191st Infantry Brigade (Training Support)
191st Infantry Brigade (Separate) (Mechanized)
191st Infantry Brigade (Training Support) provides post-mobilization training to designated reserve component Army units, USAF, and USN to provide combat-ready forces to combatant commanders, The Brigade serves as MFO, HOA, JSTO, GTMO, Signal, Medical, and MI Warfighting Function Expertise (WFE) and provides DET OPS and CS/CSS Supporting Effort. Within its capability, the Brigade also enables pre-mobilization training for reserve component forces.
The 191st Infantry Brigade was first constituted on 24 June 1921 in the Organized Reserves as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 191st Infantry Brigade, and assigned to the 96th Division. The unit was organized in December 1921 at Portland, Oregon. It was redesignated on 23 March 1925 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 191st Brigade and again on 24 August 1936 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 191st Infantry Brigade.
The unit was converted and redesignated on 6 April 1942 as the 96th Reconnaissance Troop (less 3rd Platoon), 96th Division (Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 192nd Infantry Brigade was concurrently converted and redesignated as the 3rd Platoon, 96th Reconnaissance Troop, 96th Division). The Troop was ordered into active military service on 15 August 1942 and reorganized at Camp Adair, Oregon, as the 96th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop, an element of the 96th Infantry Division. The unit was reorganized and redesignated on 16 August 1943 as the 96th Reconnaissance Troop, Mechanized and on 20 November 1945 as the 96th Mechanized Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop. It was inactivated 3 February 1946 at Camp Anza, California. For its participation in the Pacific during the Second World War, the Troop was awarded campaign streamers for the Leyte and Ryukyus campaigns. The former streamer featured an arrowhead indiciating the Troop's participation in the initial assault landings durings the campaign.
The unit was reactivated on 20 January 1947 at Spokane, Washington. The unit was reorganized and redesignated on 12 April 1949 as the 96th Reconnaissance Company and its location changed on 15 October 1951 to Salt Lake City, Utah. During this period, the Organized Reserves was redesignated on 25 March 1948 as the Organized Reserve Corps, which was in turn redesignated on 9 July 1952 as the Army Reserve. The 96th Reconnaissance Company remained a part of this organization throughout these redesignations. The Company was inactivated on 1 June 1959 at Salt Lake City, Utah.
The unit was converted and redesignated (less 3rd Platoon) on 5 November 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 191st Infantry Brigade, and relieved from assignment to the 96th Infantry Division. 3rd Platoon, 96th Reconnaissance Company was concurrently redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 192nd Infantry Brigade, which thereafter had a separate lineage.
This change was the product of a Defense Department decision in late 1962 to approve reorganizing Army Reserve units. In the Army Reserve some former divisional units assigned to the 79th, 94th, 96th, and 103rd Infantry Divisions were used to organize 4 brigades, which added flexibility to the force, as well as provided 4 general officer reserve billets. In January and February 1963, the 157th, 187th, 191st, and 205th Infantry Brigades were organized with headquarters in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Montana, and Minnesota, respectively. As with the Regular Army brigades, the number and type of maneuver elements in each Army Reserve brigade varied. The 191st Infantry Brigade was activated on 1 February 1963 at Helena, Montana. It was subsequently organized as the 191st Separate Infantry Brigade (Mechanized). It was inactivated on 29 February 1968 at Helena, Montana.
The unit was withdrawn on 24 October 1997 from the Army Reserve and allotted to the Regular Army. Its Headquarters was concurrently activated at Fort Lewis, Washington. It was inactivated there on 16 October 1999 as part of the decision to inactivate the separate training brigades assigned to Fifth US Army and reorganize the capability into a number of training divisions.
The 191st Infantry Brigade was reactivated at Fort Lewis Washington on 1 December 2006. The Army's transformation in the 2000s necessitated restructuring the roles and missions of First US Army and Fifth US Army to support reserve component modularity and the Army Force Generation process known as Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN). First US Army's training mission expanded on 16 January 2006 to include training, readiness oversight and mobilization for US Army Reserve and National Guard units throughout the continental United States and two US territories. The transition of the expanded geographic mission began in mid-December 2005 with the transfer of authority between First US Army and Fifth US Army for the Western United States. Previously, First Army trained, mobilized and deployed US Army Reserve and National Guard units in the eastern United States, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. The 191st Infantry Brigade became assigned to the expanded First US Army as part of Division West.
As part of Division West, First US Army, the unit continued to be designated as a Training Support Brigade, initially with the mission to provide pre-mobilization leader and collective training assistance and support. The Brigade's main focus was providing training support, assistance, and evaluation to client units. The Brigade also provided assistance to civilian authorities during peacetime crises and/or natural disasters.
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