This chapter addresses the battle command responsibilities of the commander and staff. It discusses control of these elements as they relate to battle management and command systems necessary for the commander to execute successful operations. Battle command is a vital factor in executing the tenets of Army aviation operations doctrine. It also is vital in surviving and winning quickly on future battlefields or in stability and support operations (SASO).
SECTION I. General Principles And Responsibilities
2-1. CONCEPT OF BATTLE COMMAND
a. Battle command is the art of battle decisionmaking, leading, and motivating soldiers-and their organizations-into action to accomplish missions. It includes visualizing the current and future states of friendly and enemy forces. Then it includes formulating concepts of operations to accomplish the mission. It includes assigning missions; prioritizing and allocating resources; assessing and taking risks; selecting the critical time and place to act; and knowing how and when to make critical adjustments during the fight. Commanders must see, hear, and understand the needs of seniors and subordinates, and guide their organizations toward the desired end.
b. The concept of battle command incorporates three vital components-decisionmaking, leadership, and control. These components are discussed below.
(1) Decisionmaking is knowing if to decide, then when and what to decide. These are tactical, operational, and strategic judgments. To command is to anticipate the activities that will be put into motion once a decision is made. To command is to know how irretrievable some commitments will be once put into motion; to know the consequences of the act of deciding; and to anticipate the outcomes that can be expected from the implementation of a decision.
(2) Leadership is-
(a) Taking responsibility for decisions.
(b) Being loyal to subordinates.
(c) Inspiring and directing assigned forces and resources toward a purposeful end.
(d) Establishing a teamwork climate. The climate should engender success; demonstrate moral and physical courage in the face of adversity; and provide the vision that both focuses and anticipates the future course of events.
(3) Control is inherent in battle command. Control monitors the status of organizational effectiveness. It identifies deviations from set standards and corrects them. Control provides the means to regulate, synchronize, and monitor forces and functions. These tasks are performed through collection, fusion, assessment, and dissemination of information and data. Commanders control operations. Commanders lead from critical points on the battlefield, delegate authority, and synchronize aviation actions with other battlefield operations. Skilled staffs work within command intent to direct and control units. Skilled staffs resource allocations to support the desired end.
c. Reliable command communication systems are central to battle command. Effective battle command requires reliable signal support systems that enable the commander to conduct operations at varying operational tempos. Signal planning increases the commander's options by providing the requisite signal support systems. These systems pass critical information at decisive times; thus, they leverage and exploit tactical success and make future operations easier. Battle command communication systems provide the electronic architecture upon which situational awareness is built.
2-2. ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS
The commander uses the C2 organization in structuring his staff to meet mission requirements. The organization defines the relationship and authority of each staff section; it establishes the functional grouping of the sections. Figure 2-1 shows a sample aviation brigade staff structure. The structure consists of personal, coordinating, and special staffs. The functions of these personnel are discussed below as they pertain to the aviation brigade staff.
a. Aviation Brigade Commander. The brigade commander is responsible for command, control, and coordination of the aviation brigade. He must know how to fight the brigade. He alone is responsible for the outcome of his force's combat actions on the battlefield. The variety and impact of tasks confronting him are unique. Although he commands a brigade-level organization, his focus of employment often is at division level and higher. These tasks require cooperation of many people, integration of complex systems, and sensible division of work. The brigade commander is responsible for the C2 of organic, assigned, or attached aviation and nonaviation forces; these forces must be properly task-organized to accomplish all specified and implied tasks. He has to integrate the critical support provided by other friendly elements. His main concerns are to accomplish the mission and to ensure the welfare of his soldiers. The successful commander will delegate authority and foster an organizational climate of mutual trust, cooperation, and teamwork.
(1) The brigade commander is the force behind the tactical planning for the aviation brigade. He analyzes and defines the mission. He directs its execution. He issues mission-oriented orders. These orders are detailed only to the extent necessary for coordination within a broad scope. The commander acknowledges the professional competence and expertise of his subordinate commanders who have extensive latitude within his intent in how they execute their missions.
(2) All plans and orders are in concert with the senior commander's intent. Staffs and subordinate unit commanders must understand this intent. Thus, they can act appropriately when communications fail or local situations change. The brigade commander controls the ongoing battle. He provides guidance for planning future operations. He must position himself to best influence operations of subordinate units and maintain critical communications with higher, lower, and adjacent units. He normally is located in the main command post (CP) or-when the tactical CP is employed-with the tactical CP and essential staff elements.
(3) The aviation brigade's forces influence the spectrum of deep, close, and rear operations; therefore, the commander must see the battlefield from the same perspective as the higher commander. Tactical decisions constantly must be aimed at synchronizing his combat efforts with those of other force assets. The commander must know the enemy as well as he knows his own forces. His guidance should reflect the products of a detailed mission analysis supported by a thorough and current intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB).
(4) The brigade commander cannot win the battle alone but must rely on the brigade staff and subordinate commanders. They advise and assist in planning and supervising operations. The commander must understand his staff's capabilities and limitations. He must train them to execute operational concepts in his absence. He institutes cross-training among the staff; thus, the unit can still operate when combat losses occur. He also is responsible for safety and standardization during all conditions - peacetime or actual combat. He develops and directs a brigade safety and standardization program. His safety officer, standardization officer, subordinate commanders, and staffs assist him.
Figure 2-1. Typical aviation brigade staff structure
b. Executive Officer. The executive officer (XO) is the principal assistant to the commander and is second in command. The scope of the XO's duties are based on the desires of the commander. The commander must train the SO and allow him to assume command during training exercises so that he will be prepared to assume command in combat. He must be prepared to assume command in the absence of the commander at any time. In this capacity, the XO represents the commander and directs actions according to his policies.
(1) As staff coordinator and supervisor, the XO-
(a) Is responsible for the execution of staff tasks and the coordinated efforts of staff members.
(b) Ensures that the staff performs as a team; assigns definite responsibilities.
(c) Transmits the commander's decisions to the staff and to subordinate commanders, when applicable, in the name of the commander. Staff members can still deal directly with the commander. However, a staff officer is obligated to inform the XO of instructions or requirements received from the commander.
(d) Establishes liaison and liaison activities.
(e) Is responsible for the information program.
(f) Serves as the material readiness officer.
(2) During combat operations, the XO-
(a) Normally is positioned in the brigade main command post (CP).
(b) Coordinates combat support (CS) for the commander's plan; ensures that combat service support (CSS) is continuous; visits the brigade rear CP often to determine the status of CSS operations.
(c) Must remain current on the tactical situation and be prepared to assume command of close, deep, and/or rear operations on a moment's notice. His commander must train him and allow him to assume command during training exercises so that he will be prepared to assume command in combat.
(3) The XO-
(a) Formulates and announces staff operating policies.
(b) Ensures that the commander and staff are informed on matters affecting the command.
(c) Supervises the main CP and its operations.
c. Brigade Staff. The brigade staff consists of the officers and enlisted personnel who plan and supervise brigade tactical operations. The brigade staff synchronizes combat, CS and CSS operations. Thus, support is integrated according to the brigade commander's concept. Except in scope, the duties and responsibilities of the brigade staff are similar to those of higher echelon staff. Key personnel must be positioned on the battlefield where they can best carry out their duties.
(1) The SOP must clearly define the responsibilities of key personnel to preclude overlaps and ensure that all functions are supervised. SOPs streamline reports process by showing standard briefing formats and by identifying individuals in the chain who request, pass, and receive the information.
(2) The staff reduces the demands on the commander's time in various ways. It obtains and provides information, anticipates the situation, and makes recommendations. It also prepares plans and orders, supervises the execution of orders, and coordinates the operations.
(3) The staff members supply the aviation brigade commander with an accurate picture of the area of operations (AO). Delays in receiving or disseminating critical information affect the entire operation. The staff must identify key indicators and "push" for quick and accurate reports from both subordinate and higher headquarters. The staff must restrict requests for information to those people or agencies needed to accomplish the mission. Information flow-both horizontally and vertically-needs to be on a priority basis. Operational conditions dictate these priorities.
(4) The staff estimate may be informal at this level; however, it must address battlefield activity, project courses of action, and predict results. Careful IPB, selection of the most important enemy indicators, and development of contingency plans facilitate the estimates and allow for timely response. The key person in this process is the XO; he ensures that the staff maintains a forward-looking perspective.
(5) The aviation brigade must deal successfully with the C3 challenge. To do so, the commander must not be burdened with detailed, structured staff briefings. The XO must control the staff. He must ensure that discussions with the commander are open and frank, and that they follow a prioritized agenda list.
d. Personal Staff. Personal staff officers work under the immediate control of the commander. They assist him directly instead of working through the XO. They may perform some of their duties as personal staff officers; the remainder of their duties they may perform as special staff officers or members of a coordinating staff section. Members of the personal staff include those personnel authorized by the table(s) of organization and equipment (TOE) and table of distribution and allowances (TDA) as personal assistants to the commander; personnel the commander desires to supervise directly; and those personnel who, by regulation, have a special relationship to the commander.
(1) Command sergeant major (CSM). The brigade CSM is the senior noncommissioned officer (NCO) in the brigade. He acts in the name of the commander when dealing with other NCOs in the unit; he advises the commander concerning the enlisted ranks. Though not an administrator, he must understand the administrative, logistical, and operational functions of the unit to which he is assigned. Since he normally is the most experienced soldier in the unit, his attention should be focused on operations and training and on how well the commander's decisions and policies are being carried out. He is the senior enlisted trainer in the organization. He works closely with battalion commanders when coaching and training battalion CSMs and first sergeants. He maintains close contact with subordinate and attached unit NCOs. The CSM must be tactically and technically proficient in combat operations at brigade, battalion, and company levels. The CSM should act as the commander's representative in supervising aspects vital to an operation as determined by the commander and by himself. For example, he can lead the quartering party during a major movement or he can perform tasks such as monitoring casualty evacuation (CASEVAC). The CSM can also help in the CSS efforts during battle or move around the brigade AOs, as necessary, to monitor the performance and progress of the brigade personnel. Army Regulation (AR) 600-20, Training Circular (TC) 22-6, and Field Manual (FM) 101-5 describe more of the specific duties of the CSM.
(2) Chaplain. The brigade chaplain executes the religious support plan for the command. The brigade chaplain performs the following functions-
(a) Plans, recommends, and implements the commander's religious support plan.
(b) Facilitates soldiers' free exercise of their religious rights, beliefs, and practices.
(c) Performs appropriate religious services, rites, ordinances, sacraments, and ministrations.
(d) Performs and provides for first-level combat casualty ministry.
(e) Establishes coordination with civilian religious leaders and chaplains of other services as required or directed by the commander or appropriate staff officer.
(f) Monitors casualty data to ensure adequate religious support to critical areas on the battlefield and to coordinate unit ministry team (UMT) replacements as required.
(3) Safety officer. The safety officer advises the brigade commander on both aviation and ground safety matters. The safety officer-
(a) Develops and implements the brigade aviation and ground safety programs.
(b) Continuously monitors all brigade operations and evaluate them as they affect the overall safety program.
(c) Advises planners of critical safety issues associated with planned missions.
(d) Monitors and advises subordinate unit safety officers as required.
(4) Standardization officer. The standardization officer is the key advisor to the commander on matters pertaining to aircraft standardization, use, and training. The standardization officer-
(a) Develops, integrates, implements, monitors, and manages the aircrew training and standardization programs.
(b) Conducts the standardization and training interface between subordinate units and division, corps, installation, major Army command (MACOM), and Department of the Army (DA).
e. Coordinating Staff. Coordinating staff officers are the commander's principal staff assistants. They are directly responsible to the XO; however, the commander often consults them directly. These staff officers inform the XO of such exchanges with the commander. Each is concerned with one or a combination of the broad fields of interest. They assist the commander by coordinating the plans, activities, and operations of the command.
(1) Coordinating staff officers collectively assist the commander in executing his responsibilities; exceptions are those functional areas that the commander controls personally or that are reserved by regulation for specific staff officers. Each coordinating staff officer ensures that activities of special staff officers falling within his field of interest and responsibility are coordinated and integrated with operations.
(2) Coordinating staff officers often have a direct interest in areas that are the responsibility of another staff officer. For example, training is a primary staff responsibility of the operations officer; however, the intelligence officer and the logistics officer are directly concerned with training within their respective fields of interest. In such instances, staff responsibilities must be clearly defined to ensure coordination and to eliminate conflict. The XO, following the commander's guidance, assigns definite responsibilities to each staff officer concerned; he assigns primary responsibility to a single coordinating staff officer.
(a) Personnel officer (S1). The S1 normally operates from the brigade rear CP and is collocated with the S4. The S1 is responsible to the brigade commander for unit strength, personnel management, morale, discipline, and law and order. The S1 and S4 must cross-train so that they can conduct continuous operations. The S1 performs personnel functions outlined in FM 101-5 and TC 12-17. Although the S1 and S4 are normally located in the brigade rear CP, they continuously maintain liaison with the tactical operations center (TOC). If assets are available, an S1 representative and an S4 representative are collocated at the main CP to effect continuous liaison and coordination for current and future operations. This collocation will ease coordination of personnel and logistics requirements or effects of personnel and logistics on operational requirements. Normally, the senior in rank of the S1 and S4 officers is responsible for the brigade rear CP and the disposition, status, and operations of all aviation brigade units in the rear area.
(b) Intelligence officer (S2). The S2 monitors and contributes to the overall reconnaissance and surveillance effort. He also supervises the activities of attached intelligence assets. The S2 is responsible for the functions described in FM 34-1, FM 34-3, FM 34-60, FM 34-80, FM 34-130, and FM 101-5. An aviation brigade S2 may have to prepare, continuously update, and disseminate a "hazards to flight" map and provide in-flight intelligence. The S2 normally remains at the TOC where communications assets are available to-
- Coordinate surveillance and reconnaissance activities.
- Update the intelligence estimate.
- Maintain the enemy situation map.
- Provide current weather data.
- Evaluate and interpret enemy information.
(c) Operations officer (S3). The S3 is the commander's principal assistant for planning and coordinating brigade operations. The S3 monitors the battle, coordinates to ensure that essential CS and CSS assets are provided when and where required, and anticipates developing situations. The assistant S3, the tactical operations (TACOPS) officer, the S3 (Air), and chemical and signal officers normally work directly for the S3. The S3, assistant S3, TACOPS officer, and S3 (Air) must always be abreast of the situation. They must be responsive to directives from higher headquarters; they must also be aware of the needs of subordinate commanders and supporting organizations. The S3 normally is in the command group. He often positions himself in the TOC unless the tactical CP is employed. If aviation brigade activities are oriented in several directions, the S3 may be best suited at the TOC or he may assume individual control of part of the battlefield as directed by the commander. The S3 must coordinate continuously with other staff elements. FM 101-5 covers the responsibilities of the S3 in more detail. However, an aviation brigade S3 has unique responsibilities to-
- Routinely plan and coordinate combined arms, joint, and combined operations across the depth and width of the battlefield simultaneously.
- Direct A2C2 functions for the aviation brigade.
- Develop and coordinate the brigade's aircrew training program in lieu of an aviation brigade standardization officer.
- Monitor and advise subordinate unit standardization officers so that they maintain a high level of readiness in aviation training.
- Advise the brigade commander on the training posture of the brigade's aviation training program and on standardization.
- Develop brigade collective training plans and ensure habitual training relationships are fostered between subordinate units.
(d) Assistant S3. The assistant S3 normally is responsible for operations in the absence of the S3. He performs those tasks identified under the responsibilities of the S3.
(e) Tactical operations (TACOPS) officer. The TACOPS officer coordinates, prioritizes, plans, schedules, assigns, briefs, and monitors approved aircraft missions to subordinate units. He-
- Develops, implements, and manages the flying hour program.
- Supervises data entry into the Aviation Mission Planning System (AMPS) for dissemination down to subordinate units.
- Oversees functions of subordinate units' aviation life support equipment (ALSE), aviation survivability equipment (ASE), electronic warfare (EW), and flight records programs.
- Recommends battalion battle positions and ingress/egress routes as the EW officer.
- Advises the commander on aircraft mission planning, taskings, status of aircraft, ALSE, ASE, EW, and flight records.
- Conducts interface and continuity between subordinate units and higher head quarters for all aspects of aircraft mission coordination and taskings.
- Monitors current aviation tactical operations.
(f) S3 (Air). The S3 (Air) is the principal advisor in coordinating joint air support operations for the aviation brigade. He may also serve as the S3 (Plans) officer. Working directly for the S3, the S3 (Air)-
- Advises the commander on tactical deployment and employment of aircraft.
- Assists the S3 in preparing aviation portions of estimates, plans, orders, and reports.
- Forwards preplanned requests for tactical air support-such as close air support (CAS) and joint air attack team (JAAT) missions-to higher headquarters and immediate requests to the tactical air control party (TACP), tactical air coordinator (airborne) TAC(A), or corps air liaison officer (ALO).
- Assists the TACP (if available to the brigade) regarding orientation, security, and logistics.
- Supervise the brigade A2C2 element.
(g) Chemical officer (CHEMO). The CHEMO normally works under the direct supervision of the S3. The chemical officer-
- Advises the commander on defensive nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) operations.
- Coordinates with the S2 on developing the NBC IPB.
- Prepares NBC estimates, plans, and SOPs.
- Receives, collates, evaluates, prepares, and distributes NBC reports.
- Recommends mission-oriented protected posture (MOPP) levels based on MOPP analysis.
- Plans and coordinates NBC reconnaissance operations.
- Plans, coordinates, and monitors air and ground decontamination operations and chemical monitoring and radiological surveys.
- Maintains the radiation exposure status of subordinate and attached units and ensures statuses are passed to the S1 and flight surgeon.
- Advises the commander regarding smoke and flame operations.
- Conducts a nuclear and chemical vulnerability analysis.
- Coordinates with the S4 and flight surgeon on logistics requirements for NBC equipment.
- Exercises staff supervision over NBC training throughout the command.
- Participates as a member of the brigade's Army airspace command and control (A2C2) element.
(h) Liaison officers (LNOs). Most aviation brigades will be assigned three LNOs each with his own vehicle and driver. Their role is critical to the success of the brigade's mission. These officers represent the aviation brigade at higher, adjacent, or supported units based on the needs of the commander. They engage in direct mission planning, coordination, and execution and serve as the subject matter experts (SMEs) on the aviation brigade's capabilities, limitations, and employment.
(i) Logistics officer (S4). The S4 must understand the commander's intent and initiate timely actions to support that intent. The S4 usually collocates with the S1 in the brigade rear CP. The S4 monitors the tactical situation closely to begin resupply quickly. He designates two or three people from the section to help him operate the administrative and logistics center. He also provides the commander with information on all logistical matters. The S4 coordinates with subordinate S4s on the status of equipment and supplies and the ability of brigade rear operations to support their needs. He also coordinates the brigade rear elements, supports their missions, and directs their disposition on the battlefield. The S4, with the S1, operates the administrative and logistics communication net. The S4 will perform those logistics functions described in FM 101-5. In lieu of an aviation brigade maintenance officer, the S4 advises the brigade commander regarding aviation and ground maintenance and aircraft availability. The S4-
- Continuously monitors each subordinate unit's maintenance program and aircraft availability.
- Assists units with coordination of external support.
- Advises the commander on the maintenance posture of subordinate units.
- Establishes priorities for aviation and ground maintenance.
(j) Assistant S4. In the absence of the S4, the assistant S4 assumes the responsibility for brigade logistics; he performs those duties as directed by the S4. The duties may include sustainment and logistics operations or specific logistics functions such as Class III and V or maintenance.
(k) Aviation materiel officer (AMO). The AMO is the technical advisor to the commander for aircraft readiness, logistical support, maintenance policy and procedures, and force modernization. The AMO-
- Develops, integrates, implements, and monitors aviation maintenance operations and procedures.
- Conducts maintenance interface between subordinate units and division, corps, installation, MACOM, and DA.
f. Special Staff. Special staff officers assist the commander in professional, technical, and other functional areas. At brigade level, special staff officers are found either organic to the headquarters and headquarters (HHC) or attached to those units that support the brigade. Special staff officers who normally advise the brigade commander during combat operations are listed below along with a discussion of their functions.
(1) Army airspace command and control (A2C2) personnel. The brigade's A2C2 element focuses on airspace management and deconfliction. The brigade's A2C2 element is formed with the S3 (Air), air liaison officer (ALO), fire support officer (FSO), air defense (AD) liaison officer (LNO), air traffic services (ATS) LNOs, and CHEMO. FM 100-103 further addresses A2C2. The A2C2 cell-
(a) Identifies and resolves airspace conflicts.
(b) Develops and maintains airspace use and situation overlays or automated displays.
(c) Requests, maintains, and disseminates A2C2 measures or restrictions.
(d) Develops and coordinates the A2C2 annex to tactical operations plans.
(2) Signal officer.
(a) The brigade signal officer (BSO) is responsible to the brigade commander for the tactical application of the information mission area (IMA). The BSO's duties involve general and special staff functions. The BSO works under the direct supervision of the brigade XO on overall automation and communications issues that affect the command. The BSO coordinates all communications and automation with the brigade staff. The functions of the BSO are advisory, coordination, plans and orders, supervisory, liaison, and training.
(b) The BSO advises the brigade commander, staff, and all brigade units on tactical information management. This includes employment of signal troops, availability of communications facilities and their required augmentation, communications security (COMSEC), and how location of brigade CPs affects communications. This information may first pass through the S3 according to brigade SOP.
(c) The BSO is included in all staff coordinations/planning to present the communications aspects of tactical operations and automation resources.
(3) Headquarters (HQ) commandant. The HQ commandant is commander of the brigade HHC. He answers directly to the brigade XO. He is responsible for the training of assigned personnel; the maintenance of organic equipment; and the support, security, and movement of the brigade TOC and tactical CP and supporting elements according to the unit SOP.
(4) Fire support coordinator (FSCOORD). When fire support assets are provided, the commander of the direct support unit usually serves as the brigade FSCOORD. He is the brigade commander's primary fire support (FS) advisor. Because of his duties, this artillery commander cannot always be at the brigade headquarters. Therefore, he provides a full-time fire FS element. The fire support element (FSE) usually consists of a fire support officer (FSO), an FS sergeant, and two FS specialists. The FSO-
(a) Keeps higher and subordinate FSEs informed of the supported force's situation.
(b) Exchanges battlefield information-to include the positioning of FA with the supported force.
(c) Establishes, operates, and displaces the FSE.
(d) Recommends coordinating measures for force FS.
(e) Supervises the target acquisition effort of the FSE.
(f) Prepares and disseminates FS documents, records, and reports.
(g) Advises the supported commander and other FS representatives on enemy and friendly FS.
(h) Integrates FS in battle plans.
(i) Coordinates survey operations for maneuver forces so that a common grid location is rapidly established.
(j) Prepares and executes the force's FS plan.
(k) Monitors and initiates requests for FS and analyze targets for attack by FS.
(l) Makes recommendations concerning FS.
(m) Participates as a member of the A2C2 element.
(n) Supervises, trains, and evaluates his FSE and subordinate FSEs, as appropriate.
(o) Analyzes targets to determine which munitions to use.
(p) Ensures that communications for the FSE are adequate.
(5) Brigade engineer. When engineers are placed in direct support (DS) of the aviation brigade, the brigade receives an engineer liaison element. Normally, this element consists of a brigade engineer officer, an operations NCO, a combat construction foreman, and a vehicle driver. The brigade engineer-
(a) Prepares the obstacle and barrier plan.
(b) Provides engineer expertise for planning.
(c) Develops an estimate of critical engineer work load.
(d) Requests augmentation assets from the corps engineer.
(e) Coordinates engineer support for maneuver task forces (TFs).
(f) Serves as the engineer TF commander when two or more engineer companies operate in the brigade section.
(6) Staff weather officer (SWO). The theater, corps, or division SWO provides a DS team to the aviation brigade. The weather team consists of an Air Force SWO, weather forecasters, and observers. This team furnishes direct weather forecasts to the brigade. The team supports the brigade S2 for the IPB; it conducts weather briefings for aircrew mission planning.
(7) Flight surgeon. The flight surgeon advises and assists the commander so that he can conserve the fighting strength of the command to include preventive, curative, and restorative care and related services. The surgeon is normally located at the brigade clearing station within the brigade support area. He also-
(a) Recommends the medical status of aircrew members.
(b) Advises the commander on health services of the command and the occupied or friendly territory within the commander's areas of responsibility and interest.
(c) Advises the commander on the medical effects of the occupational and natural environments, and of NBC weapons on personnel, rations, and water.
(d) Determines requirements for the requisition, procurement, storage, maintenance, distribution, management, and documentation of medical, dental, optical, and veterinary equipment and supplies.
(e) Plans, coordinates, and integrates medical training in the command.
(f) Supervises activities of subordinate battalion surgeons, if assigned.
(g) Establishes/updates the medical sections of the command field SOP.
(h) Establishes/updates the medical portions of the Army airfield emergency preparedness plan.
(i) Performs other duties of a special staff officer as assigned by the brigade commander.
(8) Air liaison officer (ALO). The ALO is an Air Force officer who is a member of the TACP. The TACP usually consists of two ALOs-one major and one captain-and three enlisted terminal attack controllers (ETACs)-one technical sergeant and two sergeants. They operate from vehicles equipped with organic frequency modulation (FM), high frequency (HF), ultra high frequency (UHF), and very high frequency (VHF) radio systems. In the absence of an assigned TACP, the S3 (Air) performs the duties of the ALO. The ALO-
(a) Advises the commander and staff on the employment of air support including CAS, air interdiction, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), reconnaissance, airlift, and battle damage assessment (BDA).
(b) Operates on the US Air Force (USAF) air request net.
(c) Transmits immediate requests for CAS and reconnaissance support from the brigade headquarters.
(d) Coordinates air support requests and missions with staff elements.
(e) Supervises the TACP.
(f) Participates as a member of the A2C2 element.
(9) Military police (MP) platoon leader. The MP platoon leader acts as staff adviser on MP maneuver, CS, and CSS operations when the aviation brigade receives MP support. He directs the actions of the MP platoon in support of the brigade. The platoon leader normally will be located at the main CP to help the S3 integrate MP support into future operations planning. The MP platoon leader-
(a) Supervises battlefield circulation control operations: route reconnaissance and surveillance; main supply route (MSR) regulation enforcement; refugee and straggler control; and police intelligence, tactical and criminal, collecting, and reporting.
(b) Plans area security operations that will protect personnel, material, and facilities from enemy rear attacks.
(c) Monitors enemy prisoner of war (EPW) operations to ensure the humane treatment, accountability, evacuation, and internment of EPWs and civilian internees.
(d) Supervises law-and-order operations.
(e) Prepares the MP portion of estimates, plans, orders, and reports.
(10) Air defense (AD) coordination officer. The AD coordination officer is the single point of contact (POC) for AD for the brigade commander. The air defense artillery (ADA) element normally remains at the TOC to coordinate between the aviation brigade and AD units. In addition to the AD coordination officer, the ADA element consists of an assistant ADA/airspace officer and an NCO section chief. The ADA element-
(a) Coordinates vertically and horizontally with AD units for integration of coverage.
(b) Provides expertise on AD employment and tactics.
(c) Advises on active and passive AD measures.
(d) Gives guidance on using non-AD weapons for AD.
(e) Prepares the AD portion of estimates, plans, orders, and reports.
(f) Provides information regarding AD unit dispositions and missions, the weapons control status, and early warning of threat air attack.
(g) Functions as part of the A2C2 element.
(11) Intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) support officer. The IEW support officer is the chief of the intelligence and IEW support element provided to the brigade from the military intelligence (MI) battalion. The IEW support element performs liaison between the brigade and the MI battalion. The IEW support officer-
(a) Advises the brigade S2 and S3 on the capabilities, limitations, and employment of MI assets.
(b) Assists the brigade S2 in planning the use of MI assets and in preparing mission requirements.
(c) Coordinates with the supporting MI elements or the IEW company team commander to ensure rapid responses to requirements.
(d) Ensures rapid dissemination of combat information from MI elements directly to the brigade S2.
(e) Ensures that deployed DS MI elements are advised of friendly force maneuvers that directly affect their security.
(12) Air traffic services (ATS) representative. Normally, the ATS LNOs are provided from the ATS battalion. The ATS LNO performs liaison between the brigade and the ATS battalion. The ATS LNO-
(a) Serves as the integrator within the A2C2 element.
(b) Advises the brigade S3 of available ATS assets.
(c) Advises the brigade S3 on the limitations, capabilities, and optimum employment of ATS facilities.
(d) Coordinates with other members of the A2C2 element, brigade staff, and adjacent ATS facilities.
SECTION II. Facilities and Operations
2-3. COMMAND AND CONTROL FACILITIES
a. The aviation brigade commander organizes his staff sections so that they can acquire and analyze critical information, and determine and direct actions required for C2. He also organizes his C2 facilities to enhance C2.
(1) The primary C2 facilities are the command posts-main, tactical, and rear. Command posts throughout the brigade serve the C2 needs of the commander and staff in deep, close, and rear operations.
(2) The dynamics of the battlefield require the highest level of organizational and operational efficiency within CPs at all echelons. Automated and manual information systems minimize the time required for administrative and operational processing of information. They accurately depict the tactical situation; preclude data from having to be verified; and make information immediately available to the commander and staff members.
(3) As more digitized C2 systems are fielded throughout the Army, our C2 nets and procedures will change drastically to support the commander. The proliferation of modern systems that allow him to maintain constant situational awareness and communicate with all his forces when on the move will reduce the commander's reliance on multiple CPs to conduct operations. Other C2 facilities may include forward arming and refueling points (FARPs), AAs, and support areas.
b. CPs and their supporting automation and communication systems are high-priority targets. They present radio-frequency, thermal, acoustic, visual, and moving-target signatures that are fairly easy to detect. They will be disrupted or exploited by electronic means, if not destroyed, unless measures are taken to make then less vulnerable. These measures should include-
(1) Maintaining local security.
(2) Locating them on reverse slopes to deny enemy direct and indirect fire effects.
(3) Locating them in urban areas to harden and reduce infrared or visual signatures.
(4) Remotely locating and dispersing antennas.
(5) Dispersing CP subelements.
(6) Displacing them often.
(7) Using low probability of interception (LPI) techniques, such as frequency hopping radios and landlines, when applicable.
(8) Communications security.
c. In most cases, survivability requires that techniques be combined. These measures must also be balanced against retaining effectiveness. Frequent displacement might reduce the vulnerability of a CP; however, such movement may then greatly degrade its C2 functions.
d. The brigade commander organizes his headquarters and staff to control, sustain, and support his forces. Normally, the aviation brigade will have a main CP (para 2-4 below) and a rear CP. A tactical CP (para 2-5 below) will be established, when required, to control a key operation. A UH-60 Black Hawk, equipped with a C2 system, can meet the TAC requirement when increased mobility is required. The brigade main CP will be positioned to command, control, and communicate with its forces. The aviation brigade commander may position his C2 facilities like those in Figure 2-2. The network will be modified to meet the situation. Brigade units under the control of other headquarters will position their elements to provide C2 and to allow sustainment and communications. Figures 2-3 and 2-4 reflect typical dispositions of a corps aviation brigade and an echelon above Corps (EAC) aviation brigade.
2-4. MAIN COMMAND POST
a. The main CP coordinates, directs, and controls current operations and tactical planning for future operations. It collects and disseminates reports and produces plans and orders and intelligence products. The main CP consists of the TOC, logistics support elements, maintenance facilities, and associated CS assets such as communications facilities. An example of a main CP configuration is at Figure 2-5.
b. Most of the brigade staff operate from the main CP. The staff includes the S2, S3, FSO, and ALO or their representatives; TACP, if attached; and personnel of the signal platoon. Other representatives can be included such as engineer, AD, or intelligence personnel and the USAF weather team.
c. Personnel in the main CP operate from the TOC and monitor operations on a 24-hour basis. They maintain communications with their subordinate, higher, and adjacent units. They also maintain maps and records and receive and disseminate reports as required. TOC personnel are continuously planning ahead and providing information and assistance to the commander and his subordinate commanders. They must be responsive to requests and have a sense of urgency at all times.
d. The TOC must be prepared to assume total control of the current operation during the displacement of the tactical CP. Among other functions, TOC personnel-
(1) Maintain situational awareness.
(2) Validate and evaluate intelligence of interest to the commander.
(3) Control combat, CS, and CSS forces.
(4) Control all immediate fire support to include tactical air support for units under aviation brigade C2.
(5) Coordinate airspace C2 and AD operations.
(6) Receive, evaluate, and process tactical information from subordinate units and higher headquarters.
(7) Relay instructions to subordinate units.
(8) Coordinate combat, CS, and CSS requirements.
(9) Coordinate terrain management for all aviation brigade C2 facilities.
(10) Keep abreast of CS and CSS capabilities and status.
(11) Submit reports to higher headquarters.
(12) Graphically depict friendly and enemy situations.
(13) Make a continuous estimate of the situation.
(14) Make recommendations to the commander.
(15) Prepare and issue fragmentary orders (FRAGOs), operation orders (OPORDs), operational plans (OPLANs), intelligence summaries (INTSUMs), intelligence reports (INTREPs), and situation reports (SITREPs).
(16) Maintain communications.
Figure 2-2. Typical disposition of a division aviation brigade and support assets (AVIM and DASB)
Figure 2-3. Typical disposition of a corps aviation brigade
Figure 2-4. Typical disposition of an EAC aviation brigade
Figure 2-5. Example of main CP
e. Several factors involving both friendly and enemy forces have immediate operational impact. Those that must be monitored by the TOC and communicated to the commander are listed below.
(1) Friendly factors include the-
(a) Changes in the mission or status of the battalion/separate company or higher, subordinate, and adjacent units or the current task organization.
(b) Changes in the status of supporting fires or tactical air priority.
(c) Loss of unit combat effectiveness of a company-size or larger force, imcluding DS or attached units-maneuver, CS, or CSS.
(d) Strength, location, and activity of operational forces down to battalion and separate company level including DS and attached units-maneuver, CS, and CSS.
(e) Status of major organic items significantly affecting combat power.
(f) Class III and V status of adjacent and subordinate units.
(g) Status of friendly or enemy obstacles and contaminated areas.
(h) Employment of smoke by friendly forces.
(i) Employment of nuclear weapons by friendly forces.
(j) Status of the commander's critical information requirements (CCIR).
(2) Enemy factors include-
(a) Contact with or withdrawal of company-size or larger units.
(b) Changes in the location or sighting of company-size or larger units.
(c) Employment of NBC weapons.
(d) Employment of smoke by threat forces.
(e) Appearance of nuclear weapons.
(f) Knowledge of the current location of all ADs.
(g) Location, strength, identification, and activity of units in contact and capability of enemy units to reinforce and support.
(h) Significant changes in enemy logistical capabilities.
f. Operational functions of the TOC should be standardized in the SOP; all personnel should be familiar with them. All of the areas in the TOC should be arranged in a similar manner. This similarity helps when moving about the area during darkness. Some information must be common knowledge. Such information includes generator service schedules, COMSEC changeover times, the order of march for movement, who performs security functions, or what is required when the TOC shelter is erected or wire is laid. Functions include methods of-
(1) Maintaining maps and graphics.
(2) Passing messages.
(3) Receiving and rendering reports.
(4) Servicing generators.
(5) Erecting extensions and camouflage nets.
(6) Maintaining C4I devices.
(7) Maintaining journals
g. The S3 organizes his section to meet the requirements of the situation. In a tactical situation, S2 and S3 activities intermingle. Therefore, the S3, coordinating with the S2, organizes the S2-S3 operations portion of the main CP. This S2-S3 operation is continuous, provides a capability for displacement, and - when required - operates a jump, or temporary, TOC. However, the tactical operations center should be standardized as described for the tactical CP.
h. Considerations for the location of the TOC are discussed below.
(1) The S3 selects the general location of the TOC based on METT-T. The most important consideration for selecting a TOC site is good communications with higher, subordinate, and adjacent headquarters. Accessibility to road networks, cover, concealment, and drainage are other considerations. The S3-coordinating with the HHC commandant and signal officer-normally selects the TOC location. Several alternate TOC sites should be selected and, when possible, reconnoitered.
(2) During offensive operations, the TOC should be well forward. In fast-moving operations, the TOC may have to operate on the move. Staff coordination and communications are degraded when the TOC is moving; thus, both the TOC and the units it controls must train to operate in this mode.
(3) During defend and delay operations, the TOC should be located farther to the rear to minimize its vulnerability. The exact location will depend on the terrain, the road network, and the ability to communicate.
(4) When possible, the TOC should be located in built-up areas. Barns, garages, and warehouses minimize the need for detailed camouflage; basements offer protection from enemy fires. Covering windows and operating in basements enhance noise and light discipline. Built-up areas also reduce infrared and electromagnetic signatures; therefore, the TOC does not have to move as often.
(5) When built-up areas cannot be used, the TOC should be located on reverse slopes of terrain features. This terrain provides cover and concealment from both ground and air observation and fires. The ground must be firm enough to support vehicle traffic, provide adequate drainage, and allow space for vehicle dispersement.
(6) The TOC should be located near routes with relatively easy access to the area as well as to higher and subordinate headquarters and rear areas. Prominent terrain features or major road junctions should be avoided; thus, the enemy cannot easily determine the TOC location.
(7) When required to move with tactical operations, the TOC may displace as a whole or by echelon. The method selected depends on METT-T, the distance to be moved, and communications requirements. Movement somewhat degrades the capability of the TOC; however, the brigade and subordinate command nets are to be maintained. All movement plans are designed with this requirement in mind.
(8) Before the TOC displaces, the brigade S3 establishes the general area for the new TOC. The HHC commandant, XO, and S3 or assistant S3-along with the signal officer-conduct detailed reconnaissance. An NBC reconnaissance team also normally accompanies the advance party. The party identifies possible routes and sites with cover and concealment. These locations must provide effective communications and accommodate all vehicles and equipment. Several possible sites must be identified, reconnoitered, and planned to provide flexibility during combat operations.
(9) Sketch maps are made; these show the exact element sitting within the new CP location. The TOC places a net call to inform subordinate headquarters of the impending move and to shift reporting and coordinating functions to the tactical CP during the displacement (digital connectivity between higher and subordinate units may negate this requirement). Breakdown and march orders of TOC elements then take effect as prescribed in the SOP. A displacement team-which consists of the brigade XO, signal officer, assistant S3, and selected section guides-departs for the new site to finalize occupation plans and to aid in the reception of the TOC main body as the advance party. The main CP normally displaces in two echelons. The TOC, accompanied by support elements led by the HHC commandant, has priority on routes. When the HHC commandant and the TOC elements occupy the new location, the main CP support element-led by the command sergeant major-displaces. During displacement, TOC elements should continue to monitor the battle and update situation maps and information displays. These tasks reduce the time required to become operational again.
(10) A TOC is a major source of electromagnetic and infrared energy. If the TOC is not moved often, the enemy can fix its location and place indirect fire or close air support (CAS) on it. The larger and more elaborate the establishment, the less rapidly the TOC will be able to move. The TOC should travel light and move often. However, over time, too frequent movement hinders TOC operations.
(11) The brigade TOC will be one of the most lucrative targets for the enemy. The first line of security for the TOC is to prevent the compromise of its location through operational security (OPSEC) and communications security measures.
(12) The HHC commandant is responsible for the defense of the TOC. He should first establish a perimeter defense around the TOC at a distance of about 50 to 100 meters. On order, the perimeter would then be occupied by TOC and support personnel. The perimeter may includes fighting positions, obstacles, and protective wire barriers. During operations, the sleep area should be organized so that personnel sleep near their positions on the perimeter.
(13) Because of the TOC's austere personnel structure, its security is achieved mainly through passive measures. Passive measures include proper cover and concealment, and adherence to OPSEC measures. Active measures include having selected HHC and attached personnel available to secure primary entrances and exits and to conduct surveillance of likely avenues of approach. Other measures include activating reaction forces upon an identified incursion. Reaction plans are rehearsed and executed upon a predetermined alarm and rally point from which these reaction forces may be directed to counter the threat. All personnel should also be given a detailed briefing of their security duties. A high degree of security must be maintained, even during displacement, and security measures refined afterward. The TOC security element generally-
(a) Establishes initial security.
(b) Positions crew-served weapons and vehicles.
(c) Positions remaining personnel.
(d) Clears fields of fire.
(e) Establishes a wire communication system with subordinate and adjacent units, as applicable, and mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) communications with higher. If available, MSE communications will be established with subordinate units as well.
(f) Emplaces obstacles.
(g) Prepares fighting positions.
(h) Prepares alternate and supplementary positions.
(i) Selects and prepares routes for supply and evacuation.
(14) Units normally conduct a daily stand-to. The purpose of stand-to is to establish and maintain a combat-ready posture for combat operations. Stand-to includes all steps and measures necessary to ensure maximum effectiveness of personnel, weapons, vehicles, aircraft, communications, and NBC equipment. Units will assume a posture during stand-to that enables them to commence combat operations on short notice. However, aviation unit operations may dictate that stand-to functions not be performed as described; however, security cannot be neglected.
(15) In defending the TOC, all personnel must know the locations of their positions. They must ensure that the positions are well prepared and are mutually supporting. The alarm to occupy fighting positions should be identified and announced. Occupation of these positions should be practiced at least once after personnel occupy a TOC site and practiced routinely according to the unit SOP.
(16) NBC alarms must be posted. Appendix C of this manual addresses NBC planning in detail.
2-5. TACTICAL COMMAND POST
a. The commander and the S3, or the assistant S3, normally establish the tactical CP. This CP is temporary and staffed with the minimum personnel necessary to conduct current operations and perform limited tactical planning procedures. The brigade tactical CP is the forward echelon of the brigade headquarters.
b. The tactical CP must be staffed to operate for extended periods. According to METT-T, the commander designates personnel to operate the tactical CP. These personnel may include the commander, S3, TACOPS officer, assistant S3, FSO (or representative), S2 (or representative), and ALO. The tactical CP is tailored to the situation; it is configured based on available vehicles, C2 aircraft, and other assets. The S3 is responsible for staff coordination and functioning of the tactical CP. The C2 aircraft can provide the commander with a TAC CP as operational time (OPTEMPO) demands.
c. If the tactical CP is located close to the battle, the commander can establish face-to-face contact with subordinate, adjacent, and higher commanders. The tactical CP is limited in size, manning, and electronic capabilities. It can be displaced rapidly and often, depending on METT-T. A tactical CP should normally be smaller than a battalion TOC.
d. The commander conducts the current operation from the tactical CP, assisted by a small staff, which provides combat-critical information only. The tactical CP staff also-
(1) Controls combat, CS, and CSS forces.
(2) Acquires, develops, and disseminates combat intelligence of immediate interest to the commander.
(3) Provides priorities and planning guidance for CS and CSS to the brigade XO, located in the TOC.
(4) Provides routine reports and limited planning when the TOC is being displaced.
(5) Maintains communications with higher headquarters and supported ground units.
(6) Issues mission changes-OPORDs or FRAGOs.
e. The brigade HHC commandant provides support for the tactical CP. He normally makes two trips to the tactical CP daily-possibly coinciding with delivery of hot breakfast and supper meals-to bring water, fuel, maintenance support, and supplies.
f. Because of the frequency and rapidity of displacement required, the primary means of communication used at the tactical CP is frequency modulated (FM)-secure. Communications from the tactical CP normally will be FM, ampliture modulated (AM), or improved high frequency (HF) radio, or may also include MSE. Operational radio nets are-
(1) The higher echelon command net.
(2) The brigade command net.
(3) The higher echelon operations and intelligence (O&I) net.
(4) The brigade O&I net.
(5) The USAF coordination nets-FM, HF, ultra high frequency (UHF), and very high frequency (VHF).
g. Proper radio and telephone procedures must be strictly enforced so that important, time-sensitive information can reach the brigade commander. Normally, only commanders, XOs, and S3s communicate on the command net. All routine reports are sent through the operations and intelligence net. The tactical CP must be situated to ensure continuous communications with the higher echelon tactical CP, brigade main CP, and subordinate or supporting TOCs.
h. When the commander and the S3 are away from the tactical CP, the tactical CP staff monitors the current operation. Tactical CP personnel update all maps and reports. When the command group returns, it can then receive an accurate portrayal of the brigade situation. Tactical CPs are especially useful during operations such as deep attacks or passage of lines.
i. The brigade tactical CP normally deploys with aircraft provided by the command aviation company or by vehicles supporting the main CP. A built-up area requires less organic equipment and fewer personnel. It also allows tactical CPs to be more rapidly displaced. When deployed in a field site, a tactical CP requires more concealment such as the use of camouflage nets. Tactical CPs are normally austere. They are established based on METT-T and assigned equipment. Standardized formats and procedures for tactical CP establishment expedite the C3 of the brigade. When possible, the tactical CP will be located within a built-up area so that it can-
(1) Reduce infrared and visual signatures.
(2) Harden the CP location.
(3) Provide hasty living accommodations for assigned personnel.
(4) Provide work space for tactical activities.
j. A UH-60 Black Hawk, equipped with a C2 console, or the more advanced A2C2S should be considered as a TAC CP for operations requiring increased mobility and flexibility. The A2C2S is a UH-60, with a console of common networked computers, combat net radios (CNRs), HAVEQUICK UHF radios, satellite communications (SATCOM), HF radios, and a large digital map display on a flat panel screen. It will provide real-time situational awareness and mission planning capability to maneuver commanders at all levels in a highly mobile command and control platform.
k. Displacement of CPs must be planned to ensure continuous information flow and C2 of brigade operations. Having a tactical CP and a TOC enables the brigade to displace CPs and to maintain control of the current operation. How often CPs and associated elements are displaced depends mostly on the enemy's ability to locate and attack CPs by fire or EW and on the need to maintain communications.
l. Because of certain battlefield conditions, the tactical CP may have to move often. Control is usually passed to the main CP during the move; however, the tactical CP should be able to operate on the move. The tactical CP may displace when the command group is deployed forward. During defensive operations, the commander can take key staff assistants with him in ground or air transport and move to the main CP to control the battle until the tactical CP is ready to resume control.
2-6. TACTICAL OPERATIONS CENTER OPERATIONS
An efficient TOC operation is developed only by a well-trained staff and commander. Extensive training in simulated field environments will create the technical expertise and staff cohesion that will enable the brigade to operate effectively on today's dynamic battlefield. The organization and function of CPs have two key dimensions. First is the internal flow of information and staff coordination; thus, the commander will receive timely information and recommendations. Second is the external flow of information and command decisions among the CPs at all levels. Information and command decisions must be passed at once to CPs within the command as well as to higher and adjacent commands.
a. Continuous Operations. FM 22-9 contains a detailed discussion on continuous operations.
(1) Human fatigue probably degrades performance the most. Performance and efficiency begin to deteriorate after 14 to 18 hours of continuous work; they reach a low point after 22 to 24 hours. Performance improves somewhat during the next 8 to 10 hours. Then it begins to decrease again. For most tasks involving perceptual skills, an individual's performance is degraded after 36 to 48 hours. Effectiveness ceases after 72 hours of continuous duty. An NBC environment also degrades performance. Appendix C and paragraph (2) below further describe this information.
(2) The commander must be able to recognize the signs of sleep loss or performance degradation. Noticeable effects are-
- Errors of omission.
- Lapses of attention.
- Erratic performance.
- Slower reaction time.
- Short-term memory impairment.
- Impairment in learning speed.
- Increased time to perform a known task.
(3) Periodic breaks and mild exercise can counter the effects of sleep loss for staff personnel. Among combat crews, commanders may rotate tasks if the crews are cross-trained.
(4) Schedules enhance personnel performance by allowing breaks for rest. The example of a TOC schedule at Table 2-1 is simple. It represents one method that may be used. Personnel become accustomed to working with one another. When this shift schedule is used, shifts should overlap at least 30 minutes to allow the personnel going off duty to brief the incoming shift personnel. If a unit has a daily staff update meeting scheduled, this meeting may be the best time to change from one shift to another. Thus, the new crew can begin its shift fully briefed. At the next change of shift, another briefing is conducted for TOC personnel only. A new shift must always be briefed before its shift begins. This schedule also eases feeding operations because it allows standardized hours to be set.
Table 2-1. Example of a TOC Schedule
|A Shift2||B Shift|
|Op Rep||Assistant S3
Asst Op Sgt
Sr Intel Analyst
|Cml Rep||Cml Off||Cml NCO|
|Clerk-Typist||Clerk-Typist S3||Flt Op Spec|
|Intel RTO||Intel Analyst||Intel Analyst|
|Vehicle/Gen Op||S3 Driver||S2 Driver|
|FS Rep5||FSO||FS NCO or Spec|
|Engr Rep5||Bde Engr||Op Sgt|
|AD Rep5||AD LNO||AD LO Sgt|
1Liaison teams will augment as available.
2Assistant S3 is A shift officer in charge.
3S3 (Air) is B shift officer in charge.
4Shift TOC noncommissioned officer in charge.
b. Performance Degradation in an NBC Environment. C2 may suffer greatly in an NBC environment because of leader exhaustion. Leaders must pace themselves, delegate, and observe a strict work-rest regimen. Forced liquid intake-especially under NBC conditions-minimizes dehydration, stress, and poor performance.
(1) Communications will also be degraded in an NBC environment. Radio transmissions will increase and verbal face-to-face communications will become less effective.
(2) NBC conditions may also hinder combat operations. The operational tempo will be greatly decreased. Direct fire and target/objective acquisition and identification may also be hampered. Indirect fire systems not under these conditions will be relied on heavily. Strong leadership is necessary under these conditions, as in other battlefield conditions, to reduce stress and maintain a combat-effective unit.
c. TOC Personnel Update Briefing. Before personnel depart the TOC shift, the new shift must be briefed in detail. The briefing should highlight the current situation, significant events during the past 12-hour shift, and any ongoing issues that must be resolved by the next shift. A possible format for the briefing is shown in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2. Recommended update briefing format
- Weather-area weather forces (S2).
- Enemy forces-enemy situation, intelligence overlay (S2).
- Friendly forces-operations situation map (S3).
- Attachments/detachments-current battalion/task force organization (S3).
- MISSION-BRIGADE OPORD (S3).
- EXECUTION-OPERATIONS SITUATION MAP, CURRENT OPORD (S3).
- Fire support-fire support overlay (FSE).
- Engineer support-obstacle overlay (Engr).
- AD support-AD overlay (AD).
- TAC air support-(ALO).
- MOPP level and operational exposure guidance.
- Chemical events within last 24 hours.
- SERVICE SUPPORT-PERSONNEL REPORT, COMBAT STATUS CHART, LOGISTICS, AND MAINTENANCE OVERLAY (S1, S4).
- COMMAND AND SIGNAL.
- Command-operations situation map (S3).
- Signal-signal operation instructions, communications status, challenge, and password (Comm Officer).
- BRIGADE/BATTALION/TASK FORCE OPLAN/OPORD (S3).
- Contingency missions (S3).
- Significant problems in last 24 hours (All).
d. Operational Techniques. TOC personnel must follow procedures outlined in unit SOPs to streamline operations and provide continuous information flow. Techniques to fulfill these requirements are outlined below.
(1) Journals. The assembled journals of the staff give a complete picture of the unit's operations. These journals are a permanent record. Normally the S2 and S3 sections operate a combined log. Other staff or special staff elements compile their own journals. Message forms, blank report format sheets, and preformatted orders must be prepared in duplicate to aid the information process. The flow chart in Figure 2-6 depicts an efficient TOC action chain that ends in a journal entry.
Figure 2-6. TOC action chain
(2) Current operations maps/display screens. At the brigade, only key elements of information must be extracted and tracked so that the commander has combat-critical information. The S2 and S3 should use the same current operations map or computed generated display screen to display an easily understandable portrayal of the flow of battle. The automated systems that will update and display this information will be discussed in paragraph 2-4. Other control measures may be required to command and control the battle. These measures include phase lines (PLs), contact points, passage points, lanes, routes, AAs, and battle positions (BPs). Figure 2-7 shows an example of a map board design. All map boards within the TOC should be standardized so that graphic overlays are interoperable. At least these items of information should be depicted on the current operations situation map/display screen. Symbology that portrays the current friendly/enemy situation must include-
(a) Six-digit locations for subordinate regiments and groups and their subordinate battalion.
(b) Six-digit locations for corps and division TOCs and TACs.
(c) Four-digit center-of-mass locations for adjacent friendly units (battalions and larger).
(d) Six-digit center-of-mass locations for elements in the brigade support area (BSA).
(e) Six-digit center-of-mass suspected locations for threat battalions, regiments, air defense artillery (ADA), and any high-priority targets (date-time group of the report should be centered below the symbol).
(f) Six-digit center-of-mass suspected locations for the regimental artillery group and division artillery group.
(g) Symbols that portray boundaries and front line trace of divisional and subordinate units and suspected threat boundaries.
(3) Information Display. An information display may be required to supplement details contained on the situation map/display screen. This display makes information available that is not suitable for posting on the situation map. Information associated with the situation map is located adjacent to it for easy posting and viewing, or is easily accessible through a continuously updated data base. Figures 2-8 through 2-13 provide several examples of display and chart formats. These may be used to standardize TOC information displays. Typical information displays are easily updated, readily understandable charts that depict essential information. A display that is not up to date is misleading and useless. Suggested informational displays normally required in a brigade TOC are-
- Task organization.
- Mission and commander's intent (concept of operation).
- Personnel status (includes cumulative aircrew status of subordinate units).
- Logistical status (specific Class III/V status of subordinate units).
- Combat power.
- Communications status.
- CP locations.
- Tactical intelligence and weather.
Figure 2-7. Example of a map display (not automated)
Figure 2-8. Example of a task organization display
Figure 2-9. Example of a personnel status chart
Figure 2-10. Example of a combat power status chart
Figure 2-11. Example of a combat priorities and personnel status chart
Figure 2-12. Example of a tactical intelligence display
Figure 2-13. Example of a weather status display
(4) Administrative Requirements. An efficient TOC will have clearly defined administrative procedures in an SOP to speed the information flow and directives to higher and subordinate headquarters. Normally, the operations sergeant is the key individual for these tasks. Enough office supplies must be stocked to allow for extended operations. Basic loads should be established and monitored for all needed supplies. Blank required report formats should be prepared to expedite reporting. TOC personnel must be trained in receiving, consolidating, and transmitting required reports. Drills must be established for reproducing orders in a field environment. Each player in the TOC must know his role. Orders should be handwritten and reproduced rapidly so that planning time for subordinate units is maximized. Organic vehicles, communications, and all auxiliary equipment must be properly maintained and systematically checked to ensure combat readiness. Responsibilities must be fixed and preventive maintenance checks and services conducted routinely.
(5) Eavesdrop System.
(a) The eavesdrop system is used during all tactical operations by all levels from brigade down to the company. This system requires all radio stations to monitor and to send message traffic on a given net, even if they are not the direct recipients of the message. When the corps or division uses MCS or MSE, eavesdropping is not possible. Figures 2-14 through 2-16 depict how the eavesdrop system works within the brigade command, O&I, and administrative and logistics nets. The procedures within each subordinate unit's net are the same as discussed in the brigade eavesdrop.
(b) Situation reports (SITREPs) or other command net traffic should be sent from subordinate commanders or S3s to the brigade commander or S3 located forward with the command group or in the tactical CP. Command groups of other attached units or units under OPCON and their TOCs also monitor the traffic and update situation maps to understand the intent of operations. Therefore, the amount of radio traffic emanating from TOCs is reduced; thus, enemy direction-finding efforts become less successful.
(c) Information passed on the operations and intelligence (O&I) net is not monitored by the brigade and subordinate commanders. The unit XO operating in the TOC must relay the critical information that is passed on the O&I net to the commander. Also, the S1, S4, and AMO at the brigade rear CP monitor the operations and intelligence net, if possible; or the S1 or S4 representative at the TOC relays this information to the brigade rear CP. Thus, the administrative and logistics center can anticipate critical support requirements and problems before subordinate maneuver units can request assistance on the brigade administrative and logistics net.
(d) The brigade command group, tactical CP, and TOC must monitor the administrative and logistics net. The S1 and S4 also must keep the XO updated on the current and future administrative and logistics situation. This may also be accomplished with S1/S4 liaison personnel.
2-7. BRIGADE REAR COMMAND POST
The brigade rear CP coordinates the CSS required to sustain the brigade; it may be located within the EAC, corps, or division support area or elsewhere in the rear area of the AO.
a. The senior in rank or otherwise designated individual, normally the S4 or S1, is the aviation brigade rear CP commander. The rear CP commander also is responsible for the security of rear area units of the aviation brigade; he ensures that they are integrated into an established base or base-cluster defense for mutual security. The brigade XO monitors the operations of the rear area. The S4 and S1 maintain continuous contact with the main CP to coordinate the required support. They also coordinate extensively with higher echelon support command elements for their respective support functions.
b. The rear CP also has other responsibilities. These include conducting rear combat operations against Level I and II threats-as described in Chapter 3-and serving as the alternate main CP.
Figure 2-14. Brigade eavesdrop system, command net-lower to higher
Figure 2-15. Operations and intelligence net-lower to higher
Figure 2-16. Administrative and logistics net-lower to higher
c. The rear CP is often established in built-up areas, adjacent to the brigade MSR. Continuous communications must be maintained with both brigade and subordinate groups or battalions or a combination of these on multichannel, FM-secure, and nets. For continuous operations, S1 and S4 personnel must be cross-trained in report formats and basic functions. An operations situation map must be maintained in the rear CP for logistics planning and backup tactical C2. The chaplain and the flight surgeon are the other key personnel most often located at the rear CP. However, the HHC commandant often may operate between the rear and main CPs, coordinating TOC support. Therefore, he must operate two communications nets-command and administrative and logistics nets. Figures 2-17 and 2-18 show examples of rear CP formats.
Figure 2-17. Example of a rear CP based on two signal intelligence command post system (SICPS) tents
Figure 2-18. Example of a rear CP based on the M934 expandovan
2-8. ALTERNATE TACTICAL OPERATIONS CENTER
If the TOC is destroyed or otherwise rendered ineffective, the brigade must have an alternate facility to assume its functions. The administrative and logistics center, or rear CP, is normally designated as the alternate TOC. Designation of the alternate TOC should be routinely prebriefed. A subordinate group TOC also may serve as the alternate TOC.
2-9. BRIGADE SUPPORT AREA
When a BSA is established, CSS functions within it are a vital part of combat operations. With only organic assets, however, the aviation brigade may not require a BSA. In this situation, the rear CP may be the only element within the AA. However, if subordinate elements of the brigade position their support elements around the rear CP, then the term BSA is appropriate. External support assets under OPCON or supporting the brigade also may be configured around the rear CP. Coordination between the administrative and logistics center and the TOC must be continuous to ensure that CSS is integrated into the overall mission. This coordination is accomplished by-
a. Maintaining a radio on the administrative and logistics net with S1 and S4 representatives at the TOC.
b. Establishing a land line between the administrative and logistics center and TOC (if possible).
c. Maintaining a communication net at the administrative and logistics center on the brigade command net.
SECTION III. COMMAND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
2-10. COMMAND RESPONSIBILITIES
a. The command transmits and receives information and orders through command communications systems. The commander must understand the capabilities, limitations, and vulnerabilities of his communication systems. Enemy radar, radios, and lasers may operate in the same electromagnetic spectrum as friendly equipment.
b. The commander must expect unintentional interference from friendly units as well as interference from enemy units. Transmissions may also be hindered by terrain, atmospheric conditions, or electromagnetic pulse from nuclear blasts. To compensate for these, the commander should-
(1) Provide for redundancy in the means of communication.
(2) Ensure that subordinates understand his intent so that they will know what to do when communications are interrupted.
(3) Avoid overloading the communication systems by using them only when necessary.
(4) Use wire or messenger when possible instead of radio.
(5) Ensure proper signals security practices are followed.
2-11. SIGNAL SUPPORT
Maintaining communications with higher and subordinate headquarters presents a challenge for the signal officer. Assets available to the brigade are limited, particularly for FM(s) sets. Inevitably, the brigade must rely on a single source to fulfill some communications requirements. The main CP may have to rely more on multichannel for external nets. Besides FM radios on brigade vehicles and aircraft, communications support for the brigade headquarters is provided by two organizations: the signal platoon in the brigade HHC and the supporting signal unit from higher or adjacent headquarters. The signal platoon in the HHC provides FM, AM, HF, and wire communications. The supporting signal unit provides mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) and satellite communications (SATCOM) as required.
2-12. UNIT/STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES
All levels of command and staff must gain and maintain communications with the necessary headquarters and personnel. The traditional communications responsibilities of brigades are covered below.
a. Higher to Subordinate. The brigade headquarters must ensure that its radio nets (command, O&I, administrative and logistics, and fire support) are continually operational. The RETRANS system must be dedicated to on-call restoration of communications on any net. Possible RETRANS locations must be identified and checked before starting operations. All key personnel must understand the operation of the RETRANS system.
b. Subordinate Units. Subordinate units within the brigade must continually monitor key brigade level radio nets. AT a minimum, subordinate units must monitor the brigade command and O&I nets.
c. Supporting to Supported. Liaison elements supporting the brigade must maintain communications between their organization providing the support and the aviation brigade. Thus, a continuous operations capability is maintained. Once located at the tactical CP, main CP, or rear CP, these units will be controlled by the brigade staff and the headquarters commandant.
d. Lateral Communications. Responsibility for establishing communications between adjacent units may be fixed by the next higher commander. If responsibility is not fixed by orders, the commander of the unit on the left is responsible for establishing communications with the unit on the right. The commander of a unit positioned behind another unit establishes communications with the forward unit.
e. Restoration. Despite the responsibility, all units act promptly to restore lost communications.
2-13. COMMAND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
a. Army aviation is required to deploy anywhere in the world and operate under most types of environmental conditions. Mission parameters, therefore, require a C2 system designed to support the commander's needs throughout every phase of the force-projection cycle. The Army has selected battlefield digitization to support the commander's communications requirements.
b. Digitizing the battlefield is the application of technologies to acquire, exchange, and employ timely digital information throughout the battlespace, tailored to the needs of each decider, shooter, and supporter. Digitization allows each soldier to maintain a clear and accurate vision of the common battlespace necessary to support planning and execution. This common picture/situational awareness permits commanders at all echelons to better control forces, synchronize effects, and achieve decisive victory with minimal casualties.
c. Integrated digital system networks (command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence [C4I] and weapons systems) provide commanders, staffs, sensors, and shooters with a great technological advantage. Information exchange between command communications systems includes, or will include, relative positioning, identification, time, way points, direction, azimuth, targeting, support, coordination, etc.
d. Some of the key command systems providing for aviation brigade internal/external communications linkages are-
(1) Combat net radio (CNR). Aviation brigades will conduct operations over extended distances using CNR as the primary means of communication. CNR is a system of systems. CNR consists of a single channel ground airborne radio system (SINCGARS), a tactical satellite (TACSAT) communications system, and high frequency (HF) radios.
(2) Mobile subscriber equipment (MSE). MSE is a compact mobile communications system providing secure voice, data, and facsimile capabilities. MSE allows the commander to exercise C2 over forces in a rapidly changing environment. The system is interoperable with CNR, commercial, and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standard systems.
(3) High frequency nap-of-the-earth communications (HF NOE COMM). The HF NOE COMM provides the commander with uninterrupted NOE communications over extended distances. This radio is equipped for digital communications, and can adjust input/output to accommodate interference and path loss.
(4) HAVEQUICK II. HAVEQUICK II helps the commander facilitate Army and joint services communication. The system frequency hops to reduce its susceptibility to jamming and interference. The radio can be used for digital target handover and information/intelligence flow between USAF close air support (CAS), OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, and the AH-64D Apache Longbow.
(5) Maneuver control system (MCS)PHOENIX. One element of the Army battle command system, MCS provides two major functional capabilities; maneuver functional area control (maneuver unit situational awareness) and force level information (critical sustainment information). MCS provides commanders and staffs the capability to collect, coordinate, and act on near-real-time battlefield information. Commanders and staffs can readily access information and display current situation reports that assess enemy strength and movement, as well as the status of friendly forces. MCS then can aid the battle staff in rapidly disseminating the commander's orders.
(6) Aviation mission planning system (AMPS). The AMPS provides the commander and staff an automated mission planning and battle synchronization tool. AMPS functions include tactical C2, mission planning, mission management, and maintenance management. The AMPS provides an interface to the MCS. This provides the aviation commander with continuous updates of the friendly and enemy situation; it allows the commander to rapidly adjust current and future operational plans.
e. Other key elements of the Army BCS that the aviation brigade will have to interface with include:
(1) All source analysis system (ASAS). The ASAS provides IPB information used by all echelons for planning combat operations. The ASAS cell is located at the division and corps TOCs. The aviation brigade will interface with it by way of the MCS computer through an area common user system (ACUS) network. During operations, the MCS alone is unable to update the current intelligence picture frequently enough for Army aviation operations. Real-time air threat, ground ADA, and surface-to-air missile (SAM) locations must be passed to aviation TOCs, both ground and airborne within seconds of discovery. The commander's tactical terminal hybrid (CTT-H) system will provide the commander with this near real-time tactical intelligence. It is a receiver processor that extracts intelligence broadcasts from several overhead sources.
(2) Advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS). The AFATDS controls all FS operations for the corps and division artillery brigades. The aviation brigade and battalion TOCs nominate targets and submit requests for FS through the MCS computer by way of the ACUS. The fire support element (FSE) at brigade determines which targets will be serviced by assets under brigade control. The rest are submitted to the division, which performs the same filtering process and sends a consolidated list to the corps FSE. During the conduct of tactical operations, the aviation brigade assets coordinate directly by way of SINCGARS and HAVEQUICK radios to fire support teams (FISTs) and forward air controllers (FACs) to place ordnance at the right place and time. These communications are mostly digital, using modems and the message formats of AFATDS or the variable message formats (VMFs).
(3) Forward area air defense (FAAD). The FAAD provides an overlay of battery coverage areas to the MCS computer by way of ACUS. The FAAD system accepts feeds from AWACS and organic ground based radars to generate a real-time air picture. The aviation brigade will access this information by way of the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLARS) over a local area users network. The brigade will pass the critical elements to its aircraft digitally using HF-NOE-COM radios and modems.
(4) Combat service support control system (CSSCS). The CSSCS is a computerized system for the control of most classes of supplies, equipment, and personnel replacements. The CSSCS provides information on the status of units and equipment to the MCS computer for transmission to users over the ACUS. The aviation brigade administration and logistics center (ALOC) uses CSSCS software on a common computer to perform its administrative and logistics requests and reporting functions.
2-14. TRANSMISSION LIMITATIONS
a. Because of the aviation brigade's mobility and potential for operating throughout an entire AO, the primary means of communication will be radio. However, some radio communications are limited by range and line-of-sight restrictions. In these situations, commanders may lose contact with their aviation units unless radio relays are used. Radio communications should be kept to an absolute minimum until enemy contact is made. Other means to communicate should be used until the radio is necessary so that detection by enemy direction-finding equipment is avoided.
b. Satellite channel availability may be limited for several reasons, especially during early entry operations. Factors such as worldwide geographical location and unit density per satellite ratios may restrict commanders from continuous transnational/over-the-horizon communications.
2-15. BRIGADE RADIO NETS
EAC and division aviation brigade nets-based on the number and types of units assigned in the task organization- are similar to those depicted in these figures. Figures 2-19 through 2-22 show typical corps aviation brigade radio nets.
a. Command Net. A secure command net, controlled by the S3, is used for C2 of the brigade. All assigned units normally operate in this net. As a rule, only commanders, executive officers, or S3s will communicate on the net. Priority-only traffic is passed (Figures 2-19 and 2-20).
b. Operations and Intelligence (O&I) Net. The brigade S2 controls the O&I net. It functions as a surveillance net when required. Routine operations and intelligence reports are sent on this net (Figure 2-21).
c. Administrative and Logistics (ADMIN/LOG) Net. This net is controlled by the S1 and S4. It is used for administrative and logistics traffic within the brigade (Figure 2-22).
d. Special Radio Nets. The FSO operates in the supporting FA command fire direction net and in a designated fire direction net to coordinate artillery fires. The USAF ALO, when attached, controls tactical air through a USAF tactical air request net (HF/single side band (SSB)) and a UHF/AM air-ground net.
e. Fire Control Net. The fire control net is an FM net operated by the brigade FSO. Fire control coordination measures and information are passed on the fire control net.
f. Additional Radio Nets. Besides the internal nets, the brigade monitors the higher command net (FM and AM), the higher operations and intelligence net (FM), and the higher administrative and logistics net (AM). The FSE monitors the supporting artillery battalion command nets (FM) and fire control net (FM and digital).
Figure 2-19. Internal command FM net in aviation brigade (corps)
Figure 2-20. Command UHF/AM net in aviation brigade (corps)
Figure 2-21. Operations and intelligence FM net in aviation brigade (corps)
Figure 2-22. Administrative and logistics net in aviation brigade (corps)
2-16. ADDITIONAL COMMUNICATION MEANS
a. Radio. The brigade has organic mobile transcriber radio telephone (MSRT)/ digital nonsecure voice terminal (DNVT) means to enter the division ACUS communications network. The forward communications company of the division signal battalion provides MSE terminal (small extension nodes) to support each brigade. The MSE terminal teams establish a site near each brigade headquarters to terminate ACUS support.
b. Wire Communications. When time and distance between units permit, subordinate elements of the brigade are linked with wire.
c. Messenger Support.
(1) There is no messenger service on a division level and no internal records traffic system. When division messenger service is required, the division signal officer is responsible for determining routes and schedules. Within the aviation brigade, the S3 liaison section-if authorized by TOE-is the only messenger service available. This section can perform a myriad of missions. These missions include-
(a) Delivering/receiving reports.
(b) Obtaining nonroutine distribution.
(c) Collocating with adjacent or higher headquarters to obtain detailed time-sensitive information during a critical period of the battle.
(d) Distributing OPLANs, OPORDs, and FRAGOs.
(2) Messengers will reduce the FM signature and provide better in-depth information during the planning or execution of operations. Normally, one messenger (or messenger team) is dedicated to the higher headquarters while the other (if available) performs duties as required.
d. Sound and Visual Communications. Sound and visual signals normally are included in the SOI extract or unit SOP. Signals not included in the SOI may be established by SOP. These signals must be changed often to avoid compromise; yet they must be understood by all. The battlefield has many sounds and signals. For this reason, commanders and staff planners are careful when determining how sound and visual signals will be used and authenticated. Sound and visual signals include lights, flags, hand-and-arm signals, pyrotechnics, and different types of noise such as metal-on-metal sounds, rifle shots, whistles, and bells.
e. Commercial Communications. Commercial lines are used only when approved by higher headquarters. Devices such as the KAL 43 may be used to secure commercial communications. If the unit is forced to withdraw, existing wire lines, including commercial lines (if designated by higher headquarters), are cut and sections removed. Thus the enemy will be unable to use them. Once the defensive battle begins, new lines are seldom laid. The unit then relies on radios, messengers, or sound and visual signals.
2-17. LIAISON OPERATIONS
Just as the aviation brigade integrates liaison elements into its scheme of maneuver for those particular assets, the brigade must also provide liaison to other headquarters. When the aviation brigade places a subordinate unit under OPCON-in direct or general support of another headquarters-liaison is established as soon as possible.
a. After communications have been established, face-to-face coordination is essential. This may be achieved initially by the unit commander. The aviation commander must clearly understand the ground force commander's intent and scheme of maneuver so he may best support the operation. Then an LNO or element is collocated with the headquarters.
b. This coordination also allows the aviation commander to synchronize the employment of aviation forces with the scheme of maneuver. Thus, decisive combat power can be concentrated at the proper time and place. Planning and coordination are critical. The liaison officer plays a vital role in coordination.
c. The LNO should be an experienced combined arms officer/warrant officer. Also, he should be assigned to the aviation unit that will operate with the ground force. The LNO recommends methods of employing aviation forces into the scheme of maneuver to maximize the capabilities of the aviation force. Each LNO also must be aware of his unit's status. He must continuously update the maneuver force commander on the aviation unit's situation. The coordination may also include the exchange of critical information such as call signs, radio frequencies, aviation control measures, and A2C2 considerations.
d. Each unit should establish SOPs for LOs Thus, the LNO has a means to first provide the force commander with information and then continually apprise him of the situation. Areas that should be addressed include-
- Unit organization, capabilities, limitations, and status (aircraft, vehicles, personnel).
- Aviation operation employment roles, employment principles, and missions.
- Aircraft capabilities and limitations by type.
- Aviation staff estimate.
- Specific checklists (air assault (aaslt)), deep attack, air movement tables).
- Common equipment weights.
- Safety briefing checklist.
- Class III/V (FARP) operations, capabilities, and limitations.
- Class V configurations.
- Maintenance considerations.
- Crew endurance/fighter management.
- LNO equipment list.
SECTION IV. Command and Control Warfare
Command and control warfare (C2W) is the integrated use of operations security (OPSEC), psychological operations (PSYOPS), military deception, electronic warfare (EW), and physical destruction-supported by intelligence-to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy enemy C2 capabilities, and to protect friendly C2 against such actions. JP 3-13.1 provides an excellent overview of this subject. FM 100-6 discusses C2W as a subset of information operations. The aviation brigade supports these operations in a variety of ways.
2-18. OPERATIONS SECURITY
Operations security (OPSEC) includes all measures taken to deny the enemy information about friendly forces and operations. It involves all security measures that allow units to achieve and maintain surprise. It consists of physical security, information security, signals security (SIGSEC), and deception and countersurveillance activities. Because these categories are interrelated, the aviation brigade commander normally combines more than one technique to counter a threat. Also, the commander can use SIGSEC programs such as EW and signals intelligence (SIGINT). The aviation brigade commander analyzes hostile intelligence efforts and vulnerabilities, executes OPSEC countermeasures, and surveys the effectiveness of countermeasures. By doing so, he can counter specific hostile intelligence efforts.
a. OPSEC Process. Operations security is the process of denying adversaries information about friendly capabilities and intentions. This process is performed by identifying, controlling, and protecting indicators associated with planning and conducting military operations and other activities.
(1) Security is maintained throughout all phases of an operation. OPSEC is an integral part of planning, unit training, and combat operations at all levels of command. OPSEC denies enemy forces information about planned, ongoing, or post-operational activity until it is too late to react.
(2) Commanders, staffs, and individuals throughout the brigade are responsible for OPSEC. The S3 has primary responsibility for OPSEC within the brigade. He is assisted by the S2, who provides information about enemy collection capabilities.
(3) OPSEC teams with SIGSEC and counterintelligence specialties normally are placed in DS of brigades. These teams help determine OPSEC vulnerabilities, assist in updating enemy intelligence threats, and assess threat vulnerabilities. They report through the intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) support element collocated with the S2 at theTOC.
(4) OPSEC protective measures are developed by-
(a) Determining the sensitive aspects of the upcoming mission.
(b) Determining enemy capabilities for obtaining information about the operation.
(c) Determining what information obtained by enemy forces can compromise the operation and when they would need it to react.
(d) Determining countermeasures and deception requirements.
(e) Completing an OPSEC estimate (oral or written).
(f) Preparing an OPSEC or a deception plan (oral or written) or both.
b. Application of OPSEC Techniques and Procedures. OPSEC includes the coordinated application of a range of techniques and procedures that deny information to the enemy. Three kinds of actions are taken under OPSEC: security operations, countermeasures, and deception.
(1) Perform security activities. These security activities include all measures to defeat enemy surveillance by ground, air, or electronic means. At the brigade, these include the components and actions discussed below. SIGSEC protects operational information by employing COMSEC and electronic security techniques. These techniques include the use of-
- Secure voice equipment.
- Approved communication codes and SOI.
- Proper radiotelephone operator procedures.
- Multiplexers to reduce the number of emitters at the CPs.
- Antenna positioning to maximize terrain-masking.
- Low-power or directional antennas when possible.
- Wire or messengers when possible.
(2) Information security. Information security prevents disclosures of operational information through written, verbal, or graphic communication measures. Restrictions placed on personnel and release of operational information include the-
- Development of a comprehensive personnel security program to preclude release of classified data to those not cleared for such data.
- Limitation of knowledge of plans and orders to only those who have a need to know.
- Proper distribution and accountability of classified data.
- Use of protective coverings on classified correspondence.
- Isolation of units and individuals before operations to preclude spoken disclosures.
- Establishment of classified trash containers and careful destruction of their contents.
- Use of public affairs personnel when dealing with the media.
(3) Physical security. Physical security is designed to safeguard personnel and to prevent unauthorized access to equipment facilities, material, and documents as well as to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, or theft. Techniques used to enhance physical security include-
- Use of security rosters and guards to limit access to CPs.
- Use of approved security containers.
- Use of inventories to account for classified material.
- Detailed preparation of reconnaissance and surveillance plans to include the use of-
- Observation and listening posts.
- Ground surveillance radar.
- Platoon early warning systems.
- Anti-intrusion devices such as mines and trip flares.
- Aggressive use of challenges and passwords.
- Use of passive measures including-
- Concealment of vehicles and facilities through camouflage or by positioning within built-up areas.
- Enforcement of noise and light discipline.
- Adherence to stand to procedures.
- Use of lightweight camouflage nets for aircraft.
- Establishment of guards and reaction forces for support areas and fixed facilities.
- Use of MP to patrol rear areas.
(4) Communications security (COMSEC). COMSEC involves physical, cryptographic, and transmission security. COMSEC procedures must be covered in the unit SOP. COMSEC elements and instructions are discussed in paragraphs (a) through (c) below.
(a) Physical security. Physical security protects cryptographic systems and classified documents from capture or loss. Before an area is vacated, it is inspected for messages, carbons, cipher tapes, and copies of maps or orders. Wire lines are patrolled to prevent enemy tapping. The loss or capture of codes or cryptographic equipment is reported promptly to the next higher command. The SOP must contain instructions for destroying equipment and classified documents to prevent their capture or use by the enemy. The standing operation instructions (SOI) should not be carried forward of the squadron/battalion TOC; when necessary, the signal officer publishes extracts for forward elements. The unit SOP establishes the priority for issue of SOI and extracts.
(b) Cryptographic security. Cryptographic security is maintained by using operation codes, numeral encryption devices, secure voice devices, and other secure communications equipment.
(c) Transmission Security. Transmission security limits the enemy's ability to listen to radio signals. Any signal transmitted can be intercepted and jammed by the enemy. All transmissions should be short and treated as if the enemy were listening. Net discipline is the responsibility of all users, but the TOC is responsible for policing the net. Users should-
- Keep radio transmissions short.
- Send lengthy messages by wire and messengers.
- Use secure means or operational and numerical codes.
- Emphasize the use of SOI, SOPs, and standardized terminology.
- Use low-power transmission and terrain to mask signals from enemy direction-finding equipment.
Countermeasures are taken to eliminate or reduce the success of enemy intelligence collection efforts and early warning of friendly activities. Once a friendly vulnerability is identified and determined to be at risk of detection, a specific counter to the enemy is developed to preclude exploitation. Overcoming one enemy collection effort may be relatively simple. In a multisensor collection environment, however, countermeasure planning must consider all threat capabilities. Countermeasures range from deception to destruction of enemy collection capabilities. Examples of countermeasures against specific threat intelligence operations are as follows:
a. Targeting of enemy reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition assets or units for suppression, neutralization, or destruction.
b. Increase of combat patrols to destroy enemy reconnaissance elements.
c. Use of raids to neutralize enemy intelligence targets.
2-20. MILITARY DECEPTION
a. Military deception measures can mislead enemy forces by manipulating, distorting, or falsifying information-causing the forces to act against their interests. Military deception planning is integral to operations planning. For a deception to work, the following conditions must be met:
(1) The deception must be reasonable; operational actions should support planned deceptions.
(2) The enemy must be given adequate time to react to the deception.
(3) Units and activities involved in the deception must appear to be what they depict.
(4) All of the enemy's intelligence-collection capabilities are considered so that each element supports the overall deception.
b. FM 90-2 contains a comprehensive presentation of deception. Deception operations taken to mislead the enemy may include-
- Feints and ruses.
- Use of dummy equipment.
- Falsification of material placed where it can be captured or photographed by the enemy.
- Manipulation of electronic signals.
c. The techniques of deception can be combined in various ways. Military deceptions can be as varied as the imagination of the commander. They have been used by successful commanders throughout history. The commander must always think in terms of security (all types), cover, concealment, and deception as combat multipliers. A small force can simulate a larger one by-
(1) Making the noises of a larger force.
(2) Mixing actual and dummy positions.
(3) Raising dust clouds by dragging chains or tree branches behind vehicles.
(4) Moving a force across an observable area and then returning it under cover and presenting it again and again.
(5) Creating extra radio stations to simulate traffic of a larger unit.
d. Military deception requires good intelligence, OPSEC, and operations planning to be successful. Military intelligence (MI) units provide information about the enemy collection capability and the possible enemy reaction. OPSEC analysis provides indicators, signatures, patterns, and profiles about any friendly unit involved in deception. Operations planners should consider applying deception to all combat operations.
2-21. ELECTRONIC WARFARE
Electronic warfare (EW) has three subelements: electronic attack, electronic protection, and EW support. The SIGSEC and COMSEC sections addressed electronic protection.
a. Electronic attack involves the jamming of his critical command and control assets. All division aviation brigades have organic EH-60 aircraft in their command aviation battalion (CAB), general support aviation battalion (GSAB), or assault battalion capable of executing this mission. Corps and theater aviation brigades would require external assets to execute this mission.
b. EW support involves giving the commander critical electronic intelligence (ELINT). The brigade's EW aircraft intercept enemy transmissions and provide the location of his transmitters. Once the commander knows their location, he can target them for either destruction, jamming, or exploitation.
2-22. PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION
Physical destruction of an enemy C2 asset can be executed by corps and division aviation or a theater aviation brigade when augmented with attack aircraft. Aviation brigades also can assist other Army and joint assets performing this mission through direction finding and target designation.
2-23. PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
a. Psychological operations (PSYOP) is defined as planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning. Ultimately, PSYOPS influences the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of PSYOPS is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. (JP 1-02)
b. Military operations have some psychological impact on the enemy. The aviation brigade can fly missions whose intent is purely psychological (i.e. dropping leaflets) or missions whose intent is purely tactical but produces residual psychological effects. An example of this would be an attack batallion that destroys a logistics base 100 km behind the FLOT. The psychological effect on the enemy force in contact could be as devastating as any direct fire engagement.
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