Internal Troops (Vnutrenniye Voiska) Under the Czars
The prototype of the internal troops were military garrisons in the times of Ivan the Terrible, who made for the "care of Moscow" Institute of the so-called tenants. By outfits governor to "the life of the capital" every three months allocated gathered from different cities of the nobles who made up an army of up to 3 thousand. Man. For some time the function of maintaining public order oprichniki performed. Of these, in 1565 the king created a special "oprichnina army." In the future, "residential elements" were deployed to escort the southern borders of Russia by cities.
Under Peter I the "residential elements" became known as garrisons. Report Card on February 19, 1711 the organization provided 43 infantry regiments of the garrison, who were later added and dragoon regiments. In 1764, there was a reformation of the garrison regiments in the border and internal battalions.
Until the beginning of the XIX century in the Russian state of internal troops function together with the police performed the Cossack regiments and provincial teams. In January 1811 the local military command responsible for "guarding peace and tranquility in the country", were withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the civil authorities and transferred to the Defense Ministry. Generally accepted date of birth of the internal troops was on March 27, when the decree of Emperor Alexander I established the provincial company and the team relocated to the provincial capital, and were formed by military battalions inner prison, which became one of the most important parts of the security system of the state.
"Regulations for the Internal Guard" defines its objectives: to assist the authorities in the implementation of laws and sentences of courts, the capture and destruction of the robbers, scattering prohibited by law assemblage, policing at fairs, auctions, national and religious festivals, tracking criminals, treasury, and conducting rescue from fires, floods of rivers, etc. From 1811 to 1828 he headed the internal guard Adjutant General Count EF Komarovsky (1769 - 1843). Warriors Internal Guard took part in the fighting in the Great Patriotic War of 1812 and the Crimean War of 1854-1855, when the ranks of the militia joined 17.5 thousand soldiers of the guard.
Military Reform, held by Alexander III of, and touched the inside of the prison. In May of 1886 by order of the military authorities announced the creation of the convoy guards, consisting of 567 teams to accompany the prisoners of all categories in the administrative and judicial institutions to places of detention and forced labor. About the continuity of internal and convoy guards said the fact that on 27 March 1911 in Russia was celebrated the 100th anniversary of the convoy guards. On this day, Emperor Nicholas II declared all officers and class ranks "Highest pleased", and the lower ranks - "Tsar thank you." special badge was established in honor of the anniversary.
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