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Intelligence

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

"Good intelligence will not necessarily lead to wise policy choices. But without sound intelligence, national policy decisions and actions cannot effectively respond to actual conditions..."
Rockerfeller Commission, Report to the President,

Impact of the National Security Strategy (NSS)

National security has taken on a much broader definition in the post- Cold War era. Intelligence will address a much wider range of threats and dangers. We will continue to monitor military and technical threats, to guide long- term force development and weapons acquisition, and to directly support military operations. Intelligence will also be critical for directing new efforts against regional conflicts, proliferation of weapon of mass destruction, counterintelligence, terrorism and narcotics trafficking. In order to adequately forecast dangers to democracy and to U.S. economic well- being, the intelligence community must track political, economic, social and military developments in those parts of the world where U. S. interests are most heavily engaged and where overt collection of information from open sources is inadequate. Finally, to enhance the study and support of worldwide environmental, humanitarian and disaster relief activities, technical intelligence assets (principally imagery) must be directed to a greater degree collection of data on these subjects.

U. S. intelligence capabilities critically impacts on our nation's powers and remain an integral part of the national security strategy. Only a strong intelligence effort can provide adequate warning of threats to U. S. national security and identify opportunities for advancing our interests. Policy analysts, decision makers and military commanders at all levels will continue to rely on our intelligence community to collect information unavailable from other sources and to provide strategic, operational and tactical analysis to help surmount potential challenges to our military, political and economic interests. Within the National Structure, the collection and analysis of intelligence related to economic development plays an increasingly important role in helping policy makers understand economic trends. That collection and analysis can help level the economic playing field by identifying threats to U. S. companies from foreign intelligence services and unfair trading practices.

Decision makers need accurate and timely information about potential threats. In the past, these threats were mainly perceived in terms of potential hostile military action against the territory or people of the United States and its allies. Today, there is a broader appreciation of foreign economic, political, demographic, and environmental threats to U. S. national security; and a correspondingly greater emphasis on these factors in the intelligence community. National leaders demand greater insight into the perspectives and capabilities of other countries. Military leaders need solid information to cope with an ever greater involvement in peacekeeping and operations other than war. The traditional objectives of strategic, operational, and tactical intelligence have become even more vital for effective national policy and military command and control. The organizations and processes producing that intelligence are extremely complex, but must be understood by military planners The NSS requires that we take steps to reinforce current intelligence capabilities and overtforeign service reporting, within the limits of our resources, and similar steps to enhance coordination of clandestine and overt collection. Key goals include to:

  • Provide timely warning of strategic, threats, whether from the remaining arsenal ofweapons in the former Soviet Union or from other nations with weapons of mass destruction;
  • Ensure timely intelligence support to military operations;9
  • Provide early warning of potential crises and facilitate preventive diplomacy;
  • Develop new strategies for collection, production and dissemination (including closer relationship between intelligence producers and consumer) to make intelligence products more responsive to current consumer needs;
  • Improve worldwide technical capabilities to detect, identify and determine the efforts of foreign nations to develop weapons of mass destruction;
  • Enhance counterintelligence capabilities;
  • Provide focused support for law enforcement agencies in areas like counternarcotics, counterterrorism and illegal technology trade;
  • Streamline intelligence operations and organizations to gain efficiency and integration;
  • Revise long- standing security restrictions where possible to make intelligence data more useful to intelligence consumers;
  • Develop security countermeasures based on sound threat analysis and risk management practices.
  • Impact of the National Military Strategy (NMS)

    This National Military Strategy (NMS) builds on its predecessors and continues the evolution from strategies developed during the Cold War. Despite the breakup of the Soviet Union and the subsequent drawdown of US forces, we have a strategy of continued global engagement. Flexibly and selectively applied, US military power will remain a fundamental factor in assuring national security.

    In keeping with the broad outlines of military strategy developed over nearly half a century, we see the United States with worldwide responsibilities that require flexible military capabilities. As before, we will stand together with our allies and friends to assure stability in a troubled world. Deterrence and conflict prevention are central elements of our strategy. A balanced force structure, including air, land, naval, and space elements, a strategic nuclear force, and correctly size overseas presence are essential to maintaining the required deterrent and warfighting capabilities.

    The days of the familiar bipolar competition with the former Soviet Union are now in thepast. Security issues are more complex and increasingly regional in nature. Our actions must be appropriate to meet specific needs across a broad range of potential challenges. This requires ahigh tempo of military activity, including military operations, with a significant risk of hostile action. The forces to meet our security needs will be largely based in the United States. Eventhough smaller than before, they will need to remain highly capable. Quality people, readiness, enhancements, selected modernization, and balance will provide the critical edge.

    This military strategy is one of flexible and selective engagement, designed to protect US interests throughout the world and to help meet the security needs of our partners in key regions. This strategy requires a ready American military force capable of responding quickly and decisively to protect our Nation's security.

    The United States National Intelligence Community

    Several major intelligence agencies and organizations support the warfighter. Although much could be written about each one of them, the objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of their responsibilities and structures to give a basic understanding of intelligence information flow.

    The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was identified by the National Security Act of as the leader responsible for the overall management of the U. S. Government's intelligence efforts. By law, the DCI is appointed by the President with the guidance and consent of the Senate. Besides serving as the head of the U. S. intelligence community, the DCI serves as head of the Central Intelligence Agency and acts as the principal advisor to the President for intelligence matters related to national security. As principal intelligence advisor to the President, the DCI is part of the National Security Council (NSC). Under the direction of the NSC, he provides national- level intelligence to the President, to the heads of departments and agencies of the Executive Branch, to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to senior military commanders, and to the Senate and House of Representatives and their respective committees. He is charged with providing timely, objective, national intelligence that is independent of political considerations and is based on all sources available to the intelligence community.

    Several intelligence community staff elements help the DCI meet his many roles andresponsibilities. Two of the most prominent elements are the Community Management Staff( CMS) and the National Intelligence Council (NIC).4 The DCI exercises his community responsibilities through the CMS staff, which is not partof the CIA. Formerly called the Intelligence Community (or IC) Staff, the DCI's staff was reorganized and reduced in size in 1992. The staff falls under the Intelligence CommunityExecutive Committee (IC/ EXCOM) and is headed by the Executive Director for Intelligence Community Affairs who reports directly to the DCI. The staff develops, coordinates, andimplements DCI policy in the areas of resource management, planning, and requirements and evaluation.

    The CMS is comprised of the following functional offices:

    • Program Evaluation and Budget Office is responsible for the National Foreign Intelligence Board and budget development, evaluation, justification, and monitoring.
    • Compartmented Access Program Coordination Office shepherds the more sensitive intelligence community endeavors.
    • Intelligence Systems Secretariat is administratively attached to the CMS to plan and coordinate intelligence community automation efforts.
    • Requirements, Plans, and Policy Office translates the needs of the customers of the community's products and services into national intelligence requirements; integrates the efforts of the collection disciplines to satisfy these requirements; and evaluates the community's performance. This office serves as the central authority for implementing and managing the intelligence process.

    In addition to the CMS, which focuses heavily on intelligence collection, the DCI is also supported by the National Intelligence Council, which is concerned with production of finished intelligence. The NIC is composed of senior analysts (called National Intelligence Officers [NIO]) from within the community and substantive experts from the private sector who are selected by the DCI. Each NIO concentrates on a specific geographic area, such as the Middle East, or a functional areas, such as strategic forces.

    NIOs evaluate intelligence products, make recommendations, and assist the DCI as required. They produce National Intelligence Estimates, which represent the collective judgment of the intelligence community on foreign and defense matters and include alternate views held by community members. NIOs also issue NIC Memoranda and other products on specific topics on national policy interest.

    DOD Intelligence Organizations

    The following pages focus on DOD intelligence organizations that do not belong to individual military services.

    Defense Intelligence Agency

    Designed to integrate the military intelligence efforts of all DOD elements, the DIA was created in 1961. Although administratively under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (ASD C3I), the Director of DIA, reportsdirectly to the Secretary of Defense through the CJCS in fulfilling his national- level and unified command intelligence responsibilities. DIA's functional responsibilities include:

    • Providing finished military intelligence to national consumers.
    • Coordinating intelligence collection requirements for DOD
    • Managing Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) for the intelligence community.
    • Overseeing the General Defense Intelligence Program budgeting system.
    • Operating the Joint Military Intelligence College and the Joint Military Intelligence Training Center.
    • Managing the Defense HUMINT Service (DHS), to include clandestine and overt intelligence operations, as well as the Defense Attache System and its Attache Training School.
    (The DHS is DIA's only solely owned and operated collection service.)
  • Managing the Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center and the Missile and Space Intelligence Center.
  • Overseeing the military service S& T intelligence centers:
    • National Ground Intelligence Center
    • National Maritime Intelligence Center
    • National Air Intelligence Center

    National Security Agency

    The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service (NSA/ CSS) As a member of the intelligence community, NSA conducts its intelligence mission in accordance with guidance from the DCI. NSA is a Combat Support Agency of DOD under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, and is responsible for centralized coordination, direction, and performance of highly specialized intelligence functions in support of U. S. Government activities. NSA carries out the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense to serve as Executive Agency for U. S. Government signals intelligence (SIGINT), information systems security (INFOSEC), communications security( COMSEC), computer security (COMPUSEC), and operations security (OPSEC) training activities. The Central Security Service provides the Military Services a unified Cryptologic organization within the Department of Defense designed to assure proper control of the planning, programming, budgeting, and expenditure of resourcesfor Cryptologic activities. While a detailed discussion of NSA's vast organization and manifold functions is beyondthe scope of this FM. This discussion will focus on NSA's two national missions: information systems security (INFOSEC) and foreign SIGINT, two parts of a primary goal of informationdominance for the U. S. Government. NSA provides the leadership, products, and services necessary to protect national security systems, classified or not, against exploitation, interception,unauthorized access, and other technical intelligence threats. These INFOSEC activities can be considered defensive in nature. On the offensive side, NSA provides unified organization and control of U. S. collection and processing of foreign signals to produce SIGINT. NSA produces SIGINT based on the objectives and priorities established by the DCI and the advice of the National Foreign Intelligence Board. SIGINT activities are conducted in accordance with the laws and directives governing intelligence operations.

    While not a military organization, NSA is a DOD combat support agency whose primary mission is to support the military. NSA's approach to INFOSEC is as all- encompassing as its approach to the SIGINT portion of its mission. Its INFOSEC offices devote tremendous energy to ensuring that U. S. data and information systems are not vulnerable to hostile or accidental intrusion or misuse. This effort involves virtually every aspect of systems security, from user education to technical device development. Included in this area or responsibility is the science of cryptology, or the encoding of own force information. NSA controls the development and production of the encryption devices used by the U. S. Government and produces all the encoding material (keymat) used to key those devices. In addition, NSA provides a number of products and services to assist customers with INFOSEC. The Asset Management Office can provide crypto equipment to both DOD (especially military services) and civil agencies and can even support foreign customers under special circumstances. It manages the COMSEC Utility Program and other programs through which equipment can be loaned, given, procured, or developed to customers in need.

    National Imagery and Mapping Agency

    The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) today joins the ranks of the Department of Defense as the newest combat support agency. Established by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency Act of 1996, NIMA has a global mission and unique responsibilities to manage and provide imagery and geospatial information to national policy makers and military forces. In recognition of its unique responsibilities and global mission, NIMA is also established as part of the U. S. Intelligence Community.

    NIMA brings together in a single organization the imagery tasking, exploitation, production and dissemination responsibilities, and the mapping, charting and geodetic functions, of separate organizations of the Defense and Intelligence communities. By providing comprehensive management of U. S. imaging and geospatial capabilities, NIMA will improve support to national and military customers alike.

    NIMA's mission is to provide timely, relevant, and accurate imagery intelligence,and geospatial information in support of national security objectives. The agency's vision is to guarantee the information edge -- ready access to the world's imagery, imageryintelligence, and geospatial information. NIMA incorporates the Defense Mapping Agency , the Central Imagery Office, andthe Defense Dissemination Program Office in their entirety; and the mission and functions of the CIA's National Photographic InterpretationCenter. Also included in NIMA are the imagery exploitation, dissemination, and processing elements of the Defense Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, and Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office.

    First among NIMA's core values is commitment to the customer. NIMA consolidates activities and functions that will permit NIMA employees to work with some of the latest technological developments in computers, communications, digital imagery and geospatial information. A major early thrust of the agency will be to promote the use of commercial solutions within NIMA while maintaining continued high levels of support to our military forces and national policy makers.

    National Reconnaissance Office

    NRO is the DOD agency responsible for spaceborne reconnaissance. The NRO researches, develops, acquires, and operates spaceborne data collection systems, and ensures that the nation has the technology and capabilities to acquire superior intelligence worldwide. Information gathered by NRO systems is used to monitor arms control agreements, provide I& W of possible hostilities, and plan and conduct military operations. NRO receives its budget through the National Reconnaissance Program (NRP) portion of the NFIP.

    The Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence share responsibility for the NRO. The Director, NRO, the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force( Space), exercises daily management. The DCI (through his staff) establishes collection priorities and requirements for satellite data collection. The NRO is staffed by personnel from the military services, the CIA, and DOD (civilian).

    The Deputy Director for Military Support( DDMS) focuses NRO activities toward support of the military users. The DDMS is a military flag or general officer dual- hatted as a member of the Operations Directorate of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, J3. With this unique operational perspective, the DDMS coordinates the activities of the three NRO offices primarily responsible for addressing military intelligence requirements: the Defense Support Project Office (DSPO); the Operational Support Office (OSO; and the Office of Plans and Analysis (P& A). The DSPO oversees military application of NRO systems in cooperation with uniformed service Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities( TENCAP) organizations. The OSO was created in 92 to facilitate providing NRO support to meet the near- term needs of operational users. P& A works the long- term and future requirements for military systems in the planning and acquisition phases.

    Of the three offices, the OSO is specifically chartered to act as advocate and facilitator for theoperational forces, and garners support from across the NRO.

    Non- DOD Intelligence Agencies and Organizations

    Central Intelligence Agency

    The Central Intelligence Agency responsibilities, under the direction of the National Security Council, include the collection of foreign intelligence and the development, conduct, or provision of support for technical and other programs which collect national foreign intelligence. The CIA is responsible for the conduct of counterintelligence activities abroad and for the coordination of counterintelligence activities conducted abroad by other members of the intelligence community. In addition, the CIA is responsible for coordinating collection of intelligence information outside the United States. The CIA conducts special activities in support of national foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the U. S. Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities but which are not intended to influence U. S. political process, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions. These special activities are approved by the President. The CIA produces and disseminates foreign intelligence relating to the national security, including foreign political, economic, scientific, technical, military, geographic, and sociological intelligence required to meet the needs of the President, the NSC, and other elements of the U. S. Government. Also, the CIA produces and disseminates counterintelligence studies and reports on the foreign aspects of narcotics production and trafficking.

    Department of Energy

    The Office of Energy Intelligence in the Department of Energy (DOE) supports US Government policymakers, as well as the US Intelligence Community, with timely, accurate, and relevant intelligence analyses and national intelligence production on nuclear proliferation, foreign nuclear weapons and materials, science and technology, international fossil and nuclear energy safety and waste developments, and economic environmental assessments relevant to energy issues.

    Other DOE intelligence elements include the Office of Counterintelligence and the Threat Assessment Division. The Office of Counterintelligence provides counterintelligence in- house analytical studies and threat products to support DOE and Intelligence Community needs;administrative and investigative capabilities to assist FBI and CIA operational and criminal investigative requests; and conducts threat awareness briefings for the Intelligence Communityand DOE's nuclear and energy facilities and personnel. The Threat Assessment Division provides assessments of nuclear threats, black- market sales of nuclear material, and threats to DOE nuclearand energy facilities and personnel.

    Federal Bureau of Investigation

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the lead agency for counterintelligence, counterespionage, and counterterrorism. The bureau's major contribution to the intelligence community is the conduct of its foreign counterintelligence mission. To fulfill this mission, it collects, analyzes, and exploits information to identify and neutralizes those activities of foreign powers and their agents that might adversely affect the national security of the U. S. FBI agents stationed abroad support the foreign counterintelligence mission. Outside the U. S., the CIA also conducts foreign counterintelligence in support of its operations (as opposed to the FBI's national security agenda). The FBI, unlike the CIA, has the authority to investigate U. S. citizens in the conduct of its foreign counterintelligence mission. The two agencies coordinate their actions, as required. At the FBI intelligence pinnacle is the Assistant Director for National Security, who represents FBI interests on the National Foreign Intelligence Board. The National Security Division, under this Assistant Director, is the principal player in the collection and analysis of intelligence data by the FBI. Although the division is actively involved in community- wide intelligence assessments and activities, its primary focus is conducted international terrorism and foreign counterintelligence investigations.

    U. S. Department of State

    Within the intelligence community, the State Department delivers intelligence to the Secretary of State and other key government decision makers. It also oversees intelligence activities across the entire community to ensure that they are consistent with and supportive of the country's foreign policy objectives.

    The Department of State does not engage in intelligence collection, per se; it relies on the collection activities of other agencies. Nevertheless, data gathered through the normal conduct of business by Foreign Service officers, diplomats, field agency personnel, and other employment or associates provides significant information for the intelligence process. The department in general(as opposed to its intelligence arm) also maintains a strong relationship with qualified individuals and institutions in academia and other centers of expertise or excellence in international affairs andrelated topics. It conducts constant dialogues with foreign agencies, institutions, and personalities through official and informal means. These relationships often provide the criticalor only information the intelligence community has on a particular topic.

    Although there are several intelligence offices within the Department of State, the currentintelligence arm, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). INR plays a unique role in the intelligence community as both an integral part of the Department of State and a member of the National Foreign Intelligence Board. INR's primary mission is to harness intelligence to serve U. S. diplomacy. Its key role is to ensure that intelligence activities that are consistent with U. S. foreign policy serve the needs of senior foreign policy decision makers.

    INR intelligence supports U. S. diplomatic actions that seek to persuade and influence policy decisions in other countries. Reflecting the agenda of the Secretary of State, INR analytical coverage is global and ranges from traditional military threats to new issues such as proliferation, terrorism, international organized crime, regional conflicts, and intensified economic competitiveness. Its analyses are viewed as objective and well informed, without policy bias or deference to other department bureaus or government agencies. Assessments are tailored to fit the precise needs of key foreign policy decision makers.

    Department of the Treasury

    The Department of Treasury is an active member of the federal intelligence community. Both the departmental offices and the operating bureaus have relationships with the intelligence community. Primarily users of intelligence, in limited cases they also provide open source intelligence information. Treasury's involvement in intelligence and supporting communications systems is outlined in EOand various laws governing its operations. The Treasury organizations most involved in the intelligence are the Secret Service, Customs Service, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and the internal Revenue Service. These agencies primarily deal with intelligence as it relates to law enforcement activities.

    Military Services

    Army Intelligence

    The United States Army has undertaken an important transformation, shifting away fromthe Cold War and moving beyond the Industrial Age into the Information Age. As part of this transformation, intelligence is being fully integrated into the force at every level. The conduct ofsuccessful operations requires that intelligence flow shamelessly from national systems to tactical operations; that it support warfighting commanders at each echelon; and that it be communicatedwithin seconds.

    Army intelligence is prepared to meet the full range of Foreign Ground Force Intelligencerequirements generated by commanders at every level across the spectrum of operations. Based on doctrinal concepts, the Army's assets provide commanders with the capability to communicate with and receive intelligence from many intelligence agencies. Concurrently, the Army provides numerous unique intelligence assets and analytic organizations critical to mission success.

    Army intelligence force structure is designed to provide timely, relevant, accurate and synchronized intelligence and electronic warfare support to tactical, operational and strategic level commanders across the range of Joint military operations. To support military force power projection during contingency operations, Army's Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) provides personnel and tactically tailorable deployment packages in support of warfighters worldwide. In addition, the Army has a robust intelligence structure that supports tactical level warfighters. At Corps level, intelligence support to warfighters is provided by the commander's senior intelligence officer, the G2, and an organic Military Intelligence (MI) Brigade. The MI Brigade provides support across the full range of intelligence and counterintelligence disciplines and functions.

    The Division intelligence structure provides collection assets and analytic organizations that meet Division and Brigade commanders' intelligence needs. The MI Battalion at Division provides the commander an organic collection and analytic capability. The intelligence structure at the maneuver Battalion and Brigade is simple, small, and standardized. Both elements have small intelligence staffs designed to support commanders with the expedited distribution of combat intelligence. The Brigade is also augmented with a direct support MI Company.

    From INSCOM to the intelligence staffs that support maneuver battalions, Army intelligence structure is designed, and its personnel are equipped, trained, and prepared to provide military commanders with unique capabilities and a balanced flexible force that can be tailored to meet any contingency.

    Air Force Intelligence

    The mission of Air Force Intelligence is to ensure that the US Air Force and other customers receive the best intelligence, enabling them to establish information dominance in peace, crisis, and war. In conjunction with the other Military Services and national intelligence agencies, Air Force Intelligence provides accurate, timely intelligence information on air and space forces to consumers at all levels of command. This mission is being carried out in an increasingly dynamic environment, characterized by a global economy, rapid proliferation of information technologies, blurring of traditional geopolitical boundaries, and decreasing resources-- all of which challenge the Air Force to keep pace.

    The heart of Air Force Intelligence is support for operational forces. Air intelligenceresources are embedded in each Unified Command's air component, including wing and squadron levels. Air Force intelligence specialists work side by side with planners and operators at everylevel of command, preparing for operations from disaster and humanitarian relief, peace keeping,counterterrorism and counternarcotics, to full- scale conflict. An array of high- technology sensor systems, worldwide Air Intelligence Agency ground sites, and airborne reconnaissance systems like the U- 2 and RC- 1, provide information vital to achieve national objectives. Air Force professionals use suites of interoperable analysis tools and dissemination systems to tailor this information to unique Air Force needs. Commanders use it to determine objectives, select options, and plan, conduct and evaluate combat operations. Combat crews us it to avoid threats and to maximize their effectiveness and meet objectives.

    Air Force intelligence professionals are taking a leading role in defining the future of warfare. Faced with a multidimensional battlespace, including ground, air, space, and the virtual battlefield of cyberspace, they are seeking innovative ways to establish dominance in air, space, and in the flow of information while protecting our own information and forces from attack.

    The Air Intelligence Agency (AIA) is the executive agent for implementing Air Force intelligence policy. AIA operates the National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC), which exploits all source information to produce intelligence on aerospace systems and potential adversaries' capabilities and intentions. Its products directly support warfighters, policymakers, and the weapons acquisition community. The 7th Intelligence Group conducts a host of specialized intelligence support functions for worldwide Air Force units. The Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC) spearheads development of information warfare concepts, tools, and a wide array of support services. The Operations Support Central, part of AFIWC, is a round- the- clock source of information and assistance to forces deployed around the globe.

    Naval Intelligence

    Naval Intelligence is part of the "corporate enterprise" of military intelligence agencies working within the Intelligence Community. Naval intelligence products and services support the operating forces, the Department of the Navy, and the maritime intelligence requirements of national level agencies. The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), located primarily in the National Maritime Intelligence Center in Suitland, Maryland, is the national production center for global maritime intelligence.

    ONI is the center of expertise for every major maritime issue-- from the analysis of the design and construction of foreign surface ships to the collection and analysis of acoustic information on foreign sensor systems, ocean surveillance systems, submarine platforms and undersea weapons systems. Its analysis of naval air warfare ranges from appraisals of opposition combat tactics to analysis of rival missile signatures, making it the authoritative resource for maritime air issues.

    ONI is the principal source for maritime intelligence on global merchant affairs and a national leader in other non- traditional maritime issues such as counternarcotics, fishing issues, ocean dumping of radioactive waste, technology transfer, and counterproliferation. ONI alsoprovides specific products in support of national level acquisition programs, including characteristics and performance data on foreign threat platforms and weapons systems. Its foreignmaterial exploitation programs provide assessments to Navy organizations, laboratories and system commands engaged in developing new weapons systems and countermeasures.

    Finally, ONI's technical expertise in analyzing naval weapons and systems, combined withthe operational expertise of its intelligence and warfare specialists, allows for more effective analysis of the complex questions of contemporary naval capabilities and for a more accurate projection of those capabilities into the future.

    Marine Corps Intelligence

    Marine Corps Intelligence is a vital part of the military intelligence" corporate enterprise," and functions in a collegial, effective manner with other service agencies and with the joint intelligence centers of the JCS and Unified Commands. Marine Corps Intelligence provides services and specialized products to support the Commandant of the Marine Corps as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, as well as to the Marine Corps Headquarters Staff. Marine Intelligence supports acquisition policy and budget planning and programming, and provides pre- deployment training and force contingency planning for requirements that are not satisfied by theater, other service, or national capabilities.

    The Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) accomplishes its mission from two locations: as a full partner with Naval Intelligence and Coast Guard Intelligence in the National

    Maritime Intelligence Center, and at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. These locations facilitate maximum effective use of infrastructure and resources, while ensuring that MCIA remains attentive to its primary customers in the operations, development, and force modernization communities within the Marine Corps.

    MCIA produces a full range of products to satisfy customer needs in peace, pre- crisis, or contingency situations, and to support service obligations for doctrine development, force structure, training and education, and force modernization. MCIA accomplishes this mission through the integration, development, and application of general military intelligence, technical information, all source production, and open- source materials.

    National Intelligence Support Team (NIST)

    A National Intelligence Support Team (NIST) is a tailored organization consisting of representatives from the National Intelligence Community. It is an adhoc team created for specific contingencies. Normally, a NIST will automatically be attached at the Joint Task Force (JTF) level. When requested and approved, a NIST can be attached to elements subordinate to a JTF. NIST provides national level all- source intelligence to deployed commanders during crisis or contingency operations. Additionally NIST provides national connectivity and substantive input into intelligence products of the supported organization. A NIST serves as a vital link between the national intelligence community and the deployed commander.A NIST will provide:

    • coordination with national intelligence agencies;
    • indications and warning; time sensitive reporting;
    • situation summaries;
    • intelligence estimates;
    • special assessments;
    • targeting support;
    • access to national data bases;
    • facilitate national collection management;
    • request for information (RFI) management.

    Doctrinally, the program selects qualified volunteers who are then trained and ready fordeployment as a crisis emerges. The NIST Support Division, J- 1, Joint Staff, manages the program which involves personnel selection, training, deployment preparation, deployment,support while deployed, and redeployment. Eligible civilian and military personnel from all national agencies are encouraged to volunteer to be a NIST member. If selected and deployed they become part of a Joint Inter- Agency team working under a Joint Task J2. Each team will consist of at least:

    • 3 X OMA
    • 1 X NSA
    • 1 X DIA
    • Chief designated by J- 2 (Joint Staff)
    • Additional personnel are added depending on the request and the mission.

    Part of a NIST mission and role is to educate. Train and educate the intelligence officer and their commander on NIST capabilities and limitations. The J2/ G2 and Commander must understand the NIST concept and likewise, the NIST must understand the Army/ Military structure and doctrine.



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