94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command
94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade
The mission of the 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command is to, on order, deploy in the US Pacific Command (PACOM) area of responsibility and conduct Joint and Combined Theater Air and Missile Defense in support of designated OPLANS and contingency operations.
The 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command was first constituted on 16 December 1940 in the Regular Army as the 94th Coast Artillery and activated 17 on April 1941 at Camp Davis, North Carolina. The Regiment was broken up 15 May 1943 and its elements reorganized and redesignated. Headquarters and Headquarters Battery was reorganized and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Antiaircraft Artillery Group, while its 1st and 2nd Battalions became the 743rd and 209th Coast Artillery Battalion respectively, and the 3rd Battalion became the 236th Antiaircraft Artillery Searchlight Battalion. These units all thereafter had separate lineages.
During the Second World War, the 94th Antiaircraft Artillery Group participated in major war campaigns within the East Indies, New Guinea, Leyte, and Luzon, during which it received commemorate streamers and was additionally decorated with the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation streamer. The streamers for New Guinea and Luzon were also adorned with arrowheads, indicating particpation in the initial assaults of those campaigns. After the end of the Second World War, Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Antiaircraft Artillery Group was inactivated on 15 March 1947 in the Philippines.
The unit was redesignated on 1 April 1960 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Artillery Group, and activated in Germany as part of the 32nd Army Air Defense Command. It was redesignated on 15 March 1972 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Air Defense Artillery Group and again on 16 July 1983 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade. During the Cold War period, the 94th Air Defense Artillery Group (and later the 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade) defended NATO with Nike Hercules, HAWK, PATRIOT, Chaparral, and Vulcan Air Defense Systems inspiring the motto of "First Line of Defense." After the collapse of communism in Europe, the 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade continued to support European Command contingencies throughout the European Command Area of Operations.
With nearly 6 months to deploy, train, and generally prepare, the Patriot systems and their crews in Saudi Arabia achieved a finely tuned state of readiness by the time Operation Desert Storm's air campaign started in 1991. Though the 4 American and Israeli Patriot batteries did well, some Scuds got through. The diplomatically explosive situation called for extra measures, because 4 batteries alone were not enough to defend the sprawling urban areas of Tel Aviv and Haifa. Two additional batteries from the 32nd Army Air Defense Command's 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade flew to Israel to enhance the defense, and in time the Dutch contributed a battery of their own to the effort. The Dutch battery defended Jerusalem and communicated with the American and Israeli Patriot crews by secure telephone.
From September 1991 through February 1992, Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade earned the Army Superior Unit Award for its direct support of United States led multinational operation Determined Resolve in the Persian Gulf. The 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade also formed the nucleus for the first ever Joint Theater Missile Defense Task Force that deployed to Israel in support of Operation Noble Safeguard and Desert Thunder.
America's Army was busy in January 1997. Headquarters, U.S. Army Europe alerted the 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade in Germany to begin planning for the next rotation to replace the Fort Bliss, Texas unit in Saudi Arabia.
On 21 December 1998, Headquarters, US Army Europe (USAREUR) announced plans to realign its air defense artillery units to comply with the Army's Patriot Standardization Plan. As a result of the plan, USAREUR realigned its 3 Patriot missile battalions with their 12 missile batteries, 2 maintenance companies and one maintenance team into 2 battalions with 5 batteries and one maintenance company each. The 1-7th Air Defense Artillery, with its Headquarters and Headquarters Battery and B and C Batteries moved from Rhine Ordnance Barracks, Kaiserslautern, Germany, to Fort Bliss, Texas. A Battery, 1-7th Air Defense Artillery, was assigned to 5-7th Air Defense Artillery in Hanau and moved from Rhine Ordnance Barracks to Babenhausen, Germany. F Battery, 6-52nd Air Defense Artillery, located at Ansbach, was also assigned to 5-7th Air Defense Artillery and moved to Babenhausen. These units were reflagged as D Battery and E Battery, 5-7th Air Defense Artillery. The Patriot LX maintenance team from 3rd Corps Support Command's 147th Maintenance Company, stationed with 6-52nd Air Defense Artillery in Shipton Kaserne, Ansbach, moved to Fort Bliss, Texas. The 549th Maintenance Company, assigned to 1-7th Air Defense Artillery at Rhine Ordnance Barracks was reassigned to 6-52nd Air Defense Artillery and moved to Ansbach. All moves were completed by mid-July 1999. The Patriot Standardization Plan enabled all air defense artillery battalions to perform the Southwest Asia mission, simplify wartime alignment plans, simplify strategic lift planning and equitably distribute Patriot battalions among ADA units.
This reduction in the air defense assets in Europe led to the inactivation of the 94th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (Theater), then headquartered at Darmstadt, Germany, as part of the process. The Brigade was officially inactivated on 15 August 1998 in Germany.
The unit was reorganized and redesignated on 16 August 2004 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command amd reactivated on 16 October 2005 at Fort Shafter, Hawaii as part of US Army Pacific. The unit served as the command element for US Army air and missile defense assets in the pacific region, including the 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade in Korea and the 1-1st Air Defense Artillery in Japan.
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