Joint and Combined Arms Operations
This chapter addresses the joint and combined arms support that may be allocated to the aviation brigade. Aviation brigade commanders may be designated to command brigade-size task forces. These task forces consist of aviation maneuver and combat support (CS) elements, combined arms and joint forces, combat service support (CSS) assets, and even multinational ground and aviation forces. Aviation brigade commanders must understand joint and combined arms capabilities to effectively execute their missions. Division and corps assets normally provide CS assets to the aviation brigade. When aviation units are under the operational control (OPCON) of ground maneuver forces, the controlling brigade task force will provide and coordinate the required combat support. If the aviation brigade operates as a task-organized controlling headquarters for specified missions-for example, a covering force operation-additional CS assets will be provided.
4-1. FIRE SUPPORT
a. Personnel. When provided, the fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) in the brigade fire support element (FSE) plans and coordinates fire support for the aviation brigade the same as for ground brigades. The division aviation brigade force structure does not include organic fire support personnel. The division artillery (DIVARTY) provides the fire support section (FSS) for the aviation brigade. The cavalry squadron has no organic FSS nor a fire support team (FIST). The DIVARTY headquarters provides the FSS to the attack helicopter battalions (ATKHBs) and cavalry squadrons. In addition, DIVARTY provides a FIST for each of the two cavalry troops. The headquarters element of the corps aviation brigade has no organic fire support personnel. However, fire support planning and coordination assistance is available at the appropriate artillery headquarters. At the corps artillery level, the corps artillery headquarters provides one FSS per ATKHB.
b. Assets. Various fire support assets are available to the aviation brigade or subunits of the brigade. These assets include field artillery (FA), naval gunfire, close air support (CAS), and mortars. FM 6-20 further describes fire support in combined arms operations to include priorities of fire, targets, and target effects.
(1) Field artillery. Artillery traditionally has three functions: close support, interdiction, and counterfire. Suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) may be supported by any one of these functions. A habitually associated direct support (DS) artillery unit to support aviation assets does not exist under current table of organization and equipment (TOE) force structures. Under certain contingencies, aviation assets could be task-organized with FA in the DS role. A DS artillery unit could be allocated from corps artillery assets or from division artillery units.
(2) Naval gunfire and close air support. Naval gunfire and CAS can provide the same fire support as FA. When naval support is available, the FSE of the aviation headquarters is provided a naval gunfire liaison team to control the support. An Air/Naval gunfire liaison officer or team may not be available. If so, the fire support officer (FSO), fire support team, scouts, or aerial fire support observer (AFSO) must control the naval gunfire. A forward air controller (FAC) or tactical air control party (TACP) from the the Air Force or Marine TACP normally would provide terminal control of CAS.
(3) Mortars. Limited mortar fire support for SEAD during aviation operations may be coordinated and obtained from the supported ground maneuver unit. Mortar sections within the heavy division cavalry squadron may also provide mortar support.
(4) Other fire support assets. While it is not their primary role, certain air defense (AD) weapons (i.e., Vulcan) and tanks could provide fire support. The force commander weighs the consequences of losing a system in its primary role before committing it to a fire support mission.
4-2. JSEAD OPERATIONS
a. Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (JSEAD) is a support activity that can significantly increase the effectiveness and tactical flexibility of aviation forces (all services). JSEAD is that activity that neutralizes, destroys, disrupts, or temporarily degrades enemy ADs in a specific area by physical attack and/or electronic warfare (EW).
b. In developing a JSEAD plan, planners consider the spectrum of combat multipliers available to the commander. A JSEAD plan is developed-based on guidance from the next higher echelon-within the brigade, division, and corps staffs; however, the execution may involve one or more services. The three types of JSEAD recognized across all services include theater, localized, and opportune. Theater JSEAD operations are preplanned, theater-wide efforts. The joint force air component commander (JFACC) is responsible for planning these operations; the joint staff normally executes them. These operations are conducted, concurrently over an extended period, against AD systems normally located well behind enemy lines. Localized JSEAD operations support tactical air operations, Army aviation operations, reconnaissance, and the establishment of corridors for Air Force and Army assets. Planning for these operations begins at the echelon requesting the support. Opportune JSEAD is usually unplanned and involves aircrew self-defense and attacks on targets of opportunity. It is important to note that Army aviation assets may be tasked to provide JSEAD support to other services as well as receive JSEAD support.
(1) Responsibilities. The Joint Force commander (JFC) establishes objectives and monitors JSEAD planning and execution. Based on the JFC's guidance, the ground and naval fire support coordination centers and FSEs determine the air and surface suppression systems available to conduct JSEAD. JFC guidance specifies the roles of air, land, maritime, space, and special operations forces in the conduct of the joint campaign. The JFC guidance establishes the requirements for J-SEAD to facilitate these operations.
(2) Planning. The corps is the primary planning headquarters for Army JSEAD operations. The air support operations center (ASOC), located at the corps headquarters, is the Air Force element through which coordination for immediate JSEAD will be accomplished. For pre-planned JSEAD, requests are forwarded from the corps to the battlefield coordination detachment (BCD) located within the air operations center (AOC). At division and lower, the FSE ensures that the localized JSEAD program is coordinated under the direction of the G3. Localized JSEAD operations are planned for specific missions. The targets are preplanned; however, they are less precisely located. Otherwise, they would have been candidates for immediate engagements. During local JSEAD operations, assets attack enemy AD targets near the ground target of the air operation and the corridor to and from the target area. This type of JSEAD usually is temporary but begins before aircraft arrive at the forward line of own troops (FLOT). Joint Publication (JP) 3-01.4 provides more detailed guidance for JSEAD operations.
(3) Coordination. The FSE is the focus of JSEAD coordination at each echelon of command. Based on the commander's battle plan and mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T), the fire FSCOORD determines which enemy AD systems could hinder the mission, how these can be attacked, and what type of suppression effect is desired. Attack means are aligned with specific types of enemy systems. Acquisition assets are then concentrated-based on intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) and target value analysis-on detecting and locating enemy AD systems.
(4) Techniques. As a rule, artillery is used against targets that are within range and accurately located. Intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) support and air support assets suppress targets that are not as precisely located, beyond artillery range, or that are better suppressed by electronic means. Suppression must begin before aircraft arrive at the forward FLOT and must continue throughout the crossing of the FLOT. FA is a primary means of suppression. However, mortars, electronic jammers, and maneuver units also may execute the JSEAD plan.
(5) Execution. The commander ensures that his staff conducts the necessary coordination to obtain assets available in the time allotted to execute the mission. Coordination is required at many levels to establish JSEAD programs. Aviation commanders need to ensure that their maneuver counterparts are aware that aviation assets should not be employed back and forth across the battlefield on a moment's notice. JSEAD planning for cross-FLOT assault or attack helicopter operations includes certain considerations. They are as follows:
(a) Target acquisition assets are tasked to locate and track suspected or known enemy AD systems. Primary assets include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS), electronic intelligence, communications intelligence (COMINT) sensors, and human intelligence (HUMINT) assets. Assets must be allocated to suppress each particular threat system.
(b) Communications jammers across the services are used to disrupt enemy command and control (C2) systems at the FLOT and during the entire operation.
(c) Artillery is dedicated to destroying or suppressing those targets within range.
(d) Fixed-wing assets are tasked to suppress those enemy AD systems that are beyond Army artillery's capability and range or that are better suppressed by fixed-wing assets. These fixed-wing assets may include Compass Call, EA-6B aircraft, and EF-111 Raven aircraft.
(e) Army aviation assets can infiltrate low level to attack cross-FLOT targets. These targets include AD systems or critical C2 nodes. Army aviation needs to ensure that its weapons mix enables it to suppress targets of opportunity not identified earlier.
(f) Ground and air maneuver must be coordinated for the JSEAD plan. A ground attack may need to be synchronized with an air operation to open an air corridor.
(g) Given enough time for insertion, Special Operations Forces (SOF) could disrupt selected critical AD nodes.
(h) JSEAD operations may be required for units returning from cross-FLOT operations along different routes.
4-3. AIR OPERATIONS
a. USAF air operations. The USAF performs air operations that can-
(1) Gain and maintain air superiority.
(2) Prevent movement of enemy forces into and within the objective area.
(3) Seek out and neutralize or destroy enemy forces and their supporting installations.
(4) Join with ground forces in operations within the objective area to assist in attaining their immediate objective.
b. Aviation Brigade Missions. USAF missions that compliment and support ground maneuver are counterair, air interdiction, CAS, airlift, surveillance and reconnaissance, and special operations. US Army forces, specifically aviation brigades, normally are employed with, or may receive support from, air assets performing these missions:
(1) Counterair. Counterair missions are conducted to attain and maintain air superiority. However, within the counterair effort, air assets perform JSEAD by attacking enemy AD systems through EW or by destroying them. SEAD missions normally are preplanned. SEAD targets include enemy AD radar systems, surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), or antiaircraft artillery. EC-130 Compass Call and EF-111 Raven aircraft are part of the SEAD campaign. They can jam enemy radar and communications.
(2) Air interdiction. Air interdiction operations are conducted to destroy, neutralize, or delay the enemy's military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces; the operations are conducted at such distances from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required.
(3) Close air support. CAS supports land forces by attacking an enemy close to friendly forces. Detailed integration always is required by the land and air forces employing CAS; thus, these missions can support the fire and maneuver of the Army. CAS influences the ground battle by delivering a range of weapons and massed firepower at decisive points. CAS also may be effective in rear operations. CAS missions are flown at the request of ground forces. However, the missions are controlled by the USAF through the tactical air control system (TACS). CAS must be responsive to maneuver forces. It may include preplanned and immediate sorties. A preplanned CAS mission may be scheduled 24 hours before a counterattack that requires the participation of the entire combined arms team. However, an immediate CAS mission may be required when enemy forces attack unexpectedly and the force ratio shifts dramatically. Immediate CAS may arrive as soon as an airborne flight can be diverted to the sector.
(a) CAS normally is flown near the FLOT. Because of exposure to enemy fire, CAS aircraft maneuver mostly over friendly territory and employ tactics that minimize their exposure. JSEAD greatly improves the success of a CAS mission. Without JSEAD support, fighter attrition may be unacceptable and preclude additional sorties to, and in, a particular sector.
(b) CAS targets normally are maneuver forces within close range of friendly forces. Lucrative CAS targets include moving armor, light-skinned vehicles, and personnel. However, static, camouflaged, and dug-in forces are difficult to visually acquire from an aircraft. The A-10 Thunderbolt and F-16 Fighting Falcon often are used as CAS aircraft. Their tight turning ability is essential to attacks and evasive maneuvers around the FLOT. Other Army, USAF, Navy, and Marine combat aircraft, both fixed- and rotary-wing, also can perform CAS.
(c) A special form of CAS is created when USAF CAS aircraft and Army aviation forces operate together to locate and attack enemy forces. This is a joint air attack team (JAAT). JAAT missions can be preplanned or immediate. A JAAT is most effective against high-priority, lucrative targets such as an armor force on the move. Artillery and SEAD support may be essential to a successful JAAT attack. FM 1-112 further describes JAAT operations, as does FM 90-21.
(4) Surveillance and reconnaissance. This mission is commonly referred to as "recce" in the Air Force. The mission provides the air and ground commanders with photographic and electronic information about the location, disposition, and actions of enemy forces. It also can assess the effectiveness of air and ground attacks by providing battle damage assessment (BDA) to determine target status and future operational requirements. The RF-4 performs tactical surveillance and reconnaissance.
(5) Theater airlift. Theater airlift provides mobility for ground forces; it can deliver combat troops and supplies. Specific missions include movement of combat, CS, and CSS assets between adjacent commands or areas of operation. Theater airlift also augments aeromedical evacuation, supports special operations, and delivers airborne combat troops. Theater airlift operations are conducted primarily with C-130 aircraft.
c. Command and Control.
(1) Joint force air component commander. The JFACC is responsible for the entire theater air battle. He must be able to mass his forces and conduct a variety of air operations. The ability to shift or mass forces calls for centralized control. In contrast, detailed mission planning and execution demand decentralized execution. The JFACC implements the principle of centralized control and decentralized execution using the management tool of the TACS. He directs air forces according to the JFC's broad plan of action and the threat.
(2) Apportionment and allocation.
(a) The JFC is responsible for air apportionment-the determination and assignment of the total expected air effort by percentage or priority that should be devoted to the various air operations or geographic areas for a given time. Apportionment is based on priorities established by the JFC during consultation with the subordinate commanders; thus, limited assets are optimally distributed to perform a variety of missions. Apportionment depends on the threat and mission objective. These missions can include but are not limited to:
- Strategic attack.
- Close air support.
- Maritime support.
(b) After consulting with other component commanders, the JFACC/JFC staff makes the air apportionment recommendation to the JFC. Once the JFC makes the apportionment decision, the air component commder (ACC) allocates the assets. Allocation is simply the conversion of the apportionment percentages into the number of sorties for each operation. This step includes specifying the sorties to strike approved targets and the sorties available for CAS.
(3) Theater air control system. The TACS and its senior control element, the air operations center (AOC), serve as the C2 system. Through this system, the ACC establishes and exercises control over his assigned forces.
(4) Air operations center.
(a) As the operational focal point of the TACS, the AOC allocates the JFC's apportionment of assets. The AOC determines the number of sorties by the type of aircraft available for each operation. Personnel at the AOC select-
- Weapon systems.
- Times on target.
- Force package composition.
- Associated details of air control arrangements.
(b) The AOC disseminates the airspace control plan (ACP), airspace control orders (ACOs), and air tasking orders (ATOs) to-
- The flying units.
- The air support operations centers (ASOCs) located at each corps headquarters.
- Other agencies of the TACS.
(c) A battlefield coordination detachment (BCD) coordinates planning (including target selection for air interception (AI) missions with the AOC).
(5) Battlefield coordination detachment. The BCD is an Army liaison provided by the ACC to the AOC and/or to the component designated by the JFC to plan, coordinate, and deconflict air operations. The BCD processes Army requests for air support, monitors and interprets the land battle situation for the AOC, and provides the necessary interface for exchange of current intelligence and operational data. It is a critical organization in theater for integrating deep operations beyond the fire support coordination line (FSCL) as well as advising the ACC of airspace control measures short of the FSCL. The BCD may or may not be TDA authorized.
(6) Air support agencies. Two TACS agencies, other than the AOC, provide responsive air support. These agencies are the ASOC and the TACP.
(a) Air support operations center. The ASOC plans, coordinates, and directs air operations in support of ground forces. It is collocated with the senior Army TOC, normally at corps. It provides fast reaction to immediate requests for air support.
(b) Tactical air control party. The TACP consists of USAF personnel experienced in airlift, reconnaissance, and fighter operations. TACPs are assigned at each Army echelon down to the battalion; the senior officer is designated the ALO. The ALO advises and assists the ground commander and requests and coordinates air support. The tactical air coordinator (airborne) assigned at each battalion or squadron controls CAS aircraft. Aviation brigades are normally not organized with organic TACPs; however, they often receive their assets for a specific mission or time. Aviation brigades often operate with air support assets and require TACP coordination and synchronization.
(7) Air support requests.
(a) Requests for air support are divided into two categories: preplanned and immediate. A preplanned request is a request for air support when time is available for detailed mission coordination and planning. These requests are forwarded through Army S-3 channels for final Army approval. These requests must be submitted 36 to 48 hours before time on target. An immediate request is a request for air support when there is no time for planning. Immediate requests for air support are forwarded through USAF channels on the high-frequency air request net from the TACP directly to the ASOC.
(b) In general, any Army level of command can request immediate air support. Any intervening Army headquarters in the request channel can approve the request (silence on the net for a specified time is considered approval), substitute another type of support (for example, FA), or disapprove the request. In all cases, the requesting agency must be notified if the request is denied. Only ground force commanders or designated representatives can cancel or disapprove air support requests. USAF elements can only advise, manage, and control.
4-4. ENGINEER SUPPORT
a. Brigade Engineer. When engineers support aviation assets, the commander of the engineer unit serves as the brigade engineer. He advises the commander on the use of the engineers and their equipment. The engineer estimates unit capabilities, materiel support requirements, and the time required to accomplish the mission. The brigade engineer is the commander's single point of contact for engineer support.
b. Functions. Engineer units can support the aviation brigade in various ways. These include mobility, countermobility, survivability, topographic, and infantry support.
(1) Mobility. Mobility support is primarily forward aviation combat engineering tasks such as clearing landing zones (LZs) and constructing assault air strips. Engineers may support aviation with countermine, counterobstacle, and gap-crossing tasks. However, aviation more likely will support these tasks during combined arms operations by providing smoke, suppressive direct fires, aerial observation for indirect fires, and troop transport to secure the far side while engineers conduct breaching operations.
(2) Countermobility. Countermobility support is conducting mine warfare and reinforcing obstacle tasks to enhance the effectiveness of engagement areas (EAs). Engineers emplace conventional mines as part of the tactical barrier plan or as a protective measure for static installations such as depots, maintenance and supply facilities, and airfields. Engineers also have ground-emplaced mine scattering systems. With the introduction of Air Volcano, aviation's UH-60 Black Hawks have a scatterable mine capability. Engineers can assist with training in emplacement and reporting requirements for Air Volcano. Reinforcing obstacles can include demolition of bridges and creation of road craters, construction of tank ditches and log cribs, and atomic demolition. Part of this mission is to delay the enemy and divert it into selected areas so that maximum combat power can be massed on enemy concentrations. These operations canalize the enemy into killing zones and degrade the enemy's ground mobility, increasing the enemy's time in the engagement area (EA).
(3) Survivability. Survivability is the development of protected positions. Survivability support can be used by aviation to protect command posts (CPs); helicopter parking areas; forward arming and refueling points (FARPs), and maintenance facilities from enemy observation and direct and indirect fires. Engineers may support aviation with deception operations by constructing decoys and dummy aviation facilities. FM 90-12 discusses base defense engineering operations.
(4) Topographic. Topographic support includes map production, map distribution, and terrain analysis tasks. Topographic engineers provide maps of the corps area. The corps has a terrain analysis platoon, which can provide various map overlays such as aerial obstacles and landing zones.
(5) Infantry. Infantry support is an action of last resort. For rear operations, the engineers may have an on-order mission to engage the enemy. The engineers will reorganize as light infantry in platoon- or company-size units for possible air assault operations. These engineers will require additional support such as antitank weapons, indirect fire support, medics, and aircraft support. However, using engineers as infantry stops all engineer work and eliminates their combat multiplier effect. FM 5-100 contains more detail on engineer operations.
4-5. AIR DEFENSE
a. Mission. The mission of US Army air defense artillery (ADA) is to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance. This threat includes all aircraft, indirect fire surface-launched missiles, aerial surveillance platforms, and theater missiles. The worldwide proliferation of advanced technologies makes UAVs, intercontinental ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and even satellites a portion of this ever-growing threat. ADA commanders allocate assets based on the supported commander's priorities. Commanders within aviation are faced with additional burdens. They may be conducting operations within airspace that is heavily congested with both threat and friendly aircraft. They also are in an environment of fire support and AD weapons of unprecedented quantity and lethality. Aviation commanders must have an in-depth knowledge of AD resources. FM 44-100 includes a more detailed discussion of these operations.
(1) Theater air defense. At theater level, the USAF and high- to medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) usually provide AD protection to the theater commander's assets and the theater as a whole. Resources include allied and USAF counterair aircraft and US Army Hawk and Patriot SAM units. Hawk is an Army National Guard (ARNG) roundout asset that would be activated as a roundout component. The availability of these resources depends on how critical the maneuver commander's battle is to the overall objective. For example, if one division's objective is considered pivotal to the battle, the theater commander most likely commits CAS and counterair resources to support that division. In this instance, a Hawk battalion can be used in the general support-reinforcing or reinforcing role. Within the division area, the degree of AD support to individual brigades depends on the criticality of their role in the overall division objective. Aviation employed in deep, close, or rear operations should be allocated AD support.
(2) Corps air defense. At corps level, the same principle of allocating AD resources applies as at theater level. Also, reductions in force structure dictate the availability and type of AD resources at individual corps. One corps may have two Avenger battalions and one Patriot battalion. Another corps may have two gun and Stinger battalions, one Chaparral roundout battalion, one Avenger roundout battalion, and one Patriot battalion. The availability of these resources at the corps provides AD leverage to the corps commander. He, in turn, can influence the battle at division level by committing available corps AD assets at the decisive time and place.
(3) Division air defense. At division level, the organic forward area air defense (FAAD) battalion provides AD protection. The maneuver brigades' fighting in close operations must be protected against threat attack helicopters and ground support fighters. Also, high-priority assets in the rear operations area require protection by limited AD resources. Thus, the division, the AD battalion, and maneuver brigade commanders must establish priorities and continually reevaluate defended assets. Aviation assets provide a high degree of mobility, flexibility, and firepower to the division. However, these assets are extremely vulnerable to air attack. The aviation commander must ensure that AD protection for his forces is adequate; also, he must ensure that AD elements are integrated into the AD plans for every area where the brigade will operate. Forces may maneuver out of their supporting ADs and into another unit's maneuver area because of the brigade's mobility. The brigade must coordinate with, and integrate, into the AD system and airspace management scheme of that unit. Overall coordination within the division area with the division's AD battalion commander (division AD officer) will ensure AD continuity.
(4) Unit air defense.
(a) At unit level, the final level of protection for the aviation brigade is passive AD. Passive AD measures are employed routinely and organic weapons are engaged against enemy aircraft. Passive measures reduce the probability of attack and limit damage in case of attack. These measures include-
- Terrain masking procedures.
- Maximum standoff ranges.
- Minimum exposure times.
- Cover, concealment, and camouflage.
(b) If the brigade is not discovered, the probability of being hit diminishes to near zero. If air attack cannot be avoided, the brigade's organic weaponry must be directed against the enemy for self-defense. Commanders should stress the importance of self-defense for maneuver units. FM 44-64, Annex C, contains detailed guidance on unit self-defense against air attack. FM 1-101 also is a useful reference.
b. Army Airspace Command and Control Link. The corps aviation brigade commander on the modern battlefield must coordinate the entry of aviation assets into the airspace. To limit the risk of engagement by friendly forces, the commander must fully use the existing command, control, and communications (C3) structure. He must also require his forces to adhere to directed control procedures. A strong link with the Army airspace command and control (A2C2) elements at the corps and division must be established and maintained. This link allows information that affects users of the theater airspace to be rapidly disseminated. The A2C2 element should provide all pertinent airspace information during planning, as well as coordinate with other users, to prevent conflict throughout the operation. FM 100-103 discusses A2C2 in more detail.
c. Identification Friend or Foe (Radar) Systems. IFF systems enable aviation commanders to reduce risk for aviation assets, but they are not the entire cure for fratricide. A combination of both positive and procedural control measures must be used. JP 3-56.1 states the JFACC, if appointed the airspace control authority (ACA), will develop, coordinate, and publish airspace control procedures and will operate the airspace control system in the joint operations area. This means that the procedures required in each theater will vary. This JP goes on to say that, in stability and support operations (SASO), all air missions, including both fixed- and rotary-wing of all components, must appear on the appropriate air tasking order (ATO) and/or flight plan. In some theaters and operations, a flight plan alone may meet this requirement while in others it would not. In addition, all aircraft must monitor a common frequency and operate on designated IFF modes and codes. In practice, forward area air defense (FAAD) units combine IFF and visual identification for engagement. Most high-to-medium air defense (HIMAD) units operating near the division rear area do not have this visual capability. Aircraft operating in that airspace will be interrogated and then evaluated against activated airspace control means. If the IFF system is inoperative or turned off, or the pilot is unaware of its proper use and codes, the aircraft may be at risk. Pre-approved procedural methods of identification must still be used by friendly AD assets to identify aircraft.
(1) Air defense and IFF use by aviation units. AD IFF systems, along with aviation IFF systems, are the primary means of identification. Commanders must ensure that IFF equipment in their aircraft is maintained and serviceable, and that aircrews are trained to use it. With or without the IFF system, aircraft still have to adhere to the procedures for identification outlined in the theater airspace control plan.
(2) Tactical IFF use. The airspace ACA directs the tactical use of IFF within a theater of operation. This authority applies to all airspace users, including Army aviation assets. For example, corps aviation assets, which have numerous missions, may fly within and throughout a division or corps area of operations. Supplementary doctrine is appropriate for brigade assets when they are involved in deep, close, and rear operations.
(a) Deep operations. When aviation assets are involved in deep operations beyond the fire support coordination line (FSCL), theater-specific procedures based primarily on the threat's capabilities will be performed. All theaters and operations will have published procedures for identification outlined in the theater if IFF OFF and ON lines are established.
(b) Close operations. In close operations, aviation assets must have Mode 4 turned on. Thus, friendly aircraft have maximum protection during most combat operations, especially at night or during adverse weather conditions.
(c) Rear operations. Aviation operations in the corps or division rear area also are conducted with IFF Mode 4 turned on.
4-6. INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT OPERATIONS
Aviation commanders and staffs obtain support to plan and execute operations from IEW support operations. In the aviation units, the IEW structure consists of the commanders, staffs, IEW support personnel, and other organic and supporting units. The aviation S2 and S3 coordinate IEW operations. They must ensure that the system is responsive to the commander's intelligence requirements (IRs) and priority intelligence requirements (PIRs). Well-defined IRs/PIRs provide a focus for collection of intelligence to support the unit's mission. IEW systems at battalion and brigade level collect information in one of three distinct military intelligence (MI) disciplines: HUMINT, signals intelligence (SIGINT), and imagery intelligence (IMINT). The IEW systems within each of these MI disciplines meet mission demands by providing three forms of IEW support: intelligence, EW, and counterintelligence. IEW are subsets of information operations. FM 100-6 describes these concepts in much greater detail.
a. Intelligence. Battle success depends on the force commander's ability to see the battlefield. Threat forces must be surprised and caught at a disadvantage as often as possible. Their strengths must be avoided and their weaknesses exploited. Thus, commanders must have clearly defined areas of operation (AOs); they also must understand the conditions in which they will fight and the nature, capabilities, and activities of the threat. Intelligence operations obtain reliable information about the enemy, weather, and terrain and provide it as quickly and completely as possible to the commander. A key system in this process is the all source analysis system (ASAS) located within the analysis and control element (ACE) supporting various G2 staffs. This system allows subordinate units access to a higher echelon intelligence data base. This intelligence can be accessed by landline, satellite communications (SATCOM), frequency modulated (FM) radio; it can provide the aviation commander with real-time intelligence updates.
(1) Intelligence preparation of the battlefield. IPB-a systematic and continuous approach for analyzing the enemy, weather, and terrain-is the principle tool the aviation S2 uses to predict probable courses of action. Through IPB, the S2 reduces battlefield uncertainties. The commander can then select the best course or courses of action. Table 4-1 (below) shows a few IPB products and their applications to aviation units.
Table 4-1. Products and applications of the IPB process
|PRODUCT (Combined Obstacles Overlay)||APPLICATION|
|Combined obstacles (wet/dry)||Friendly or enemy avenues of approach|
|Soil||Landing zone/drop zone (LZ/DZ) selection|
|Vegetation||NOE flight concealment|
|Line-of-sight (LOS) analysis||Electronic warefare (EW), communications, NOE routes, surveillance|
|Obstacles nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight||NOE routes, flight|
|Lines of communication||Main supply route (MSR) selection|
|Terrain-influenced wind overlays||All aviation operations nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) operations|
|Cloud coverage||Air avenues, acquisition|
|Fog/Smoke||Air avenues, fields of fire, radar capability, LOS|
|All aviation and ground operations|
|Infrared (IR) changeover||Forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR), navigation operations|
(2) Graphic products and decision support templates. The S2 section of the aviation unit also will provide graphic displays of doctrinal, situation, and event templates. These templates are tools used by the S2 to facilitate informed decisionmaking during the command estimate process. The S2 uses these tools to wargame the probable enemy courses of action, and, along with the unit commander and the S3, develop the decision support template (DST) and the battlefield operating system (BOS) synchronization matrix. IPB also produces a written product, the intelligence estimate. For obvious reasons, the DST is the most important graphic product; it translates the results of IPB, intelligence estimates, wargaming, and the operational plan into graphic form. With it, the commander can exploit assailable enemy flanks and select high-value targets for engagement. He also can interdict critical points to force the enemy to abandon a course of action.
(3) Collection management. Collection management by the S2 is the means by which IR/PIR not answered through IPB are satisfied by intelligence collection. Reconnaissance and surveillance planning must be thorough whether the aviation unit is employed in a covering force or occupying terrain as a combat team. The plan must be updated as the situation changes. Because of the great distance that may be influenced by aviation, the S2 must coordinate continuously with the G2 and the ACE in the division tactical operations center (DTOC) or corps tactical operations center (CTOC). Reconnaissance and surveillance assets ordered to monitor high-value targets within named areas of interest (NAIs) give the commander a time-phased picture of the battlefield. They also give him options for using critical assets in a timely manner. FM 34-1 contains detailed information on collection management.
b. Electronic Warfare. EW is an essential element of combat power. Its contribution lies in exploiting enemy weaknesses, protecting friendly freedom of action, and reducing security and communication vulnerabilities. Modern military forces depend on electronics for C2 of forces and employment of weapon systems. Friendly and enemy forces are vulnerable to actions that can reduce the effectiveness of their electronics. Properly applied EW can locate, identify, target, deceive, delay, disorganize, and destroy the enemy when integrated into the overall concept of the operation. FM 34-1, FM 34-7, and FM 34-10 provide detailed information on EW.
(1) Electronic support. ES involves actions to intercept, locate, and identify threat sources. ES provides combat information for the S2 to meet the commander's IR/PIR. The S2-following the commander's guidance-must establish priorities for ES orders and requests. He must continuously update ongoing ES operations, and anticipate future ES operations by tasking organic ES assets and coordinating with the IEW support element within the ACE.
(2) Electronic attack. EA involves actions taken to prevent or reduce the use of the electromagnetic spectrum by hostile forces. The aviation S3 has staff responsibility for overall planning and coordination of EW operations. He primarily directs the EA in jamming and deception roles. With the S2, FSO, and IEW support element, the S3 will establish priorities for targets. EA is directed against targets to degrade the enemy's ability to respond quickly and effectively.
(3) Electronic protection. EP involves actions taken to retain friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. The S3 coordinates with the signal officer to establish EP to protect friendly signal operations. Training in the correct employment of the signal emitters and emitter capabilities and design is necessary for successful EP. Equally important is training in the correct use of signal operation instructions (SOI), communications discipline, and proper radio and telephone operating procedures.
c. Counterintelligence. CI is that activity intended to detect, evaluate, counteract, and prevent hostile intelligence collection, espionage, subversion, sabotage, terrorism, or assassination conducted by, or on behalf of, any foreign power, organization, or person operating to the detriment of the US Army. It includes identifying the collection and analysis capabilities of hostile intelligence, determining friendly vulnerabilities posed by hostile intelligence capabilities, recommending measures to preserve friendly operations security (OPSEC), and evaluating the effectiveness of friendly OPSEC measures. CI operations achieve the objective of enhancing the overall security posture by supporting OPSEC, deception, and rear area operations. Although CI is predominantly a HUMINT asset, multi-discipline CI (MDCI) operations fuse intelligence from HUMINT, SIGINT, and IMINT sources.
4-7. JOINT INTELLIGENCE GATHERING ASSETS
a. Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System. JSTARS is a joint system designed to support ground operations. It consists of an E-8A/C airborne radar system designed to track threat ground targets. This intelligence gathering platform operates in a racetrack pattern behind the FLOT; it can track targets forward of the FLOT. The system also has a limited capability to track helicopter frames. Threat targeting data (target locations) sensed by JSTARS is down-linked to a ground-based computer terminal and displayed on a monitor. This type information is retrievable through the ASAS, or can be directly transmitted from the JSTARS to the aviation brigade ground station module (GSM).
b. Ground Station Module. The GSM is the corps, division, and brigade commander's gateway to the JSTARS platform. This system provides near real-time information for targeting, surveillance, and situational awareness. The GSM is tied into the Army's command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) network using secure data links. This system provides the maneuver commander a significant capability beyond the common targeting/tracking picture provided to all maneuver commanders. Sector searches can be requested directly from the maneuver brigade TOC to the JSTARS platform. A sector search is a more focused radar scan of a given area within the larger radar sweep. Sector searches can be executed by the JSTARS simultaneously in conjunction with the general area radar sweep.
c. U-2R. The U-2R is an Air Force high-altitude, reconnaissance aircraft whose mission is to conduct reconnaissance and provide aerial photographs and video downlink of specific areas/targets.
d. Airborne Warning and Control System. AWACS is an Air Force airborne C2 platform. The AWACS extends low-level radar and radio coverage beyond those attainable by ground elements and low-level operating aircraft. This platform can provide AD warning, aircraft control, navigational assistance, coordination of air rescue efforts, and airspace control functions. The AWACS may be used in operations of short duration that do not warrant the use of ground elements, or when the tactical, political, or geographic situation denies access to secure land areas.
4-8. CORPS AND DIVISION AERIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC ASSETS
a. MI Battalion (Aerial Exploitation) (Corps). The MI battalion (AE) provides the corps commander with his organic "deep look" system through aerial reconnaissance, surveillance, and SIGINT collection, analysis, and reporting. Looking deep into threat territory, the battalion finds and follows enemy forces through physical and electronic signatures. It uncovers critical targets inaccessible to corps ground-based systems. Through its aerial signal collection and surveillance operations, the MI battalion (AE) provides the commander with information critical for both close and deep operations. Battalion assets include: Aerial reconnaissance low (ARL); Guardrail for communications intelligence; and QuickLook for noncommunications intelligence.
(a) Capabilities. Guardrail provides collection and emitter location information on threat communications. It intercepts enemy very high frequency (VHF), ultra high frequency (UHF), and limited high frequency (HF) communications emitters. Guardrail also provides location information on HF and VHF emitters.
(b) Mission. Two or three aircraft normally are employed for each mission. These aircraft fly over friendly controlled areas in a standoff mode. The nature of the terrain, the anticipated location of target emitters, and the enemy AD threat dictate the distance behind the FLOT and altitude for each mission. Missions must be flown within range and LOS of target emitters. Also, aircraft must maintain LOS to each other. One aircraft must maintain LOS to the ground integrated processing facility.
(a) Capabilities. QuickLook is an electronic intelligence (ELINT) collection and emitter location system. It provides commanders with identification, location, and deployment of noncommunications emitters. QuickLook classifies and locates electronic emitters. A ground-based data collection and emitter location facility receives this information by digital data link.
(b) Mission. Like Guardrail missions, QuickLook missions are flown in a standoff mode. Distance from the FLOT depends on the mission, terrain, and AD threat. Mission time depends on flight speed, altitude, and the distance from the airfield to the flight track.
b. Aviation Brigade. Within the division and corps, SEMA assets provide the commander with rotary-wing IEW capabilities. SEMA assets of the aviation brigade are EH-60 (QuickFix) helicopters. QuickFix aircraft are organic to all US divisions and armored cavalry regiments.
(1) Capabilities. QuickFix can provide airborne communications intercept, direction-finding, and electronic countermeasures (ECM).
(2) Mission. Within the division, the MI battalion exercises OPCON over the QuickFix aircraft organic to the division aviation brigade. This system employs enhanced radio line of sight (LOS). This LOS provides the division G2 and G3 with an extended VHF-intercept and VHF-jamming capability that reaches beyond brigade areas of operations into the division's deep operations area. QuickFix aircraft support the division's overall SIGINT collection and electronic battlefield templating to prepare for combat.
4-9. ADDITIONAL INTELLIGENCE GATHERING ASSETS
a. Long-range surveillance unit/special operations forces. LRSU and SOF personnel operate well forward in the division and corps areas. LRSU and SOF operations consist of small teams conducting reconnaissance and surveillance operations. Aviation commanders must be prepared to exploit these intelligence gathering assets when the opportunity arises. Real-time intelligence from these sensors can be transmitted directly to Army aircraft.
b. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs are powered, aerial vehicles that do not carry human operators. UAVs use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a variety of payloads. UAVs can provide real-time intelligence (photos or live transmissions) that are accessible to aviation commands and staffs. These systems are particularly effective when used to augment deep operations. They can provide valuable information in hostile areas where the risk to a manned system might be too great.
4-10. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
Air traffic services (ATS) units offer a range of aviation combat support. ATS units provide services for US Army aviation, other US services, and allied forces. Commanders must integrate ATS employment into deep, close, and rear operations. FM 1-120 and FM 100-103 further describe ATS capabilities and coordination with A2C2 functions.
4-11. WEATHER SUPPORT
a. Support Requirements. Weather is critical to Army tactical operations. Its effects must be considered by every tactical unit during all operational phases: deployment, employment, maneuver, CS, and CSS. Continually changing atmospheric conditions make meteorological data highly perishable. Thus, weather observations and forecasts must be constantly monitored and updated so that they remain accurate and useful. Commanders must consider both favorable and unfavorable weather conditions to determine the best course of action for the mission. Aviation commanders and personnel-more than everyone else-depend on accurate weather data. Aviation can overcome the many drawbacks of terrain; however, weather influences the space in which aviation operates. Therefore, aviation requires direct weather support.
b. Weather Teams. The WETMs at all levels consist of a staff or an assistant staff weather officer and forecasters and observers. The teams provide 24-hour-a-day weather services.
(1) Aviation brigade. WETMs of the division and corps aviation brigade are configured with seven and eight personnel, respectively. The WETMs provide the aviation brigade TOC with weather support. Each team consists of an assistant staff weather officer, three enlisted forecasters, and three enlisted observers. Another officer will be added to the corps aviation brigade WETM to support the corps airfield. These personnel are to support corps aviation brigade operations and the facility that sustains fixed-wing assets of the corps command aviation battalion.
(2) Echelons above corps. EAC include those echelons within a theater. These echelons include joint, combined, and component commands. The Army component headquarters normally provides administrative and logistical support to USAF weather teams. However, an Army headquarters may be required for operational command between theater and corps. The size and organization of Army EAC vary with the theater. However, when employed, the headquarters requires weather support from the air weather service (AWS).
(a) An EAC WETM provides a staff weather officer on the commander's staff. It gives continuous (24-hour-a-day) forecasting support as well as continuous observation support at designated airfields.
(b) The EAC WETM serves as the center for weather support to a multicorps operation. Using centralized products from the AWS, the WETM prepares and tailors products (facsimile and teletypewriter) for the EAC commander and staff and subordinate commanders. Also, the team prepares finished weather products to support independent operations when these products are not immediately available from the AWS. These independent operations include those of the corps, division, separate brigade, and armored cavalry regiment (ACR).
(c) Subordinate to the EAC weather team are two Army airfield WETMs. These provide continuous observation and remote forecasting.
(3) Corps. The corps WETM operates in the CTOC area. The corps headquarters and headquarters company (HHC) supports the HHC. The team serves as the Army force tactical forecast unit (TFU) when no higher echelon TFU is employed. It also provides direct weather support to the G2 and to the two corps airfields. The corps WETM gives guidance and assistance to the subordinate weather teams at division, separate brigade, and ACR. This support includes weather products that are tailored yet detailed enough to support division, separate brigade, and ACR operations. The team also functions as a hub for collecting and exchanging weather data and observations from subordinate WETMs within the corps area. The team operates weather-dedicated Army equipment. Vehicles, generators, and communications equipment (except high frequency (HF) radio teletypewriter (RATT) equipment) are included. The team also maintains other common table of allowances (CTA) equipment such as tents and heaters. The team functions 24 hours a day. It can observe weather and provide forecasting support to a tactical CP for limited periods. The corps weather team has an staff weather officer (SWO) and personnel who perform forecasting and observing. The aviation brigade weather team has an assistant staff weather officer (ASWO) as well as forecasters and observers.
(4) Division. The division WETM coordinates with the DTOC. The team receives support from the division HHC. It provides direct weather support to the G2 at the division TOC and to the division aviation brigade. The division team collects weather data and observations. It exchanges them among subordinate brigade and battalion S2 assets, the corps WETM, or other higher echelon forecasting agencies. Forecasts made by the division WETM are distributed to lower echelons by the G2 through the intelligence communications network. Like the corps WETM, the division WETM operates the weather-dedicated Army equipment. The team has a 24-hour-a-day capability to observe and forecast weather; it can support a tactical CP for a limited time. The division weather team contains an SWO as well as forecasters and observers. The aviation brigade weather team has an ASWO along with forecasters and observers.
(5) Armored cavalry regiment and separate brigade. The HHT supports the ACR, which operates in the TOC area. Separate brigade WETMs are supported by the HHC and also operate in the TOC area. Each team provides continuous weather support to the ACR or separate brigade TOC. It also can provide limited direct forecasting support to subordinate units engaged in special operations. The team operates and maintains weather-dedicated Army equipment. The ACR and separate brigade weather teams both have SWOs as well as forecasters and observers. FM 34-81 discusses weather support operations in detail.
c. Weather Effects. Weather is an important factor in planning aviation operations. Commanders need to analyze weather forecasts and consider weather effects before employing assets. Table 4-2 (below) briefly describes how different weather conditions can affect aviation operations.
Table 4-2. Weather effects on aviation operations
|Is required for altitude accuracy.|
|Pressure profile||Affects terrain avoidance.|
cation electrical storm
|Is hazardous to in-flight, refueling, and arming operations.|
|Cloud cover and ceiling||Limit operations requiring aircraft clear of clouds.
May preclude landings or increase danger during takeoffs.
May preclude tactical air missions.
May preclude firing of Hellfire missiles.
|Pressure altitude||Affects engine performance.
Affects engine efficiency calculations.
|Dew point||Warns of possible fog formation or icing conditions.|
|Ice thickness||Affects selection of landing sites.|
|Icing||Affects aerodynamics aircraft (lift capability).
Can preclude aviation operations.
Can prevent aviation weapons system operations.
|Precipitation||Affects visibility and safety of flight.|
|Snow depth||Affects ground handling.
May preclude hover operations (powdery snow).
|Visibility||Affects landing and takeoff capabilities
Affects acquisition capabilities
Increases flight hazards (low visibilities)
Affects electro-optical target designation systems.
Affects terminally guided munitions.
|Surface winds||Affect aircraft control near the ground.
Affect landing and takeoff.
Affect ground speed for low-level flight
Affect start up and shut down.
|Winds aloft||Affect navigation
Affect ground speed at higher flight altitudes.
|Turbulence||Affects performance of reconnaissance and surveillance shear effect system.
May cause aircraft structural damage.
May affect aircraft control.
Can preclude aviation operations (severe turbulence).
|Refractive index||Affects radar, laser, and IR range-finding techniques.|
|Temperature||Reduces lift capability of aircraft (high temperatures).
Can increase maintenance requirements and increase time to perform maintenance (cold temperatures).
Can reduce number of personnel carried because of weight and bulk of protection gear (cold temperatures).
|Illumination||Affects some night vision devices.|
4-12. SIGNAL SUPPORT
a. Communication System. Commanders stress dispersion, mobility, and flexibility in employing tactical units. Unit commanders must have a continuous, flexible, and mobile communication system to support these operational concepts and to have the necessary C2. The corps and division area communication system achieves these aims. Within the division, the signal battalion establishes and operates the division area communication system for the division command echelons to provide communications to subordinate units. Communications are established to each brigade headquarters. Mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) communications support will be provided more on an area basis than on a habitual common-user basis. Within the division, communications also include tactical satellite, single-channel radios, Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS), and area messenger service. FM 11-50 explains division combat communications in detail.
b. Aviation Brigade Communications Capabilities. Communications within the division aviation brigade differ little from those within the corps aviation brigade. The aviation brigade depends heavily on single-channel voice radios because of the mobility of the units of the aviation brigade. Other types of communications used by the aviation brigade include multichannel systems, wire, messenger service, and heliborne C2 and SATCOM when available.
(1) Single-channel radio. FM and amplitude modulated (AM) single sideband (SSB) voice radios are types of single-channel radios organic to the aviation brigade. The aviation brigade may also receive tactical satellite systems. Single-channel radios are the chief means of communication below brigade level. They supplement the division multichannel system at brigade and above. Aviation units also have airborne ultra high frequency (UHF) and very high frequency (VHF) radios in their aircraft for internal C2.
(2) Area common user system. The ACUS network is built around area signal nodes and extension nodes. Area signal nodes serve a geographic area. Extension nodes are signal assets from the signal battalion that supports unit headquarters or CPs. Teams of signal personnel who control these nodes form a habitual relationship with the users, but receive all technical control from the area signal nodes.
(3) Wire. Wire communications are used mainly for the unit's internal communications network.
(4) Messenger service. Messenger service is provided by the corps/division G3. The aviation brigade may have to operate its own internal messenger service; it may also be tasked to support the division with aerial courier and messenger support.
(5) Heliborne command and control. In addition to ground signal support, the aviation brigade requires a heliborne C2 capability. Each brigade has one or more command aviation companies in it's command aviation battalion, general support battalion, or assault battalion to provide this support to the corps, division, and/or brigades.
(6) Mobile subscriber equipment. The MSE system is the backbone of corps and division communication systems. MSE is the common-user area communication system for all US Army corps and divisions. MSE integrates the functions of transmission, switching, control, communications security (COMSEC), and terminal equipment (voice and data) into one system. MSE provides the user with a telephone facsimile communication system extended by mobile radiotelephone and wire access. Users can communicate throughout the battlefield in either a mobile or a static situation. MSE can be described by five functional areas: Area coverage, wire subscriber access, mobile subscriber access, subscriber terminals, and system control.
(a) Figure 4-1 shows the MSE network as integrated within the corps and division force structures. The MSE system covers the corps rear boundary forward to the division maneuver battalion rear area. The corps MSE system typically covers an area of 37,500 square kilometers (kms) (15,000 square miles). Node centers (NCs) connect extension switches and radio access units (RAUs). Extension switches allow wire line terminal subscribers (telephone, facsimile, and data) to enter the communication system. RAUs allow mobile radiotelephone users to communicate with other systems. The system control centers allow current information to be entered into the network management system. The MSE system is a nodal-switched system extended by radiotelephone.
Figure 4-1. MSE network as integrated within the corps and division force structures
(b) The MSE architecture supports area common-user communications requirements on a dynamic and integrated battlefield at corps and division. Requirements include network survivability under damage and overload conditions and self-adjusting routing during both changing load patterns and location of subscribers (Figure 4-2).
Figure 4-2. MSE architecture in support of the corps or the division
(c) MSE has two major roles. First, it furnishes CP communications from brigade back to the corps rear area. Second, it furnishes mobile radiotelephone service for high-priority users forward into the maneuver area. MSE enhances CP movement; it provides continuous telephone service to users with mobile subscriber radiotelephones during movement. CP setup and teardown times are greatly reduced because wire and cable requirements are reduced. The RAU provides a communications link through other NCs when CPs relocate. The currently fielded communication system without MSE technology cannot respond to the fluid battlefield in today's threat environment; however, MSE will provide continuous and in-depth communications, particularly during force and CP movement.
(d) Figure 4-3 shows a typical MSE system deployed in a division. FM 11-50 describes the system in more detail.
(e) Eventually, the MSE is envisioned as the primary communications means for C2 support systems such as the manuever control system/PHOENIX (MCS/P). The MCS/P will provide automated support to maneuver commanders from corps through battalion. The purpose of MCS is to enhance and shorten the information acquisition portion of the decision-making cycle. Also, the MCS/P will improve the means of directing and synchronizing subordinate and supporting units and aid in selecting courses of action.
Figure 4-3. Typical MSE system deployed at division
4-13. MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT
a. Operations. Military police (MPs) perform MP missions critical to the success of the tactical comm ander's intent and concept of operation. MPs expedite movement of combat resources on MSRs leading into rear areas and patrol their area of operations to protect critical locations and facilities. They also evacuate enemy prisoners of war from forward areas and conduct law-and-order operations when directed to do so. FM 19-1 discusses MP operations in more detail.
b. Battlefield Missions. Military police have four battlefield missions: battlefield circulation control, area security, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) operations, and law-and-order operations. Each mission is composed of a number of operations. The operations can be done independently or combined to accomplish the missions. The specific operations MP units perform at a given time are determined by the tactical commander's need and the availability of MP resources. Because MP resources are limited, all assets are committed at all times.
(1) Battlefield circulation control. BCC, a main MP mission, helps move military traffic along the MSRs smoothly, quickly, and with little interference. For BCC, MP reroute traffic to meet changes in tactical situations, enforce MSR regulations, and reconnoiter primary and alternate MSRs. MPs control refugees and stragglers. As MPs perform these missions, they collect and report information on the friendly and enemy situations. They monitor road and traffic conditions; they also report on the status of key terrain influencing the military road network. All of these MP actions help the maneuver commander move his people and supplies where and when he needs them.
(2) Area security. MPs protect designated facilities, units, convoys, MSR critical points, and people from enemy activity in the rear area. They also conduct area reconnaissance to gather and document information about enemy activity in the rear area.
(a) MPs conduct rear operations to identify, intercept, and destroy small enemy forces before they can close on their objective. MPs normally are designated as a response against Level II threat attacks on bases and units that cannot defeat the enemy without assistance as described in paragraphs 3-17, 3-21, 3-25, and 3-35. MPs also respond to Level III threat forces. MPs determine the size and intent of Level III threat forces, delay and disrupt their progress as much as they can, and hand over the battle to a tactical combat force (TCF). MPs are ready to stay and help TCFs defeat the threat force.
(b) MPs perform area damage control operations to reduce the damage caused by hostile actions or natural and man-made disasters. They provide support that includes, but is not limited to BCC, refugee control, straggler control, NBC detecting and reporting, and some local physical security when required.
(3) Enemy prisoners of war. MP EPW operations control the flow of EPWs from their capture to their internment in prisoner-of-war camps. MPs in a division MP company operate division forward EPW collecting points in each brigade. They evacuate EPWs captured in the main battle area (MBA) from the division forward EPW collecting points and also operate the division central EPW collecting point. MP company members from the corps evacuate EPWs from division central EPW collecting points and operate the corps EPW holding area.
(4) Law and order. MP law-and-order operations, if needed, provide police services on the battlefield. These services include investigating criminal offenses, performing law enforcement operations, and confining US military prisoners. FM 19-1 describes MP support in more detail.
4-14. CHEMICAL SUPPORT
Chemical units reduce the effects of enemy nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons on combat operations. These units focus on smoke, NBC reconnaissance, and decontamination operations. The brigade chemical officer advises the commander on NBC defense procedures, the employment of smoke and flame, reconnaissance, and decontamination assets. As described in chapter 2, chemical units can provide NBC reconnaissance, equipment decontamination, and smoke support to the brigade. Chemical units provide hasty, and deliberate, smoke to supported units; conduct decontamination operations; and provide NBC reconnaissance support.
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