, establish four update points, spaced 50 to 100 meters apart near the release point of a tactical road march. These points should be easily identifiable and accessible without detouring far from the route of march, and without clogging traffic along the route of march. This will allow the entire platoon to update at once, so that they will not hold up the rest of the battalion.
c. Alternative Survey Control. If one or both PADS become inoperative, the RSO must ensure that the survey mission continues. The conventional team supplemented by the inoperative PADS team members must provide update points. They can use whichever conventional method that time allows to provide the best available update points possible until the PADS is operating again. Hasty survey methods or a PPS GPS receiver can also be used by the howitzer crew as a last resort.
MISSILE AND ROCKET BATTALION SURVEY
The survey mission in MLRS and Patriot missile units is to provide timely survey control within prescribed accuracies. Numerous alternate position areas are essential for survival, and all require the same survey as the primary position area. Each system has individual requirements that vary slightly from other FA systems. These differences are due to equipment design, number of launchers, and auxiliary equipment requiring survey control.
a. MLRS Element. The MLRS is a fully tracked, highly mobile, rapid-fire, free-flight rocket system that is designed to complement cannon artillery and supplement other fire support systems. MLRS battalions are assigned to corps, and MLRS batteries are organic to armored and mechanized infantry division artilleries. MLRS batteries are organized so that each is a relatively self-sufficient unit. Each MLRS firing battery has three firing platoons with three launchers per platoon. Each launcher is equipped with an SRP/PDS, which is an on-board navigational system. The SRP/PDS provides direction, elevation, location, and launcher cant angle data to the fire control system. Once updated at a survey control point, the SRP/PDS continuously carries accurate location data that are used by the fire control system to compute fire missions. The SRP/PDS must be updated every 6 to 8 km traveled to minimize location error. The survey section must provide update points for the SRP/PDS.
b. Survey Requirements. The ability to deliver MLRS rocket fires accurately and effectively largely depends on accurate survey information. The battery operations officer directs and monitors survey operations. The survey chief is the battery commander's immediate advisor on all survey matters. The primary responsibility of the PADS team is to establish SCPs every 6 to 8 km throughout primary, future, and alternate locations. Each platoon could occupy from three to six new positions per day. (See Figure 14-6.)
(1) SCPs are used to initialize, update, and calibrate the SRP/PDS aboard the launcher. These SCPs are established with the PADS by using 10-minute Z-VEL corrections. Directional control is not required for the MLRS. At least one SCP must be available in each of the three firing platoon positions.
(2) Although cover and concealment are considerations in platoon area survey point (PASP) selection, utility should be the primary consideration. The PASP must be readily accessible so that the driver can stop the launcher next to the SCP without a ground guide or excessive maneuvering.
(3) In the motor park area, each launcher should have an individual SCP for initialization. This option will enable the launcher to leave the motor park area in a HOT status and be able to accept fire missions immediately.
(4) The launcher crew calibrates the SRP/PDS whenever the launcher carrier track system is replaced or repaired. Calibration must also be performed when there is a significant change in the terrain of the operating area. Two SCPs located 4 to 6 km apart are required for conducting calibration. The launcher must be calibrated every 30 days, after PDS maintenance, and after major suspension or track drive maintenance.
*c. Alternative Survey Control. If the PADS becomes inoperative, the battery commander must ensure that the survey mission is continued. In this situation, survey control should be obtained from other FA units operating in the area or may be established by using a combination of conventional and hasty survey techniques. The PADS team can continue the mission by using conventional survey methods that can be performed by two men with a theodolite and the BUCS. Battery personnel must help the PADS team in the survey effort by using the AN/PSN-11 (PLGR) to establish coordinates at the firing point. For guidance on the use of the AN/PSN-11, see Chapter 13. When location data are determined by hasty survey or map reading skills, the distance traveled by the MLRS between update points cannot exceed 6 km. The unit must train and rehearse these techniques at every opportunity, both in the field and in garrison, to ensure that personnel have the skills needed to consistently obtain accurate results. It must be understood that these alternative methods are to be used only in emergency situations.
a. Battalion Survey Elements. The mission of the Patriot missile battalion requires that the unit be employed, in most cases, over a very wide frontage and in great depths. Under the present organization, the battalion consists of three batteries of six launchers each. Future plans are to increase the organization to six batteries of eight launchers each. The battalion HQ battery (one of three battalion batteries) is authorized three PADS teams. Each PADS team consists of one E5 and one E3 (MOS 82C). The six-battery battalion will be authorized four PADS teams. A survey HQ element and an SPCE are organic to the HQ battery. The HQ element consists of the chief surveyor and an E3 driver. The SPCE consists of an E5 and E4. The chief surveyor, who works directly under the battalion reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of position (RSOP) officer does the detailed survey planning and supervision to ensure that adequate survey control is available. He also has responsibility to train, supervise, and coordinate the activities of the PADS teams and SPCE personnel. The primary mission of the Patriot survey personnel is to place the firing units and supporting elements on a common grid. This mission is accomplished by proper planning, coordination, and organization for survey by the chief surveyor. The common grid on which the Patriot battalions operate should be the corps grid. If corps SCPs are not available within the battalion area, the chief surveyor must select a known point or assume survey control and establish his own grid. Control is then extended from this point to the firing units. This control can be converted to the corps grid when corps control becomes available.
b. Employment. The Patriot battalion is employed in two basic configurations. These are the area (belt) defense (Figure 14-7) and the forward area defense engagement coverage (Figure 14-8). Figures 14-7 and 14-8 show the six-battery battalion. Battalions with fewer than six batteries should modify these defense designs to use available firing units effectively.
(1) Area (belt) defense. Patriot battalions are employed in the area defense to counter enemy attempts to penetrate the rear operations area to attack deep strike assets. In this type of employment, the batteries are spread across a front of about 200 km. Because of this wide frontage and the limitations of the PADS, the topo survey company must provide at least three SCPs for the battalion. Each of the PADS teams must extend survey control to two batteries. Even with the SCPs conveniently located between the batteries, each PADS will have to travel about 80 km to accomplish the mission. Since this type of employment will be used against the initial attack, ample time should be available to complete the survey before the outbreak of hostilities.
(2) Forward area defense engagement coverage. In this configuration, Patriot battalions are employed to protect a frontline division against attacks. The batteries of the battalion are positioned in the division rear area in a five-point perimeter formation that looks much like a pentagon. When the battalion is deployed in this formation, the topo survey company or the div arty survey section must provide two centrally located SCPs.
c. Survey Requirements. The primary mission of the PADS survey parties is to provide the radar and launchers in each firing battery with timely survey control executed to prescribed accuracies. The required data are determined in the following order of priority:
- Orientation azimuth for the radar, north reference point (NREF), and azimuth mark.
- Coordinates and height of the radar.
- Coordinates, height, and orientation azimuth for the launchers.
(1) The primary missions of the SPCE are as follows:
- Collect, evaluate, and disseminate all available survey data that might be used by the battalion.
- Maintain maps and files of survey data for the battalion area of operation.
- Coordinate survey activities with higher, lower, and adjacent HQ.
- Train battery personnel in hasty survey techniques.
(2) Since the Patriot system uses true north as a reference and battery personnel will use grid azimuth to perform hasty surveys, both grid and true azimuths should be provided to the firing batteries. To ensure that survey data meet the required accuracy, the PADS teams will establish all surveys by performing 10-minute Z-VEL corrections.
(3) On receipt of the battalion OPORD, usually 4 to 6 hours before the battery movement, the RSOP officer, RSO, or the chief surveyor will issue a warning order to the SPCE and the PADS teams. Because of the distance to be traveled, the PADS may be initialized before departing or initialization may be performed near the new position if survey control is available at the new position. The PADS teams should be included in the recon party so that the necessary survey operations can be started immediately after the new sites are selected.
(4) The survey will be performed in accordance with the battalion commander's guidance. In the absence of commander's guidance, the recommended methods of establishing the required survey control for the battalion, according to priority, are as follows:
- PADS performing two-position plumb bob or theodolite marks and using 10-minute Z-VEL corrections.
- Field artillery surveyors (PADS and SPCEpersonnel) using conventional survey methods.
- Patriot survey teams using hasty survey techniques and the aiming circle (FM 6-50).
*d. Survey Techniques. The techniques to be used in surveying a Patriot battery (Figure 14-9) are discussed below.
(1) Establish the NREF and azimuth mark by the two-position and azimuth mark method by using a plumb bob. If the NREF line must be less than 100 meters, establish the line by performing a position and azimuth mark with a theodolite.
(2) Establish the radar site by performing a position mark with a plumb bob or theodolite.
(3) In surveying the launcher sites (LSs) (Figure 14-10), establish the following for each launcher:
- An OS (located 10 to 12 meters behind the launcher position).
- OL from the OS to the launcher position.
- Location of the launcher position.
To do this, set up the theodolite over the launcher position and perform a position and azimuth mark by using the theodolite. After entering data, be sure to apply 3,200 mils to the azimuth displayed by the PADS (azimuth from launcher to OS) to get the azimuth from OS to launcher. The coordinates displayed will be to the launcher position and the height to ground level of the PADS.
(4) When time is critical, the PADS parties establish at least two SCPs with azimuth marks within each battery position. One will be near the radar site, and the other one will be the center launcher position. The azimuth mark for the SCP near the radar will serve as the NREF for the radar. (See Figure 14-11.) Battery personnel will extend survey control from these SCPs to the other four launchers by using conventional and hasty survey techniques.
(5) Whether the Patriot battalion is organized under the three-battery concept or the six-battery concept (Figure 14-12), the survey control required and the procedures for performing the survey are the same for each battery.
DIVISION ARTILLERY SURVEY
The primary mission of div arty survey is to establish battalion SCPs and an OL for assigned or attached firing and target-locating units. The div arty secondary mission is to recover and verify existing control, provide survey tie-in points to adjacent division areas, and help battalion surveyors whenever possible.
a. The div arty survey officer is the principal advisor to the div arty commander and his staff on survey matters. On the basis of the corps survey plan, he plans and supervises the div arty survey and has staff responsibility for all surveys performed by the div arty survey section.
b. The div arty survey officer must identify all units and elements requiring survey control and ensure that these requirements are met in his plan. Because of the number and variety of installations in the division requiring survey control, the div arty survey officer develops a survey plan that is based on the priorities established by the div arty commander.
c. Equal distribution of the survey workload increases the speed of execution. When the div arty survey officer tasks battalions and the TAB to perform surveys for various installations, he must ensure that these missions are within the capabilities of the battalion and/or TAB. The div arty survey officer must coordinate with lower echelon survey elements to avoid a duplication of effort.
d. The div arty survey officer must also maintain liaison with the aerial fire support observer (AFSO). He must determine the control requirements of the OH-58D aircraft with respect to specific mission planning. Landing areas collocated with the div arty TOC require surveyed initialization points. The div arty SPCE provides data from which the AFSO can get established control for planning way points for his mission.
a. The div arty survey section starts from SCPs selected by the div arty survey officer. He selects these starting points from either existing trig lists or from SCPs established by engineer topo surveyors. If there is no existing control, the div arty survey officer or chief surveyor will assume starting data.
b. The div arty survey officer must use the survey section effectively. The PADS teams are his primary survey assets, but the survey team can be used to speed up survey operations. Once the PADS teams have brought control to the forward area by using 5-minute Z-VELs, the survey team using conventional methods can extend control from PADS points to nearby installations.
c. The preferred method for extending control from a PADS point is a traverse closed on the starting point by using a minimum number of traverse legs. The div arty SPCE helps the survey team if needed. If survey control is not provided and/or PADS cannot occupy existing control, the survey team uses conventional methods to provide the PADS teams with starting SCPs.
d. Div arty must operate on a 24-hour basis under the ALB concept. The mission of operating continuously and the long distances in the div arty survey mission creates a need for backup PADS teams. The survey section chief can schedule the survey team as an alternate PADS team to sustain the requirement of continuous operations. The div arty chief surveyor supervises the survey execution and helps coordinate between div arty, brigade SPCE, and other survey echelons.
e. If one div arty PADS becomes inoperative, the div arty survey officer distributes the workload between the remaining PADS and TAB PADS teams. The personnel from the team with the inoperative PADS combine with the survey team and perform as a five-man conventional survey party.
TARGET ACQUISITION BATTERY AND DETACHMENT
The TAB survey section provides survey supped for the Firefinder radar (AN/TPQ-37) and, when tasked, for the IEW installations. The detachment PADS team is a corps asset that provides survey support for corps-assigned AN/TPQ-37 radars.
a. The TAB survey section consists of one PADS team and a six-man survey party. Also located in the TAB is a survey HQ element.
b. Survey requirements of the TAB are discussed below.
(1) Provide the Firefinder radar (AN/TPQ-37) with azimuth, coordinates, height, vertical angle, and the distance from the site near stake to the far stake.
(2) Provide IEW installations with survey control when tasked by the div arty survey officer.
(3) Establish battalion SCPs when tasked by the div arty survey officer.
c. Although the AN/TPQ-37 radars are the TAB surveyors' standard mission, the div arty survey officer may direct the TAB survey section to perform any mission throughout the division area. To avoid duplication of the survey efforts, the TAB must closely coordinate its survey plan with the div arty survey officer.
d. When possible, the TAB survey will start from existing SCPs, as do all survey echelons. When existing survey control is not available, the TAB survey will start from an SCP provided by the div arty survey section. If the TAB has to assume starting control, they must close their survey back on the starting point and convert their data to div arty grid when available.
e. The TAB PADS team will use 5-minute Z-VEL corrections to ensure the necessary accuracy to establish battalion SCPs when directed. The PADS team can provide control, using resection and astro observation, if they have to go beyond the PADS limit of distance. The survey team can use short closed traverses anchor resections to establish starting control and update points for the PADS team. In addition to providing conventional support, the survey team will act as the relief PADS team during 24-hour continuous operations. In the event the PADS becomes inoperative, the HQ element will combine with the PADS team personnel to form a conventional team. The TAB will then operate with two conventional teams.
Detachments are corps assets in the form of a PADS team. Their sole function is to bring control to corps-assigned AN/TPQ-37s situated in the zone of operations.
SURVEY PLANNING AND COORDINATION ELEMENT
(CORPS AND BRIGADE)
The corps artillery SPCE is the planning and control element for survey operations. The FA brigade SPCE may have a DS or general support reinforcing mission and is the controlling element for all survey operations within its area of responsibility.
The survey planning and coordination officer (SPCO) and the corps chief surveyor (SFC) plan and coordinate survey activities. Three survey computers (SGTs) are responsible for the functions discussed below.
a. Maintain maps and overlays which show completed surveys, surveys in progress, and planned surveys.
b. Keep a file of all SCPs and tie-in points established in adjacent corps areas by div arty and TAB survey sections.
c. Disseminate survey data via published trig lists and FM secure radio over the corps artillery survey net. (See Figure 14-13 for the field artillery survey radio net.)
a. The FA brigade SPCE, consisting of four members, is the planning and coordination element that is the controlling element for all survey operations within its area of responsibility. The FA brigade may have a DS mission or general support reinforcing (GSR) mission. When assigned a DS mission, the FA brigade SPCE's mission is similar to that of the div arty SPCE, and it coordinates its survey requirement with the corps artillery. When assigned a GSR mission, the FA brigade coordinates its survey requirements with the div arty SPCE. Since the FA brigade does not have an organic survey section and to minimize duplication of the survey efforts, the SPCE must very closely coordinate its survey requirements with the higher HQ (corps and div arty SPCE).
b. The FA brigade SPCE mission requirements are discussed below.
(1) Ensure common grid throughout the brigade area of operation. This should be based on the grid provided by corps artillery or div arty SPCE.
(2) Coordinate survey operations with higher, lower, and adjacent units.
(3) Establish survey priority on the basis of the commander's intent.
(4) Request, through the corps artillery SPCE, external survey support and/or information from the corps engineer topo survey element.
(5) When required, request external survey support and/or information from the div arty SPCE.
(6) Disseminate survey information to its organic units.
(7) Gather, evaluate, and compile survey control established by its organic units.
(8) Maintain maps and overlays of completed surveys, surveys in progress, and planned surveys.
(9) Provide starting survey control data to its organic units and tie-in point data between adjacent units.
(10) Advise and help battalions plan, conduct, and evaluate survey training.
(11) Select sites for declination stations.
(12) Direct and coordinate tasked organizations of the FA brigade survey elements to best accomplish overall survey mission.
(13) Plan and provide survey control to other users (IEW, advanced helicopter improvement program [AHIP], mortars, and so on) when required.
(14) Direct and coordinate recovery of existing survey control points.
Information collected by the SPCE includes trig lists, reports by the FA section at corps HQ, div arty and TAB survey party reports, and FA battalion survey reports.
a. DMA Trig Lists. The SPCE obtains DMA trig lists as part of the initial map issue to the div arty. The SPCE retains one copy of each trig list as a reference record. Trig lists are considered allied support material to the map supply and are requisitioned through G2 channels. The areas of current operations and prospective interest are the basis of map supply to the div arty.
b. Reports by the FA Section at Corps Artillery Headquarters Battery. In static situations, the FA section at corps artillery HQ battery may periodically publish consolidated lists of fourth-order SCPs established by the survey parties from all division artilleries in the corps.
c. Div Arty and TAB Survey Party Reports. The div arty and TAB survey parties report their progress daily to the SPCE. Reports are accompanied by field notebooks and complete computations on all surveys performed. Members of the SPCE check and evaluate the data and enter the required information on DA Form 5075-R (Artillery Survey Control Point). (See Figures 14-14 and 14-15.) This form is completed in duplicate for each fourth-order SCP. One copy of the form is provided to the corps FA section, and one copy is filed as a reference record.
d. FA Battalion Survey Party Reports. The survey parties periodically submit survey information to the div arty SPCE on DA Form 5075-R. Copies are retained as reference records. Only survey control that the div arty, SOP, or OPORD has directed the artillery battalions to establish are reported. The div arty survey officer designates the points to be established by battalions when the situation is such that the establishment of these control points would contribute materially to the expeditious delivery of FA fires. These survey control points are of particular value in cases in which FA battalions exchange position areas or when counterattack plans are implemented and an abundance of survey control is required in a general area to be occupied by the supporting field artillery. They are designated with a specific purpose in mind and then only when it is impractical to provide fourth-order survey control points.
The SPCE must maintain the information it has collected in a usable form. A survey information map with overlays and a survey information file are prepared to allow information to be used.
a. Information Map and Overlays. The SPCE maintains an information map showing all SCPs in the division area and adjacent division areas located to fourth-order accuracy or higher. In addition, overlays to the map show the locations of artillery units, possible position areas, surveys in progress, proposed surveys, and other information required by unit SOP. These maps and overlays should show the following information:
- Survey control points in black.
- Completed surveys in brown.
- TAB installations in blue.
- Proposed surveys in green. When possible, surveys proposed by div arty and TAB are included.
- Present (solid-line symbols) and proposed (broken-line symbols) artillery positions in the division area in brown.
- The friendly situation and the enemy situation when it might affect the planning or performance of survey in the division area.
b. Information File. The SPCE maintains a survey information file of trig lists and extracts of trig lists prepared and issued by DMA and the Corps of Engineers. A record is maintained of field notes and computations on control points established by the div arty and TAB survey sections. The SPCE submits periodic reports on surveys in progress to adjacent div arty SPCEs and to artillery units operating in the division area.
c. TACFIRE or AFATDS SCP Data Base. The SPCE must ensure that known control points are entered into the tactical fire direction system (TACFIRE) or advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS) SCP data base. SCPs in the division area of interest and in the supported unit areas of influence should be entered and updated. The SCP data base must be kept current to decrease the possibility of duplicate surveys and to rapidly exchange survey data automatically.
This paragraph implements STANAG 2934.
d. DA Form 5075-R. DA Form 5075-R is used to permit quick identification of survey control points. Figures 14-14 and 14-15 show the use of DA Form 5075-R. The front of the form (Figure 14-14) provides blocks for the following:
- Control point name and number.
- Map sheet and series number.
- Grid and geographic coordinates.
- UTM zone and UTM square.
- Marking method.
- Accuracy of the data.
- Location diagram.
- Description of reference points.
- Sketch of reference points.
- Distance to reference points.
- Grid bearing or azimuth to reference point.
- Methods used in determining horizontal, vertical, and azimuth control.
- Verification information (unit, preparer, checker, date, and notebook reference).
a. The div arty SPCE must check the field records and computations of the div arty and TAB survey sections. A survey team operating in the field maintains a field notebook containing a complete record of all fieldwork performed and all DA forms on which computations are performed. On completion of the survey, the field notebook, computation forms, and results of the survey are forwarded to the SPCE for checking, adjusting, and recording.
b. The evaluation process is designed to verify the validity of the surveys and consists of procedure checks, computation comparison checks, closure checks, and map verification.
(1) Procedure check. All computations and values recorded in the field notebook are checked to ensure that proper procedures, specifications, and techniques were used to complete the survey fieldwork to the required accuracy.
(2) Computation comparison check. The computations performed by the computers are compared to ensure that both sets of computations agree.
(3) Closure check. A check is made to ensure that the survey has been properly closed within fourth-order accuracy.
(4) Map verification. If the survey data pass the procedure check, computation check, and closure check, the data are plotted on the largest-scale map available to check both the validity of the survey and the accuracy of the map. If the map plots verify the recorder's field notebook description, the survey is accepted. If the map plots do not verify the recorder's field notebook description, the data are subjected to a complete computation check. If necessary, additional fieldwork is prescribed to determine whether the map or the survey is in error. Any map errors detected by survey personnel performing fieldwork should be noted in the remarks column of the field notebook and reported to higher HQ through G2 channels.
c. In addition to performing the functions just discussed, SPCE personnel are equipped and trained to make the following checks and computations:
- Traverse, triangulation, intersection, resection, and astro computations.
- Adjustment of all surveys to distribute minor errors in distance and direction throughout all stations occupied in the survey. Before adjustment, all surveys must meet the minimum fourth-order closure requirements.
- Swinging and sliding operation to convert survey data from one grid to another.
- Transformation of coordinates and grid azimuths between UTM zones.
- Conversion of geographic coordinates to grid coordinates and grid coordinates to geographic coordinates.
Timely dissemination of survey information is equally as important as maintaining a complete and accurate survey information file. The SPCE maintains survey information maps and overlays to aid in the rapid dissemination of survey information to units and to aid the div arty survey officer in preparing the division survey plan. In the div arty, survey information is disseminated by personal visits by battalion survey personnel, coordination and liaison visits by the div arty survey officer, command and control systems, radio and telephone, and field liaison between survey sections.
a. Battalion and TAB RSOs or their representatives should visit the SPCE often to keep abreast of div arty survey plans and to obtain survey control (trig lists) available in their prospective areas of interest.
b. The div arty survey officer should visit the FA battalions and the TAB often to coordinate and discuss survey operations and requirements. During these visits, he should ensure that the RSOs are aware of available control.
c. Survey data can be stored and rapidly trasmitted by using command and control systems such as TACFIRE and AFATDS. Unit SOP will dictate the procedures used to access, store, update, and disseminate survey information between echelons.
d. Survey information may be disseminated by radio or telephone. However, security requirements outlined in the unit signal operation instructions (SOI) must be observed. Radio or telephone communication is the least desirable method of disseminating survey information because of possible errors in transmitting and because of problems in orally describing the survey station sketches shown on DA Form 5075-R.
e. In the div arty, survey information usually is not disseminated until it has been evaluated and adjusted. During fast-moving situations in areas where limited survey control is available, there may be exceptions. The div arty survey section in the field may disseminate survey data directly to the battalion sections as the data are determined. In this case, the chief of the div arty survey section disseminating the survey data will ensure that the battalion and TAB survey officers are informed that the data provided are unchecked and unadjusted. When the survey data are turned in to the SPCE, the chief of the survey section will report which data he has disseminated and to whom. The SPCE will then ensure that the user gets the adjusted data when they become available.
SURVEY IN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS
Survey operations must proceed regardless of environmental factors, such as climate and terrain. Therefore, the type of environment must be considered. This section discusses some of the problems that may affect surveyors in arctic, desert, jungle, and urban areas.
a. Survey Operations. Normally, peacetime surveys are planned to take advantage of the warmer months of the year to avoid working under the varying terrain and climate conditions found in the upper latitudes. In wartime, however, survey operations are executed when and where needed and cannot wait for ideal climate conditions. The summer season has the advantage of better visibility, greater body comfort, and fewer equipment malfunctions. The winter season reduces transportation difficulties in river, lake, and tundra regions. Survey control can be extended easily along riverbanks; over the nearly level, treeless plains of the arctic tundra; or across large bodies of water. When committing survey elements to field operations in arctic regions or under arctic conditions that are seasonal in the middle latitudes, commanders must consider the effects of ice movement, snowfall, prevailing wind, light refraction, and other peculiarities. The proper use of authorized cold weather equipment and field expedients will overcome most problems caused by the cold. For detailed instructions on cold weather operations, refer to FMs 31-70 and 31-71.
b. PADS Operation. The PADS operates without performance degradation at temperature extremes between -50°F (-45°C) and 125°F (50°C). It may be stored without damage between -50°F and 160°F (71°C). Initialization, which normally takes about 30 minutes, will take longer at temperatures below -5°F (-20°C) or when wind blows into the IMU heat exchanger. Using a vehicle enclosure, parking behind a windbreak, or placing a blanket or an article of clothing over the heat exchanger exhaust will improve reaction time. Keep the batteries warm at temperatures below -20°F (-29°C). Use the vehicle heater during operation. Store batteries in a warm area when they are not being used.
Contact with power supply fins may cause skin bums at high ambient temperatures. Lead-acid batteries that are not fully charged may freeze and burst. Handle batteries as prescribed in TM 9-6140-200-14.
c. Other Field Operations. Survey accuracy depends largely on factors that can be controlled in the field by the survey officer, the chief surveyor, and the chief of the survey section. These include instrument handling, equipment care, and aids to maintaining body comfort. Surveying in the arctic or under arctic conditions requires a lot of professional judgement and common sense. All survey methods may be employed subject to terrain and weather conditions in the area of operation. Warmup time for electronic equipment will be increased.
(1) Setting up instruments under bad weather conditions, especially in snow, requires the use of field expedients. Brief setups in snow can be accomplished by firming up a snow base. Tamping will suffice for routine operations. Other procedures are discussed below.
(a) Clear away the snow to reach the frozen but solid earth.
(b) Drive stakes to form a trivet-like base for tripod shoes.
(c) Use long tripod legs for setting up in deep snow.
(d) Use sharply pointed tripod shoes to facilitate setting upon icy surfaces.
(e) Protect the instrument from wind, or accurate readings will be difficult
(2) Proper daily care ensures against equipment failure and delays in the field. Extreme changes in temperature may induce internal stresses within an instrument. Instruments should be kept outside overnight or in unheated shelters for short periods of nonuse. When transporting instruments in the field, make some arrangement for the instrument to be carried outside the vehicle or in an unheated cargo compartment. Tripods also should be left outside when not in use. The BUCS (with batteries removed) can be stored in temperatures down to -40°F, but it cannot operate below 32°F (0°C). The proper lubricant for arctic use is grease, artillery and automotive, military specification MIL-G-10924, or an equivalent.
(3) Body comfort depends mainly on the protection offered by issue clothing. The survey chief can improve conditions by directing the digging of pits, erecting windshields, or building up snowbanks to reduce the intensity of exposure over extended periods. Utility stoves should be used for heating nourishing liquids and keeping the fingers warm. An instrument can be modified by providing enlarged nonmetallic operating knobs or by wrapping standard knobs with adhesive tape. This facilitates manipulation of the instrument and helps keep the fingers from being injured. Head and hand coverings become a problem for the instrument operator and the recorder. Layer gloves and layer head coverings provide a practical combination of warmth and maneuverability. An easily removed hood over an ear-covering headpiece is practical for most conditions. Safety precautions are discussed below.
(a) Do not touch metal with any part of the bare skin.
(b) Make use of equipment furnished for protection of the eyes against wind and glare.
(c) Always use the buddy system in surveying. Do not go out alone.
(d) Always carry a first aid kit.
(e) Practice personal hygiene as covered in FM 31-70.
d. Survey Control. In most arctic areas, especially on the tundra or in heavily forested regions and away from centers of civilization, preestablished control will be minimal. Survey control that does exist will be difficult to locate in areas of heavy snowfall and high winds. Topo support is essential to establish the common grid. Map spottings, when maps are available, are almost impossible because of the lack of definable natural and man-made objects. The most probable solution for the extension of survey control (if topo support cannot be provided) is for the div arty survey officer to assume position control; use the PADS, astro observation, or the SIAGL (latitude of operation permitting) for direction; and start the common grid there. Each installation or unit will then convert to common control as it enters the divisional survey net.
Field artillery survey in a desert environment lends itself to some major problems in equipment, methods, and operations. Problems not experienced in other environments are prevalent during desert operations. Initially, desert operations seem to be perfect for survey with long lines of sight, clear traverse lines, and cloudless skies for celestial observations. However, the desert is no utopia for the surveyor. Some of the problems encountered are described below.
a. Equipment. Optical instruments operated in extreme heat can have some major interior and exterior physical problems. Experience has shown that at 100°F, the survey instrument leveling vials increase about 2 graduations past the true center. Therefore, at 120°F, the instrument operator may not be able to level the instrument because of bubble expansion. To counter this, instruments should always be shaded. The direct rays of the sun can and will cause optical distortion and internal stress. Before moving to a desert environment, operators and supervisors must ensure that proper maintenance is performed and lubricants are applied to and maintained in the instruments. The scoring effects of sand and grit on the instrument optics require that the instrument lens covers be in place when the instruments are not being used. The major problems in desert operations are caused by heat waves. Distances between stations are severely limited because of heat wave distortions. Consistent readings at occupied stations are nearly impossible to achieve. Operator eye fatigue is common and necessitates frequent operator changes. Because of heat wave distortion, conventional survey operations and PADS operations requiring optical transfer should be avoided. The BUCS can be stored in temperatures up to 140°F (with batteries removed), but it cannot operate above 113°F (45°C). If absolutely necessary, conventional survey operations will have to be conducted during the hours of darkness or during early morning and late afternoon.
b. Survey Control. Survey control in the desert is very fleeting in nature. The lack of definable natural and man-made objects increases the problem of permanent control. Topo surveyors must make every effort to provide starting control for the division survey section. Established survey control dates from the desert colonial periods and, although scarce, it is accurate. However, control that can be identified and located one day may be obscured by sand the next. If these control points are constructed of anything valuable (for example, metallic substances of any kind), local civilians will dig up and carry off the station markers. In establishing control, efforts must be made to camouflage or immobilize control points. Use of the existing road networks and road junctions is another way of ensuring that control is available when it is required. Burned-out armored vehicles and destroyed fortifications also can be used as control points. When operating in the desert, the survey officer should ensure that all control possible within the zone of operations is recovered and verified. It should be understood that control in the desert is, at best, only temporary in nature.
c. Techniques of Conventional Desert Survey. Conventional surveys conducted in a desert environment require special considerations. In any other area, the primary means of extending control is traverse. However, in the desert, the distance involved and the lack of control indicate the primary means of extending control will be triangulation. If traverse has to be used, night traverses will be common. If night surveys are required, parties will have to be augmented with additional personnel. Light discipline will be of great importance because lights can be seen in the desert to distances of about 8 miles. Trig traverse is an excellent means of extending control in desert operations. The use of astro observation, simultaneous observations, and the SIAGL to start and extend directional control will be of critical importance to the surveyors.
d. Personnel. Personnel acclimatization is an important factor in desert operations. It can be assumed that if our current deployment policy does not change, there will be no time for acclimatization. Surveyors will be deployed from the continental United States (CONUS) right into a desert environment. Care should be taken to ensure that all personnel who might possibly be employed in this type of environment are trained in survival techniques.
a. Survey Operations. Survey operations in the jungle pose many problems not encountered in other environments. Some of these are the foreboding appearance of the jungle, the oppressive humidity and heat, the unfamiliar noises, and the loneliness one feels in the jungle. In addition to the physical and psychological effects of working in the jungle, the FA surveyor will be aware immediately of the lack of adequate maps. The maps that are available often are inaccurate except for locations of coastlines and principal rivers. For a more detailed discussion of jungle operations, refer to FM 90-5.
b. Survey Control. Because of the inaccessibility of jungle areas and since adequate maps do not exist for most areas, the establishment of survey control and the common grid is a primary consideration of the commander.
(1) The extension of survey control should not depend on preestablished control, which in most jungle areas is minimal and at best difficult to recover and identify. One solution is for the div arty or battalion survey officer, using available maps or map products, to assume control; to use the PADS, astro observation, the SIAGL, or simultaneous observation for direction; and to initiate the common grid. Each unit will convert to common control when it ties into the division survey control net. Map spottings with available maps or photomaps may have to suffice for position control at firing unit locations.
(2) Normally, FA firing positions are in natural clearings. This usually will permit a position area survey to tie in the firing batteries relative to each other. Direction can be obtained as described in (1) above. One possible solution for the extension of the common grid is the use of gridded mosaics or other photomap products.
c. Conventional Methods. Survey control may be extended through the jungle by pursuing traverse procedures. It will be difficult and time consuming and normally will require that a security force go with the surveyors. Using triangulation and resection techniques is most difficult, since line of sight is extremely short or nonexistent. Target area survey and connection survey usually are very restricted or impossible. In any case, survey in the jungle requires the imagination and initiative of all survey personnel.
a. In most military operations, the type of terrain is a prime factor in planning, coordinating, and executing a unit mission. This is especially true for survey operations conducted in and around villages, towns, cities, and other built-up areas. The presence of buildings and man-made changes to the landscape greatly affect conventional survey operations and also must be considered during PADS operations.
b. The tactical situation is a strong influence on survey operations in built-up areas. The enemy can be well hidden by using roofs and upper stories of buildings, sewer systems, subways, and other underground structures. Enemy obstacles (barricades, booby traps, and minefields) may deny the use of certain terrain needed as routes for extension of survey control. Communication between survey assets may be hampered by the limited range of FM radios within built-up areas.
c. Line of sight limitations in urban areas and the possibility of widespread weapon positions will increase the number of survey stations. Required OPs must be located on rooftops, towers, or other high structures. Also, more OPs may be needed to observe all areas of concern and to ensure accurate target locations.
d. Targets of opportunity generally will be exposed to observes for brief periods. Also, political and tactical considerations will demand pinpoint accuracy in locating and destroying targets. Destroying key facilities and creating severe obstacles to friendly troops must be weighed. For a detailed discussion of urban operations, see FM 90-10.
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