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Intelligence

Chapter 9
650th Military Intelligence Group

The 650th Military Intelligence Group (ACE CI Activity) is a Theater- level United States Army intelligence organization with unique Counterintelligence (CI) missions. The 650th MI Group is part of Allied Command Europe (ACE) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is dedicated to providing CI0 support to Supreme Allied Headquarters Europe (SHAPE), its subordinate commands and activities, and the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). As 650th MI Group, the unit provides National CI support to the SACEUR and US personnel and organizations within ACE. As ACE CI Activity, the unit provides Combined CI support to ACE and other NATO approved organizations.

Command Relationships

The Commander 650th MI Group falls directly under the SACEUR for command and control. However, the SACEUR has delegated this authority to the DSACEUR. The Commander 650th MI Group coordinates closely with the SHAPE Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ACOS- I) for ACE CI Activity issues and coordinates directly with the DA- DCSINT for US Army issues.

Operational Principles

The SACEUR is ultimately responsible for force protection within ACE. CI within NATO is understood to be a national responsibility however, ACE CI Activity is in the unique position to have the authority to coordinate and operate Allied CI efforts in support of ACE objectives. ACE CI Activity complements and supplements the national CI efforts of nations and services, conducts the Allied CI mission in a combined bilateral/ multilateral mode and provides centralized control of ACE CI operations for the SACEUR. All CI activity must conform to national laws, regulations, and existing treaties and agreements of member nations.

Missions

650TH MI Group. Provide direct CI support to SACEUR and designated US5 personnel/ organizations. ACE CI Activity. Conduct combined CI operations, investigations, and services for ACE and other NATO approved organizations as directed by the SACEUR in peace, crisis and war.

Mission Authority

SACEUR Mission Directives.

  • ACE Directive 65- 3, CI Policy ACE (CIPACE) (NC), dated January 1997.

    US National Guidance and Agreements.

  • Mission Directive for Allied Command Europe Counterintelligence (ACE CI) Activity (NU), dated July 1993.
  • Memorandum of Instruction: 650th MI Group (U), dated September 1988.
  • AD 70-, ACE Security Directive (NC), dated January 1997.
  • DoD Instruction 5240.5, dated May 1984.
  • Tri- Service Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on TSCM Cross- Servicing, effective April 1996.
  • AR 381-4, Counterintelligence Technical Surveillance Countermeasures, dated 3 October 1986.
  • AR 381- 47, US Army CE Activities, dated 30 July 1990.

    Core Roles and Functions

  • Identify and neutralize hostile intelligence threats to ACE.
  • Develop and maintain strong operational liaison relationships with Allied CI Services to include Military and Civilian intelligence organizations of the NATO member nations. Foster a stronger working relationship between the US agencies and their NATO counterparts.
  • Provide CI force protection support operations to ACE deployments, both realworld and exercise.
  • Conduct combined CI investigations and operations in support of ACE and NATO.
  • Conduct US and combined TSCM missions for key US and ACE personnel, facilities and operations.
  • Conduct personnel security investigations of all US personnel assigned to ACE.
  • Provide CI support to (C2Protect) network/ computer security within ACE.
  • Coordinate the exchange and reporting of CI related information within ACE.
  • Coordinate the reporting of counterterrorism related information.

    Organization

    The 650th MI Group has operational locations in six countries within NATO. The unit is organized into a headquarters element and four subordinate Regional organizations; Regions I, II, IV, and V. The Group is commanded by an US Army Colonel. The Regions are commanded by US Army Lieutenant Colonels.

    Headquarters

    The 650TH MI Group HQ provides Group- level command, control, administrative, logistical, and information management support. The Group HQ is co- located with SHAPE HQ in Mons, Belgium, approximately 50 miles south of NATO HQ in Brussels, Belgium. The Regions are organized and located to support SHAPE HQ, its major subordinate commands (MSC), and principle support commands (PSC).

    Region I

    Region I HQ is located in Naples, Italy and provides CI support to Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH), a NATO MSC. In addition to the AFSOUTH HQ, Region I supports the following commands in Naples: Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe, and Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe. In Turkey, Region I supports Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe and the 6th Allied Tactical Air Force. Region I conducts liaison with Greek, Italian and Turkish CI and security services as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region I's Verona Detachment provides the full range of CI support to Allied Land Forces Southern Europe and the 5th Allied Tactical Air Force. The Verona Detachment conducts liaison with the Italian CI and security service as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies.

    Region II

    Region II headquarters is located in High Wycombe, UK and provides CI support to Allied Forces Northwestern Europe (AFNW), a NATO MSC and Headquarters North (Norway). Region II conducts liaison with Norway, Iceland, United Kingdom, and Canada. Regular contact is also maintained with US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region II's Jatta Detachment provides the full range of CI support to Headquarters North. The Jatta Detachment conducts liaison with the Norwegian Police Security Service (NPSS) pursuant to specific projects and Stavanger civil and military police as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region II periodically inspects the NATO Airborne Early Warning Facility at Orland, Norway. The Orland inspection is conducted bilaterally with technicians from the security staff at CHOD- Norway.

    Region IV

    Region IV HQ is located in Brunssum, The Netherlands and provides CI support to Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT), a NATO MSC and BALTAP, Denmark. Region IV conducts liaison with Germany, Denmark, the US, and the Netherlands CI and security services as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region IV's Den Haag Field Office provides the full range of CI support to NATO Command Coordination and Communications Agency (NC3 Agency), the science and technology center for NATO. The Den Haag Field Office conducts liaison with the Dutch CI and security service as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region IV's Geilenkirchen Detachment provides the full range of CI support to the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force at NATO Air Base, Geilenkirchen, ACE Rapid Reaction Corps HQ, Rheindahlen, Interim Combined Air Operations Center #2, and Reaction Force Air Staff. The Geilenkirchen Detachment conducts liaison with the Germany CI and security service as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region IV's Heidelberg Detachment provides the full range of CI support to the Allied Land Forces Central Europe (LANDCENT). The Heidelberg Detachment conducts liaison with the Germany CI and security service as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. The Ramstein Field Office is subordinate to this detachment and provides support to the Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AIRCENT). The Ramstein Field Office conducts liaison with the Germany CI and security service as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies.

    Region V

    Region V headquarters is located on SHAPE, Belgium and provides CI support to Allied Command Europe facilities throughout Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain. Region V conducts liaison with Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain CI and security services as well as with representatives of other US and NATO military and civilian agencies. Region V is also in direct support to SHAPE HQ.

    Contingency Operations

    The 650th MI Group has not only a peacetime theater/ strategic mission, but a tactical mission as well. The Group must be prepared to provide CI support to contingency and peace enforcement operations, defined as Out- of- Area operations for ACE. The Group is the leader in providing combined tactical CI support to the Allied warfighter. The 650th MI tactical focus has been in four key areas; personnel augmentation, secure CI communications support, combined CI doctrine formulation, and combined CI training. The Group must be prepared to provide leadership, doctrinal support, oversight, specialized equipment, access to CI training and other areas of expertise drawn from the US Army's CI capabilities and resources. These are capabilities and resources commonly not available to most ACE partner nations.

    Personnel augmentation

    SHAPE Crisis Reaction Cell (CRC). Group personnel augment the CRC to provide round- the- clock CI support to the SHAPE staff. Monitoring the CI situation in the theater of operation and coordinating any related questions with the SHAPE staff, the SACEUR, Alliance members, ACE, and the theater headquarters are it's principle function. The SHAPE ACOSI exercises staff supervision over CRC intelligence operations.

  • Counterintelligence Coordinating Authority (CICA). Group personnel will form the core and leadership of the deployed Theater CICA (known in NATO combined doctrine as the J2XCI). The CICA is responsible for human intelligence and counterintelligence source and operations deconfliction; Theater source registration; is the CI adviser to the NATO Theater Commander; advises and assists the Combined Intelligence Staff Officer on HUMINT and CI matters; acts as the Theater sub- control office for the conduct of CE investigations; is the single point of contact for National level liaison with host nation CI services; and is the focal point for oversight of operational activity. As an example, during Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR (OJE)/ JOINT GUARD (JG) the Group performed these functions through the Implementation Forces (IFOR) and Stabilization Force (SFOR) CICA/ J2XCI.

  • Tactical CI staff and operational elements. The Group will augment and support the deployed CI elements. During OJE/ JG the Group filled key positions in the first- ever, deployed, multi- national CI battalion. The unit was initially known as the Allied Counterintelligence Unit (ACIU) and was later designated as the Allied MI Battalion (AMIB). The unit is composed of approximately60 soldiers from seven NATO nations. The Group has provided augmentees in positions including the battalion, company, and detachment commanders, SGM, operations officers, principle staff officers, and members of the tactical combined CI operational teams.

    Communications and ADP Support. The Group must be prepared to provide the necessary communications and ADP equipment to support the deployed combined CI elements. Each environment will be unique with varying operating conditions and demands. The Group will customize the equipment packages to meet the requirements. During OJE/ JG, the Group provided thirteen Theater Rapid Response Intelligence Package (TRRIP) systems, nine NATO STUIIB/ computer communications packages, two STUIII/ computer communications packages, and two INMARSAT communications systems.

  • Combined/ Joint CI Doctrine

    Within ACE, the Group has taken the lead in the development and implementation of Combined CI doctrine. The Group wrote the Out- of- Area combined CI operations portion of ACE Directive 65- 3, Counterintelligence Policy for Allied Command Europe (CIPACE). For OJE/ JG the Group also wrote the Allied Forces South (AFSOUTH) CI SUPLAN to OPLAN 40105, the IFOR CICA0 SOP's, the ARRC CI architecture, the Allied CI Unit and Allied MI Battalion SOP's and other related plans.

    Training

    The Group coordinates and conducts training for Allied personnel serving as members of the deployed CI elements and the J2X/ CI. Training has included specific courses of instruction on multi- disciplined CI analysis and source handling, as well as more comprehensive training that encompasses communications and ADP9 (TRRIP, NATO, other Allied systems), source operations, the theater political and military situation, deployed force organization and operations, lessons learned, legal issues, vehicle safety operations, and weapons qualification. Students represent nearly the entire Alliance, coming from the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Norway, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Spain.

    Rear Area Support

    Group support for this strategic CI mission does not change during a deployment for Out- of- Area operations. CE investigations and CI operations will continue unabated. Renewed emphasis is placed on the conduct of liaison with national CI and security services of the NATO member nations. The Group will also act as a coordination link between the US national/ theater intelligence community and ACE for dissemination of CI information. Priority emphasis is placed on the reporting of terrorist threat information.

    NATO/ ACE/ Partnership for Peace (PfP) Exercise Support

    The 650th has learned valuable lessons from its participation in OJE/ JG. One key lesson learned is that the 650th must be prepared to deploy tactically in a combined environment. Secondly, ACE CI elements and personnel must be prepared to support future contingencies with combined CI support. Both lessons learned are being addressed through support to NATO/ ACE/ PfP exercises. The 650th provides both real world and tactical combined CI support to exercises. The exercise support provides a key combined intelligence service to ACE and an outstanding operations and training opportunity for the Group.

    Peacetime CI Operational Support

  • The 650th MI Group provides strategic CI support to ACE in the form of continuous liaison with the CI and security services supporting ACE. The Group in its role as ACE CI Activity conducts joint/ combined defensive counterespionage investigations, and joint/ combined offensive counterintelligence operations with cooperating CI and security services supporting ACE. The Group conducts TSCM, PSI and LATHE GAMBIT, the CI support to C2 Protect/ information systems security (INFOSEC) initiative of 650th MI.

    Liaison. To better overcome nationalistic parochialism regarding strategic CI matters, it is essential for this Group to maintain a vigorous liaison program with the National Counterintelligence Authorities (NCIA) of the NATO member nations. The NCIAs are for the most part military intelligence organizations of the respective NATO ally. The liaison program conducted by each of the four Regional Headquarters of the 650th MI Group in its role as ACE CI Activity, is the basis for combined CI. Our basic liaison program is supplemented by our support to Information Warfare program LATHE GAMBIT (U). This program brings together various NATO allies, including CI and security, police, and computer system specialist organizations to share and learn from each other regarding threats to computer systems.

    CE Investigations and Operations. Counterespionage operations and investigations effecting the security of ACE, the effected NATO ally, and the US are also conducted as combined counterintelligence. The CE investigations are normally conducted with one or more of the Allied CI and security services. CE investigations are conducted on persons or incidents being related to ACE. Most CE investigations are initiated under the Threat of Espionage, Sabotage and Subversion Directed at Allied Command Europe (TESSACE) program. The TESSACE program is modeled after the US Army's Subversion and Espionage Directed Against the Army (SAEDA) (AR 381-2). If the incident involves a US Army person, the information is then forwarded to the Department of Army Central Control Office. If the information surfaced concerns a service member or employee of another US military branch, the parent service is expeditiously informed. Normally a joint investigation is then conducted by the 650th MI Group and the respective US military service. Should the incident involve a military member or civilian employee of a non US allied nation, that country will be expeditiously informed. The greatest difficulty conducting combined CI investigations are that the investigation must conform to ACE Directive, US laws and directives, NCIA laws and directives, and host country laws and directives.

    Offensive Counterintelligence Operations (OFCO). OFCO conducted by the 650th MI Group are conducted IAW with AR 381- 47 US Army CE Activities (S), dated 30 July990. ACE sanctioned OFCO activities are covered in ACE Directive 65- 3. In accordance with our mission as a combined CI organization, all OFCO are conducted with a NATO ally. The level of Allied cooperation for OFCO is dependent on the NCIA capability to undertake OFCO.

    Technical Support Countermeasures (TSCM). TSCM are the techniques used to prevent, or to detect and neutralize hostile intelligence efforts to obtain classified or sensitive information through the introduction of a clandestine monitoring device, or the exploitation of weaknesses in sensitive work areas. The 650th MI Group TSCM program is unique in that it supports a multinational alliance and has the authority to conduct Combined TSCM operations with partner nations both in garrison and in out of sector missions. Additionally, the 650 th MI Group has integrated tactical TSCM into all deployments as an important part of force protection. This is the result of lessons learned from OJE/ JG. The 650th MI Group TSCM program supports ACE through the conduct of TSCM investigations and TSCM services.

    TSCM Investigation of an Area. This is defined as a thorough physical, electronic, and visual examination of an area by TSCM personnel to detect technical monitoring devices and technical security vulnerabilities. Areas for TSCM investigation include, but are not limited to, technically secure areas (accredited secure areas) and command suites.

    TSCM Investigation of an Event. This is defined as an investigation that is limited in scope and designed to augment other security measures during sensitive, time specific events occurring either on or off ACE owned facilities. Sensitive events include, but are not limited to: conferences/ briefings; military exercises/ deployments; and VIP travel support. TSCM trained soldiers from the 650th are included as part of the SACEURs personal security team.

    TSCM Services. These are preventive activities in support of the command's security program. The primary objective is to assist the security officer to "harden" a facility to preclude the installation of clandestine listening devices, and to exclude equipment prone to stand- off exploitation by hostile intelligence services. A facility is hardened by adopting strict physical and technical security measures. TSCM services include, advice and assistance, countersurreptitious entry service, and technical threat briefings.

    C2 Protect/ INFOSEC Support. ACE CI Activity initiated the network/ computer security program LATHE GAMBIT in992, as a means to foster international cooperation, education, and training relative to the threat directed at NATO computers and networks. ACE CI Activity hosts two network security seminars annually for representatives from NATO intelligence, criminal investigative, and research and development agencies. Currently representatives from both the military and civilian communities of5 nations are participating in the program. Each of the four regions within ACE CI Activity have dedicated LATHE GAMBIT representatives who coordinate with the host nations within their areas of responsibility for providing investigative support, as needed, between host nation agencies and US agencies concerning network intrusions. Additional regional C2W support involves coordination of roundtable discussions, during the months between the two major seminars, to address current technological advances/ threats specific to their areas. The LATHE GAMBIT program is a combined effort by the regions and headquarters of ACE CI Activity which fosters a more interactive, trusting, and sharing environment within ACE. LATHE GAMBIT supports ACE through numerous ACE CI activities to include liaison programs, security education programs, collection and report requests, and training opportunities in computer investigative methodology, forensics and systems. As a result of the international cooperation, ACE has been able to better identify threats to its computer networks which include not only hostile intelligence services, but, terrorist organizations, industrial espionage, independent information brokers and entrepreneurs as well.

    Personnel Security Investigations (PSI). The 650th MI Group provides CI support to personnel security throughout the NATO/ SHAPE area of responsibility, covering seven countries. This includes any investigation required for the purpose of determining the eligibility of any DoD active duty military or civilian personnel, regardless of service affiliation, and including contractor employees, consultants, and others associated with the DoD, to grant or deny them access to classified information, acceptance or retention in the armed services, or assignment to sensitive duties or positions within such areas as the Office of the SACEUR; International Military Staff; and NATO. PSI's are also conducted on personnel in non- DoD US federal agencies when they work, or have worked, in our area of responsibility. The Group conducts training at various sites within the command to enhance the capabilities of trained PSI personnel and to introduce PSI skills to those CI agents. DIS is the DoD agency responsible for the PSI mission, with the military services executing the mission OCONUS.



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