Organization and Command and Control
To effectively employ Stinger on the battlefield, commanders must know how Stinger units are organized. They must also know the command and control structure of Stinger before they can effectively deploy it.
This chapter discusses Stinger organization and the command and control of Stinger. This chapter also explains how Stinger fires are controlled.
The basic Stinger tactical element is the team. Teams are subordinate elements of Stinger air defense sections. Each team is composed of a team chief and a gunner. Both team members are trained to perform all team functions. The team normally acts as a unit with the team chief establishing the identity of the aircraft and authorizing the engagement.
When under heavy attack, both team members may act as gunners to increase firepower. In this case, the team chief should identify the targets, give the gunner an engagement order, and then attempt to engage with a second weapon-round.
Each team is normally equipped with a 1/4-ton truck and trailer, with the exception of those teams assigned to the air assault division. In addition, teams have communications equipment, binoculars, target alert data display set (TADDS), and two IFF interrogators. For further information, refer to appropriate tables of organization and equipment (TOE).
The Stinger air defense section consists of a headquarters element composed of a section chief and a radiotelephone operator/driver, and a varying number of Stinger teams.
The number of teams in a section depends on the type organization to which the section belongs. The accompanying chart shows the total allocation of Stinger teams and sections in major organizations. A further breakdown of teams and sections within major organizations is discussed later in this section.
The section headquarters has a 1/4-ton truck and trailer, communications equipment, IFF interrogators, an IFF programmer/battery charger, and a TADDS to assist in early warning. For further information, refer to appropriate tables of organization and equipment.
The Stinger platoon is organic to the firing batteries of the divisional ADA battalion. The Stinger platoon has its own TOE and is assigned to the headquarters element in separate brigades and regiments. In divisional ADA, the platoon normally is under the direct command of the ADA battery commander. The platoon headquarters is composed of a platoon leader, platoon sergeant, and a radiotelephone operator/driver. The platoon headquarters has a 1/4-ton truck and trailer. The element also has communications equipment required to command and control the platoon. For further information, refer to appropriate tables of organization and equipment.
ARMORED, INFANTRY, MECHANIZED (AIM) DIVISION
Within the divisional organization, each ADA Stinger platoon consists of a headquarters element and four sections. Three sections have five teams; the fourth section has three teams. A total of 4 platoons and 72 teams are in the division. (For task organization purposes within AIM divisions, each Stinger platoon is designated as the fourth platoon of each Chaparral and Vulcan battery.) Stinger platoons within each AIM division are organized as shown.
ARMY OF EXCELLENCE ORGANIZATIONS
Stinger units which are being transitioned to Army of Excellence organizations are shown below.
A Stinger platoon is organic to each of the three SGT York Gun/Stinger batteries in the ADA battalion of the heavy division. An additional Stinger platoon is assigned to the headquarters and headquarters battery. A total of four platoons and 60 teams are in the division.
A Stinger platoon is organic to each of the two LADS/Stinger batteries in the ADA battalion of the light division. Each platoon has 20 teams for a total of 40 teams in the division.
Motorized Infantry Division
A Stinger platoon is organic to each of the three gun/missile batteries in the ADA battalion in the motorized infantry division. Two Stinger platoons are assigned to the Chaparral/Stinger battery. A total of five platoons and 60 teams are in the division.
A Stinger platoon is organic to each of the three LADS/Stinger batteries in the ADA battalion of the airborne division. Each platoon has 20 teams for a total of 60 teams in the division.
Air Assault Division
A Stinger platoon is organic to each of the three LADS\Stinger batteries in the ADA battalion of the air assault division. Each platoon has 20 teams for a total of 60 teams in the division.
This platoon is organic to the brigade headquarters element. In separate brigades, the Stinger platoon consists of a headquarters element and four sections. The sections have four teams as shown below.
ARMORED CAVALRY REGIMENT
In armored cavalry regiments, the Stinger platoon is organic to the regimental headquarters element. The platoon is organized with a headquarters element and five sections. Four sections have four teams and one section has six teams. The ACR has a total of 22 teams.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
The full potential of any military force cannot be realized without effective command and control. Command and control of air defense artillery must accomplish two things:
1. Engagement of hostile aircraft while providing for protection of friendly aircraft.
2. Integration of all ADA weapons into one cohesive force so that the appropriate level of firepower will be generated but overkill avoided.
Two factors make command and control of Stinger teams especially challenging:
1. A large number of Stinger teams are on the battlefield.
2. Teams are highly mobile; they remain in one position for only short periods of time.
This section discusses the command and control structure that enables Stinger leaders to perform their mission. The section also explains how Stinger fires are controlled and directed.
WHAT IS COMMAND AND CONTROL?
Command is defined as "the authority and responsibility to use available resources to accomplish assigned missions in accordance with established procedures." Also included in command, is the authority and responsibility for supply, administration, training, discipline, health, welfare, and morale.
Control is defined as "the authority which may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations."
Together, command and control is the process of directing the activities of military forces to attain an objective. It includes the consideration of -
STINGER COMMAND STRUCTURE
Divisional Stinger. Command for divisional Stinger units follow a relatively simple chain. Within the division, command descends from the division commander to the air defense artillery battalion and battery commanders and finally to the Stinger platoon and section.
Nondivisional Stinger. Command for nondivisional Stinger also follows a simple chain. A Stinger platoon is organic to the headquarters element of separate brigades or regiments. The commander of the nondivisional organization to which Stinger is organic sets the priorities for Stinger employment. He also has the positioning authority for Stinger.
Special Command Statuses. Special command statuses can be formed by attaching or placing the ADA unit under the operational command (OPCOM), operational control (OPCON), or tactical control of another unit. These statuses create special operational, training, administrative, and logistic relationships between the ADA unit, its parent organization, and the receiving unit.
Attachment, US and NATO. Attached ADA units are those placed in an organization on a relatively temporary basis. Subject to the limitations imposed by the attachment order, the commander of the organization receiving the attached ADA element will exercise the same degree of command and control over attached units that he does over units organic to his command. This includes providing administrative and logistic support. However, the responsibility for transfer and promotion of personnel will normally be retained by the parent unit.
Before discussing operational command and operational control, it is important to note that these terms are defined differently in US and NATO environments. In a pure US environment, the term "operational command" is synonymous to the term "operational control."
Operational Command/Operational Control, US. In a pure US environment, OPCOM/OPCON gives the commander receiving the ADA unit the authority and responsibility for the composition of subordinate forces, the assignments of tasks, the designation of objectives, and the authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Administration, discipline, internal organization, logistics, and training are kept by the parent unit unless modified in the operation relationship.
In a NATO environment, OPCOM gives the commander receiving the ADA unit the authority and responsibility to assign missions or tasks, to deploy units, to reassign forces, and to retain or delegate operational and/or tactical control as necessary. It does not include administrative or logistical responsibility.
In a NATO environment, OPCON gives the commander receiving the ADA unit the authority and responsibility to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks usually limited by function, time, or location; to deploy units; and to retain or delegate tactical control of those units. It does not include authority to assign separate employment of the units concerned. Neither does it include administrative or logistic control.
In NATO, tactical control is the detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. For ADA, tactical control is best defined as fire coordination.
ATTACHMENT, OPCOM, OPCON, AND TACTICAL CONTROL ARE NOT MISSIONS. THESE STATUSES ARE USED ONLY TO CREATE SPECIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ADA UNITS AND RECEIVING UNITS.
CONTROL OF STINGER
Control operates to preclude the engagement of friendly aircraft and to maximize the engagement of hostile aircraft. Control of Stinger is accomplished primarily through the declaration of weapons control statuses and through rules and procedures published in the unit tactical standing operating procedure (TSOP). The authority to engage aircraft is delegated to the team chief. Commanders exercise control by prescribing the precise conditions under which that authority may be exercised.
Air defense weapons in a theater of operations are controlled by one authority, the area air defense commander (normally Air Force), who is appointed by the theater commander. He establishes AD rules and procedures that apply throughout the theater. He may divide the theater into AD regions and appoint region commanders.
The region air defense commander is delegated full authority for air defense operations within his region. He also exercises control by publishing rules and procedures. Some of these rules, such as weapons control statuses, change frequently and are ordered into effect in specific areas at specific times. Intermediate commanders, to include supported maneuver commanders, may make these rules more restrictive, if the tactical situation warrants, but may not make them less restrictive than those imposed by the region air defense commander.
COMMAND AND CONTROL OF THE STINGER PLATOON
Command and control of the Stinger platoon is accomplished by the platoon leader from his headquarters element. Command is exercised through the platoon leader and the section chiefs within the platoon. The headquarters element has radio equipment for control of the sections, for communications within the supported unit's command net, and for receipt of early warning information from the ADA battalion and/or supported brigade. Any changes in weapons control status, early warning, operating frequencies, call signs, ground security situation, IFF codes, etc., are transmitted immediately to the sections. The platoon headquarters monitors the personnel and equipment status of all sections by radio.
When the Stinger platoon is tactically employed as an element of a SHORAD firing battery, the Stinger platoon leader locates his headquarters element within or near the firing battery command post (CP). In this situation, the Stinger platoon leader assigns tactical missions to sections as directed by the battery commander.
When the Stinger platoon is tactically employed as the sole air defense organization supporting a maneuver force, the Stinger platoon leader locates his headquarters element within or near the CP of the supported unit. In this situation, the Stinger platoon leader responds to air defense requirements directly from the supported unit commander. He assigns tactical missions to his sections to provide air defense for the supported unit's priority assets.
The tactical situation may require that a Stinger platoon be employed with a SHORAD platoon. In this situation, the specific command relationship between the platoon leaders will be established by the SHORAD battalion or battery commander.
Normally, the Stinger section is the lowest element to be separately tasked or deployed. It is under the direct command of the Stinger section chief. The Stinger section chief exercises command and control of his Stinger teams primarily through use of detailed TSOP. This procedural method of command and control is used because the teams are usually located long distances from the section headquarters element. Therefore, direct and personal supervision of each team is not normally possible. A tactical radio net provides a link between the section chief and his teams. Over this net, the section chief maneuvers his teams and provides positive control as needed. He modifies their state of readiness by relaying the air defense warning and weapons control statuses. Each section headquarters has radio communications with its platoon headquarters, the supported unit, and its firing teams. Early warning is received via voice radio and the target alert data display set.
The section chief may have to locate at some point between the teams and TOC. To effectively control the teams, the section headquarters element must be in communications with the Stinger teams. In the case where the Stinger section headquarters has lost contact with Stinger elements, the headquarters element must relocate to reestablish radio contact.
The Stinger section headquarters must always maintain communications with its teams and liaison with the maneuver battalion. When appropriate, platoons or sections may be attached to the supported unit for a specific period. When so attached, command (to include administration and logistics) becomes the responsibility of the commander to whom attached. Air defense rules of engagement, weapons control statuses, and fire control orders which apply to the division area continue to be binding on attached Stinger elements. The local commander may make these measures more restrictive, but may not make them less restrictive.
COMMAND AND CONTROL PROCEDURES
Control of the fires of Stinger weapons is based on the fact that the elapsed time from target detection until target flyover is measured in seconds. Also, Stinger weapons are manned and fired by teams. Each team is individually positioned and is separated from all other teams supporting the same force. To be timely, the firing decision must be accomplished at the team position by the team chief. Authority to engage must be delegated to the team chief. Therefore, to control fires of their teams, Stinger leaders must insure that each team member has all the information and instructions necessary to make a correct engagement decision.
Control is exercised through air defense rules of engagement (ROE) which are directives that delineate the circumstances under which Stinger weapons can fire at an aircraft. Rules of engagement are established by the region/area air defense commander and are provided to the lowest necessary level by inclusion in the tactical SOP of each unit having an air defense mission or capability. The tactical SOP may include any or all of the following:
Normally, the responsibility for target identification rests with the team chief. The exact criteria in use may vary with the tactical situation, from command to command, and in terms of time and space. Unit SOPs may classify those aircraft that are:
- Discharging smoke or spray.
- Discharging parachutists or unloading troops in excess of normal aircraft crew.
- Engaging in mine-laying operations.
To aid in identification (ID), the Stinger weapon has been equipped with an IFF unit. The gunner initiates the IFF sequence by pressing the IFF INTERROGATE switch on the gripstock assembly. Once the gunner issues a challenge, the rest of the sequence is automatic. Aircraft with Mark X or Mark XII transponders automatically decode only if the interrogator is programmed with Mode 4 and Mode 3. Mode 3 is built into the interrogator; however, if during programming the Mode 4 only position is used, Mode 3 (Mark X) will not be challenged until the two or four days of Mode 4 coded have expired. The aircraft's transponder then prepares and sends a coded reply. The reply is received by the Stinger antenna and is routed to the interrogator for decoding. The interrogator converts the reply into an audible tone which is then routed via the interconnecting cable to the gunner as a friendly tone. If the aircraft's transponder sends an incorrect reply to the IFF challenge, the reply is processed by the IFF system into an unknown tone. Additionally, aircraft not equipped with the transponders will not reply to the challenge, and this is also interpreted into an unknown tone. The gunner hears the friendly or unknown tone in his right earphone immediately after challenging the aircraft.
Positive IFF Mode 4 responses indicate a "true friend." Local tactical directives will specify whether Mode 3 returns are to be considered a possible friend. All other aircraft (those providing no IFF response) are given a tentative ID of "unknown." This aids the Stinger team in identifying most friendly aircraft; however, the IFF unit does not provide positive ID of all friendly aircraft. Electronic malfunction or physical damage may prevent the interrogator or transponder from working properly. This is the reason that, given a tentative ID by IFF, the Stinger team normally must accomplish positive ID by visual recognition. An absence of an IFF return (Stinger IFF subsystem malfunction) will require the team chief to visually identify the aircraft. Engagement based solely on an unknown IFF return is permissible only under certain specified rules of engagement.
Interrogator programming is explained in TM 9-1425-429-12. The tones are described in FM 44-18-1. The mode, tone or symbolic response, and the team actions for Stinger in each of the weapons control statuses are shown in the following illustration.
WEAPONS CONTROL STATUSES
Weapons control statuses are conditions which describe the relative tightness with which the fires of AD systems are managed. This degree or extent of control varies, depending on the relative priorities of two needs--
The weapons control status is imposed by the area air defense commander; however, other commanders (corps, division, maneuver brigade, or maneuver battalion) have the authority to impose a more restrictive weapons control status within their respective areas of operation for assigned, attached, or organic ADA weapons. Weapons control statuses may be varied to apply only to certain aircraft for specified time periods. For example, the status "Weapons Free for air craft heading westbound; Weapons Tight for all other aircraft" is not unusual. Weapons control is normally described as a status (condition).
RIGHT OF SELF-DEFENSE
Rules of engagement do not prohibit a unit or air defense weapon from shooting at an aircraft that is attacking it -- the right of self-defense is never denied.
FIRE CONTROL ORDERS
Fire control orders are commands which are used to control AD engagements on a case-by-case basis, regardless of the prevailing weapons control status.
Fire control orders are normally issued by the immediate ADA commander (team chief) for the purpose of fire distribution or for safety.
LOSS OF COMMUNICATIONS
If communications break down for any reason, the section/team must take immediate action to reestablish communications. These actions will be listed in the TSOP and may be similar to the following if, at the time communications are lost, the weapons control status was:
Weapons Tight. The section/team will remain in weapons tight.
Weapons Hold. If a time limit was placed on the weapons holds restriction, the section/team will maintain weapons hold for this time limit and then revert to weapons tight. If no time limit was established, the section/team will maintain weapons hold for 30 minutes and then revert to weapons tight.
Weapons Free. If a time limit was established, the same rule applies as in weapons hold. If no time limit was established, the section/team will immediately revert to weapons tight.
WARNING PROCEDURES AND ALERT STATUSES
To prepare units for enemy air attack, air defense warnings (ADW) may be broadcast by ADA battalion, TOC, or the division airspace management element (DAME). These warnings provide the platoon leader general information of the air threat.
States of alert can be used by the section chief to vary the level of preparedness of his teams. These states of alert should be defined in the local TSOP and may be based on the ADWs. (See example.)
RED -- BATTLE STATIONS
ALL TEAMS PREPARE TO ENGAGE AIRCRAFT.
YELLOW -- STANDBY
BY DESIGNATED TEAMS PERFORM AIR WATCH AND BE PREPARED TO ENGAGE AIRCRAFT. ALL TEAMS BE PREPARED TO ENGAGE AIRCRAFT WITHIN A SPECIFIED TIME.
WHITE -- STAND-DOWN
TEAMS ARE TEMPORARILY RELEASED FROM THE AIR DEFENSE MISSION, BUT MUST BE ABLE TO ATTAIN STANDBY STATUS WITHIN A SPECIFIED TIME PERIOD.
SUPPLEMENTAL FIRE CONTROL MEASURES
Supplemental fire control measures are procedural management measures intended to delineate or modify hostile criteria, delegate identification authority, or serve strictly as aids in fire distribution or airspace control. The fire supplemental fire control measures are air defense operations area (ADOA), weapons engagement zones (WEZ), high density airspace control zones, temporary airspace restriction measures, and sectors of fire and primary target lines (PTL).
Air Defense Operations Area. An area and the airspace above it within which procedures are established to minimize mutual interference between AD and other operations. It can include designation of one or more of the following:
Weapons Engagement Zone (WEZ). A volume of defined airspace within which a specific type of AD weapon is preferred for use in an engagement. Use of WEZ does not preclude engagement of high-priority targets by more than one type of weapon system if centralized control of each weapon system involved is available. The activation of a WEZ can be used to delegate identification authority to respective fire units by specifying different (usually more stringent) hostile criteria within the WEZ than outside the WEZ. Commonly used WEZs include--
The example shows WEZ geographic and altitude boundaries for a type AD region. Each WEZ gives particular types of weapons more freedom of action in the protection of rear area assets. Thus, within an activated HIMEZ, Hercules and Patriot would be placed in a less restrictive WCS. The same applies to Hawk with regard to the LOMEZ. Established well forward, the LOMEZ gives Hawk greater freedom of action and maximizes its effectiveness. The SHORADEZ performs the same function for short-range ADA organic to committed divisions. The FEZ covers the same region, but over ADA, WEZ areas descend only to the upper limits of HIMEZ, LOMEZ, and SHORADEZ. Since fighters and ADA systems each have their own operating areas, the possibility of friendly aircraft engagement is minimized.
WEZs are established by local operation plan, but are activated and modified by message.
High-density Airspace Control Zone (HIDACZ). A HIDACZ is an airspace of defined dimension in which there is a concentrated employment of numerous and varied airspace users. These can include aircraft, artillery/mortar/naval gunfire, local AD weapons, and surface-to-surface missiles. HIDACZ is established by the area air defense commander upon request of local maneuver commanders. HIDACZ is established when the level and intensity of airspace operations dictate the need for special airspace control measures. The number of such zones will vary depending on the combat situation and/or the complexities of air traffic control in conjunction with fire support coordination. The establishment of a HIDACZ normally increases temporary restrictions on ADA fires within the volume of defined airspace.
Temporary Airspace Restriction Measures. Temporary airspace restrictions can be imposed on segments of airspace of defined dimensions in response to specific situations and requirements. These can include search and rescue (SAR) operations, air refueling areas, high density airspace control zone, concentrated interdiction areas, and areas declared AD WEAPONS FREE. These restrictions include--
The three common temporary airspace restrictions are--
Restricted operations areas are airspaces of defined dimensions within which the operation of one or more airspace users is restricted, generally for a short time. These areas are established by the airspace control authority (ACA) in response to the requests of ground force commanders.
Restricted operations areas for aircraft can be established to maximize ADA effectiveness. In such cases, the normal ADA weapons control status will be Weapons Free.
RESTRICTED OPERATIONS AREAS FOR AIRCRAFT
WEAPONS FREE: FOR DESIGNATED AIRSPACE AROUND A KEY CROSSING SITE DURING RIVER-CROSSING OPERATIONS. WEAPONS FREE AREA INFORMATION (E.G., SIZE, TIME- RESTRICTION IS IN EFFECT) WOULD BE PROVIDED TO AIR FORCE AND ARMY AVIATION UNITS AS WELL AS AIR DEFENSE UNITS. KEEPING FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT AWAY FROM THE WEAPONS FREE AREA WOULD ALLOW ADA MAXIMUM FREEDOM TO ENGAGE HOSTILE AIRCRAFT.
Restricted operations area for ADA can be established to maximize aircraft effectiveness. In such cases, the normal ADA weapons control status will be Weapons Hold.
RESTRICTED OPERATIONS AREA FOR ADA
WEAPONS TIGHT: EXCEPT WEAPONS HOLD, 0600 - 0645, FOR HELICOPTERS WESTBOUND OVER 1ST BRIGADE AREA. THIS CONTROL STATEMENT PROVIDES SPECIAL PROTECTION FOR FRIENDLY HELICOPTERS SCHEDULED TO PASS WESTWARD THROUGH THE 1ST BRIGADE AREA AT INDICATED TIME.
Minimum risk route/low-level transit route (MRR/LLTR): A temporary corridor of defined dimensions passing in either direction through ADA defenses, a high density airspace control zone, or through a restricted operations area. It is designed to reduce risk to high-speed aircraft transiting the tactical operations area at low altitudes. MRRs/LLTRs will normally be confined to that airspace in which ADA must be maintained at Weapons Free. Such circumstances will exist where there is inadequate timely control capability to permit a more flexible method of air defense. However, aircraft transiting the tactical operations area are not required to use activated MRRs/LLTRs. In such cases where aircraft do not use MRRs/LLTRs, it is recognized that established AD procedures will apply. Also, close air support (CAS) aircraft will not normally use MRRs/LLTRs. This is because such sorties are flown in response to Army requests and are coordinated by the forward air controller (FAC) or other tactical air control system elements with the supported Army unit.
The weapons control status for ADA fire units whose engagement ranges intercept an activated MRR\LLTR remains at Weapons Tight for that part of the route. Should it become necessary to change to Weapons Free, that particular route will be closed by the commander who established it.
Standard-use Army aircraft routes are temporary corridors of defined dimensions passing in either direction through the rear operations area to designated points in the tactical operations area. These routes will terminate in relatively secure areas. Two points are important for ADA in connection with standard-use routes--
Since high-speed aircraft avoid standard-use routes, ADA hostile criteria may include provisions that high-speed aircraft within these routes can be declared hostile.
The weapons control status of ADA fire units whose engagement ranges intercept an activated standard-use route remains at Weapons Tight for that part of the route. Should it become necessary to change to Weapons Free, that particular route will be closed by the commander who established it.
Sectors of Fire and Primary Target Lines. Stinger teams normally use sectors of fire and primary target lines to insure that all aircraft attacking the defended asset are engaged. Normally, if a single aircraft is attacking the asset, all air defense must be prepared to defend against multiple targets attacking from different directions. Also, these control measures provide sectors of fire or primary target lines applicable to each weapon defending an asset. Each Stinger team normally concentrates its fires on the most threatening aircraft within its assigned sector or closest to its primary target line. Typical control measures are--
The assignment of a PSF or PTL does not restrict the team to looking only at the sector or line. Rather, it means that, given two targets that are equal threats, the team will fire on the target within the PSF or closest to the PTL.
Sectors of fire are normally designated at section headquarters after review of fire unit coverage diagrams. Overlapping coverage and distance between teams is discussed later in this manual. The section chief assigns primary target lines as shown in the example.
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