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Intelligence

FM 34-1: Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations

CHAPTER 5


JOINT, COMBINED,AND INTERAGENCY OPERATIONS

Joint intelligence is rapidly evolving into a "pull down" system . . . When the JTF pulls, the strings reach to the top.

--Joint Pub 2-01, 12 October 1993

The Army conducts operations in concert and cooperation with other services, allied or coalition forces, agencies of the US Government at all levels, nongovernment agencies, and international agencies. Uncertainty about potential threats to the US and the requirements of force projection make almost any combination possible. Joint and combined operations are the primary means of conducting force projection operations and warfighting. In OOTW, Army operations will likely involve support to a civilian agency and some form of direction or control of the operation by that agency. The Intelligence BOS supports all such operations. Effective IEW in joint, combined, or interagency operations demands mutual intelligence support, sharing of IEW capabilities and assets, robust liaison, and agreement on policies and procedures among all participants.

JOINT OPERATIONS

Force projection is, by nature, a joint operation. In joint operations, Army MI units support the ARFOR and JTF commander. Army intelligence resources and capabilities are fully integrated and linked to the combatant command or JTF J2 and JIC. Within the joint intelligence organizations, Army MI personnel provide expertise on threat ground forces and the IEW needs of Army commanders.

Joint Intelligence Organizations:

Army IEW operations in joint operations focus on providing multidiscipline IEW support to the combatant command, the Army service component command and ARFOR, and the JTF. They build upon the foundation of joint intelligence developed during peacetime operations. Support to joint operations, therefore, should not require significant modification to the Intelligence BOS nor change the IEW principles of force projection. It does, however, demand greater awareness of the organizations, procedures, capabilities, and limitations of the Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps IEW operations. And, for personnel working in a J2, JIC, or other joint intelligence organization, it means applying joint procedures and principles. The goal of Army IEW operations remains the same whether conducted in a joint or Army-only operational environment. That goal being a seamless system capable of meeting the IEW and targeting needs of the commander.

Joint intelligence organizations allow ARFOR commanders to build a continuous bridge from the deployed AR FOR to the JIC and beyond to national agencies. Figure 5-1 shows the joint intelligence architecture.

Described below are some of the intelligence relationships which support joint intelligence operations.

National Security Council (NSC). The NSC advises the President and national leadership on integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. Statutory members of the NSC are the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Defense. The Director, Central Intelligence and Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) participate as advisors. The NSC provides review of, guidance for, and direction to the conduct of all national foreign intelligence and CI activities.

Director, Central Intelligence (DCI). The DCI coordinates the efforts of the intelligence community at the national level. As the DCI and head of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), he is the primary advisor to the President and the NSC cm national foreign intelligence matters. The DCI and the intelligence community staff provide guidance and direction to all intelligence agencies and organizations at the national and departmental level.

Joint Staff Director for Intelligence, J2 (Joint Staff J2). The Joint Staff J2 is the senior intelligence officer to the CJCS. As the Joint Staff J2, he provides intelligence support to the CJCS, Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), unified commands, and forces of joint combatant commands. He is responsible for day-to-day and joint staff functions including control of the National Military Joint Intelligence Center.

National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC). The NMJIC is the focal point for intelligence support to joint operations. The NMJIC is composed of representatives from the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), Central Imagery Office (CIO), National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and military services. H has access to all DIA resources and the agencies within the national intelligence community. As the top level of joint intelligence architecture, the NMJIC is the channel through which joint force commander's intelligence and Cl needs are tasked to appropriate national agencies. The NMJIC coordinates direct connectivity as required between national intelligence activities and deployed forces. The NMJIC also coordinates deployment of National Intelligence Support Teams (NISTs) comprised of representatives from DIA, CIA, and NSA. These teams deploy with portable communications equipment and provide direct connectivity into the national intelligence community and the NMJIC. A NIST can deploy to any echelon to include deployed operational forces.

Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence (DCSINT). The DCSINT directs, coordinates, and develops policy for Army IEW and Army IEW support to joint operations. He oversees numerous Army intelligence organizations at the national and departmental levels that support joint operations. The office of the DCSINT is the Army authority for intelligence operations, intelligence policy matters with national level agencies, and coordination with Joint Staff and other services as well as allied and foreign countries.

Theater J2. The theater or combatant command J2 assists the theater Commander in Chief (CINC) in developing strategy, planning theater campaigns, organizing the theater intelligence effort, and establishing command relationships for effective unified and joint operations. The J2 is responsible for determining the requirements and direction of the intelligence effort to support the commander's objectives. He assists the commander in ensuring that intelligence objectives are correct, understood, prioritized, synchronized, and acted upon. The J2 is also responsible for employing joint force intelligence resources, identifying and integrating additional intelligence resources such as the JIC, and applying national intelligence capabilities. He works with other J2s and service G2s to develop complementary intelligence operations which support the commander's requirements. He oversees the theater's Cl operations and force protection effort. The theater J2 also --

  • Recommends to the CINC the priorities for intelligence planning, products, and acquisition of intelligence resources.
  • Establishes the intelligence architecture within which the component commands and other subordinate commands operate.
  • Sets intelligence collection priorities through collection and production tasking and the allocation of intelligence resources and communications.
  • Directs the activities of the J2 staff and the JIC.
  • Serves as the focal point for receiving, validating, and issuing requests of national systems' support of theater, joint, and component intelligence requirements.
  • Manages theater intelligence communications and processing systems, and ensures subordinate commands possess adequate intelligence communications and processing capabilities.

Functional and geographical combatant commands are uniquely organized for their particular missions and area of responsibility. US European Command and US Pacific Command are examples of theater or geographical combatant commands. US Special Operations Command is an example of a functional combatant command. The command's IEW structure is tailored to support these requirements. The intelligence assets available at each command include --

  • Intelligence and CI.
  • I&W.
  • Special security office (SSO-).
  • Cryptologic support group (CSG).
  • Laison officers.
  • Joint Interrogation Facility (JIF), Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center (JCMEC), and Joint Document Exploitation Center (JDEC).

The J2 staff has intelligence experts from each of the command's subordinate service components. The staff provides the CINC and J2 with information on each component's intelligence capabilities, limitations, and requirements. The staff may include additional support elements from each subordinate command.

Theater JIC. The theater or combatant command JIC is the principal element for ensuring effective intelligence support for combatant command CINC and theater forces. Not all CINCS have a JIC assigned to their command, but are supported by a regional JIC. The JIC is an all-source center that produces intelligence to satisfy the requirements of the CINC and subordinate units. The JIC also provides intelligence support to national and subordinate commands within the theater. The JIC can expand or contract in size and scope of operations based on the requirements of the CINC and theater forces. The JIC may also attach an intelligence support element (ISE) to supported commands within the theater. Combatant commanders who have a JIC, organize it in the manner best suited to satisfy their intelligence requirements. Normally the theater JIC --

  • Coordinates the intelligence efforts of subordinate commands.
  • Coordinates the theater collection plan and employment of theater organic sensors.
  • Provides national and subordinate commands with a single, coordinated intelligence picture by fusing national and theater intelligence into all-source estimates and assessments.
  • Develops and maintains data bases which support planning, operations, and targeting.
  • Provides IEW support to US military assistance advisory groups.
  • Supports deep targeting.
  • Validates BDA from higher, lower, and adjacent sources.

Joint Task Force J2. The JTF J2 is responsible for determining the requirements and direction of the intelligence effort to support the JTF commander's objectives. He assists the commander in ensuring that intelligence objectives are correct, understood, prioritized, synchronized, and acted upon. The J2 is also responsible for employing joint intelligence resources, identifying and integrating additional intelligence resources such as the JIC, and applying national intelligence capabilities. He works with subordinate service G2s (S2s) to develop complementary intelligence operations which support the JTF commander's requirements.

Joint Task Force JIC. The JTF JIC is the primary J2 organization supporting the joint force commander and the ARFOR. The JIC facilitates efficient access to the entire Department of Defense (DOD) intelligence system. The composition and focus of each JIC varies according to the commander's needs but each possesses the capability to perform I&W, current intelligence, collection management, and dissemination. The JIC is dynamic, flexible, and an expandable structure exemplified by the NMJIC and theater JICs such as the Central Command (CENTCOM) J/C. Through the J/C, ARFORs coordinate support from Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps; national; interagency; and combined or allied resources.

Theater Army G2. The theater Army G2 is responsible to the Army service component (ASC) commander for all Army intelligence activities within the ARFOR assigned to the unified or subunified command. He supports and receives guidance from the combatant command J2. The G2-

  • Serves as the component focal point for ground force intelligence.
  • Supervises all facets of the theater Army IEW operations, including collection management, and all-source production to satisfy the intelligence needs of the commander.
  • Provides ISEs for liaison with Army, joint, combined, and allied military organizations and their associated intelligence organizations and services.
  • Recommends standard tactical missions and command relationships of theater IEW assets supporting the ground forces of subordinate, joint, or combined commands or other IEW organizations in the theater.
  • Exercises direct supervisory control of the ACE of the theater MI brigade.

Theater Military Intelligence Brigade. Each theater MI brigade is regionally and functionally tailored according to the requirements of the specific theater. The theater MI brigade provides multidiscipline IEW support normally to the Army G2; however, in certain theaters, the brigade provides echelon above division support to the theater under the direction of the J2 vice G2 and may be integrated into the J2's operations. The theaterMI brigade may provide support to a JTF or to forward deployed ECB forces. The theater MI brigade provides-

  • Multidiscipline IEW support to ASC, JTF, and forward deployed ECB forces.
  • Personnel for the CMISE which reinforce organic capabilities of the deployed corps. The combination of the theater JIC, CMISE, and theater MI brigade ACE, forms a continuous bridge from the corps to the JIC and beyond to national agencies.
  • Support to the joint intelligence structure with ground component intelligence.

The theater MI brigade organic assets vary by theater. Its capabilities may include --

  • Deployable high frequency, LOS intercept, DF, and jamming.
  • Reinforcement to national sensor nodes in the theater to leverage strategic signals and IMINT collection and processing systems for the ASC and supported corps.
  • MDCI.
  • Interrogation, document exploitation, and other HUMINT collection.
  • TECHINT collection and exploitation.
  • MASINT collection, analysis, and reporting.
  • Operational intelligence products for deployed forces such as graphic templates and annotated imagery.
  • Access to weather information through the IMETS and the EAC Air Force weather team.
  • Finished products pertaining to general MI, S&TI (to include support to reprogramming of smart weapons), and CI.

Theater Army ACE. The theater Army ACE supports the Army commander and subordinate ARFOR. It is directly supervised by the G2 and normally collocates with the G2 staff. In certain theaters, the ACE may be integrated into the J2 operations and serve as the nucleus for the JIC. The theater Army ACE is the focal point for planning, directing, and coordinating ground force IEW operations. Theater SIGINT control and analysis resources are integrated with all-source analysis, production, and collection management within the ACE. The theater Army ACE --

  • Performs collection management, all-source intelligence production, and intelligence and information dissemination.
  • Supports national, joint, and combined commands with key intelligence products through the Intelligence BOS.
  • Manages the exchange of intelligence, tasking, and requests among all Army IEW elements in the theater.
  • Coordinates requests for IEW support between national-level agencies, sister services, allied forces, and ECB units. It supplements the organic collection capabilities of supported commands.
  • Translates SORs into specific SIGINT collection requirements and tasks specific SIGINT assets.
  • Coordinates directly with the Army technical control and analysis element (TCAE) which is collocated with NSA for access to national SIGINT data bases.
  • Is the point through which Army ECB MI units receive SIGINT information and technical support from national assets, other services, or allied SIGINT assets.
  • Works and coordinates with the Regional SIGINT Operations Center to create and maintain threat data bases.

Corps Military Intelligence Support Element. The CMISE provides the corps commander with an expanded and flexible intelligence capability. The CMISE is a direct support unit from the theater MI brigade tailored to meet the intelligence requirements of the supported corps. Its soldiers form a team of experts familiar with corps, theater, and national intelligence systems and structures. The CMISE fully integrates into the corps intelligence structure under the operational control of the corps G2.

The CMISE serves as a bridge between theater and national intelligence agencies and their tactical consumers at ECB. Within the theater, CMISE leverages the JIC to ensure it focuses on support to the corps during operations. It must work in cooperation with, and be complementary to, the JIC to fully exploit the capabilities of the intelligence system. The CMISE also provides the corps greater access to national intelligence structures through affiliation with the theater MI brigade and INSCOM. Figure 5-2 shows joint and services intelligence organizations accessible through the CMISE.

The CMISE can perform the following functions for the corps:

  • Provides additional capability to do split-based operations. Members of the CMISE provide continuity during exercises or contingencies when they remain at home station, pull intelligence from higher echelons, and push finished intelligence to the corps.
  • Provides an ISE with deployed elements of the corps to facilitate greater continuity and expanded links to higher echelons.
  • Monitors other countries in the corps AI while the MI brigade focuses on an exercise or contingency operation.
  • Expands the number of regions or countries the corps can monitor and provides a strategic intelligence capability focused on the commander's requirements.
  • Supports the corps at any point during an operation with versatility in intelligence support and access to higher echelon intelligence.


Joint Intelligence Operations:

Key responsibilities of intelligence organizations in joint intelligence operations are to --

  • Support unified, JTF, and component commanders.
  • Establish, if necessary, a JTF JIC to centrally manage the joint intelligence effort.
  • Integrate intelligence received from component units with that provided by the joint, national, combined, and interagency resources to satisfy the needs of the joint commander.
  • Coordinate component EW efforts to support the joint effort.
  • Facilitate expedient and efficient access to the entire DOD intelligence structure in support of joint operations.

The combatant command and joint force commanders do not have organic collection assets. The CINC or JTF commander relies on national and subordinate commands for collection assets. These may include joint force collection assets, assets organic to the service component commands, SOF, or other subordinate commands within the theater. They may beAir Force, Navy, Marine Corps, or Army assets organic to INSCOM EAC brigades. The J2 must task collection assets through the component command, combined command, or other appropriate command channels.

Joint Intelligence Procedures:

When serving on a joint staff, Army intelligence personnel comply with joint doctrine, Joint Publication 2-series , and Joint Publication 3-0.

Collection management at the joint level differs slightly from Army doctrine. At the joint level, dissemination responsibility lies with the joint equivalent of the mission manager not the asset manager.

The joint staff ensures that component data bases and communications systems are interoperable.

Joint Publications 2-0 , 2-01, and 2-02 contain more details on national intelligence agencies; the NMJIC and lower echelon JICs; joint TTPs for intelligence support to joint, combined, and allied commands; and the communications and ADP systems which make that support possible.

COMBINED OPERATIONS

This section implements STANAG 2936.

In combined operations, forces of two or more nations work to accomplish the mission. Combined organizations conduct IEW operations based on established international standards, such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and STANAG 2936 . Other coalitions and alliances must adjust the concept of IEW support to meet the common goal. Furthermore, most potential allies will not possess the range of US capabilities to collect and process intelligence. All personnel work to eliminate differences in culture, language, terminology, and operational concepts. See Joint Publication 2-0 for specific information on this subject.

Combined Intelligence Organizations:

Combined intelligence organizations vary according to the type of operation, commander's intelligence requirements, security concerns, and capabilities of each participant. The joint intelligence structure discussed earlier provides a framework for organizing the combined intelligence effort. However, the final combined intelligence structure should be one in which allied, coalition, and US commanders receive the information necessary to successfully conduct the operation.

Allied organizations like NATO are permanently organized with established relationships and procedures. The Army helps resource the permanent intelligence staff but may still augment that staff with an ISE.

Military operations with coalition partners take place under bilateral, multinational, or United Nations (UN) auspices. Military coalitions are temporary organizations that last only for the duration of a crisis or war. The coalition commander establishes organizations, relationships, and procedures for coalition units. The Army helps resource an ISE to coalition staffs from the theater MI brigade.

Combined Intelligence Operations:

Army staffs coordinate support from coalition and allied partner intelligence resources through the ISE of the combined staff. Coalition and allied partners provide translator and interpreter support to complement Army linguist capabilities.

Combined IEW operations are based on the following principles:

Adjust National Differences Among Nations. Effective combined operations require adjusting IEW operations to minimize differences in national concepts of IEW support. Routinely conducting combined exercise and intelligence operations are two ways of eliminating differences and improving intelligence readiness.

Unity of Effort Against Common Threat. The threat to one member of an alliance or coalition should be considered a threat to all.

Determining and Planning Intelligence. The combined command and national forces' intelligence requirements, production, and use should be agreed upon, planned, and exercised in advance.

Special Arrangements. Special arrangements should be made, when necessary, to accommodate national differences in culture, language, terms, doctrine, methods of operation, communications, and structures. An example would be the positioning of a Joint STARS downlink terminal with a non-US coalition command.

Full Exchange of Intelligence. Each nation should share intelligence which supports military operations and attains alliance or coalition objectives. Every attempt should be made to ensure alliance and coalition commanders are provided the intelligence needed to protect their forces and achieve success. This may require gaining permission from national intelligence agencies for the declassification or sanitization of previously restricted intelligence. Once permission is gained, the exchange of intelligence must be monitored to ensure it complies with foreign disclosure policies and procedures.

Complementary Intelligence Operations. The strengths and weaknesses of each nation's IEW forces and operations should be evaluated to determine the best blend of capabilities available to accomplish the mission.

Combined Intelligence Centers. Where there is a combined command, there should also be a combined intelligence center. The center should consist of an intelligence staff composed of members from each nation and, in addition to conducting intelligence operations, be able to translate and disseminate products in various national languages of the command.

Liaison Exchange. The exchange of intelligence personnel between alliance or coalition partners bridges national differences and ensures access to intelligence resources of each nation.

Combined Intelligence Procedures:

Joint Publication 2-0 provides specifics for these procedures. In addition, the --

  • Coalition commander determines standardized procedures for coalition forces.
  • Combined staff ensures that allied and coalition forces use interoperable data bases and communication systems.
  • American, British, Canadian, and Australian (ABCA) forces have agreed to abide by Quadripartite Standardization Agreements QSTAGs), which generally mirror Standardization Agreements (STANAGs). AR 34-1 contains further information on these agreements.

NATO Forces have agreed to abide by STANGs which --

  • Ensure a four-step intelligence cycle (plan and direct, collect, process, and disseminate).
  • Standardize the intelligence estimate content and format.
  • Establish intelligence reporting procedures and format of request for intelligence information (RII).

INTERAGENCY OPERATIONS

MI units routinely operate as part of an interagency team or receive support from nonmilitary intelligence agencies. Interagency operations occur between Army units and Federal, state, and local agencies or international agencies. In a particular crisis or operation, the Army component may be under the direction of a US Government agency or other civilian agency. Interagency operations require a cooperative approach to the coordination, exchange, and integration of intelligence within the constraints of AR 381-10. MI units involved in this type of operation need to understand how the agency provides support to operators, planners, and policymakers to conduct successful operations. Joint Publication 2-01 contains more information on interagency operations.

Interagency Intelligence Organizations: The organization varies depending upon the situation and the mission. Certain efforts such as counter-drug operations are well-established. More often than not, the Army component staffs negotiate specific relationships with other US agencies during specific crises. Some agencies such as NSA and DIA have long established interagency relationships with the military.

Interagency Intelligence Operations:

Other US agencies can provide HUMINT, SIGINT, and IMINT support to Army units. Army intelligence should take advantage of this capability, whenever possible.

Interagency Intelligence Procedures:

Usually the Army component establishes new procedures for each operation involving another US agency. Some key procedural issues in interagency operations are releasability, write-in authority, and dissemination of intelligence.

Releasability. The Intelligence BOS supports all operations to the maximum extent possible. In interagency operations, maximum intelligence support requires that the tasked Army and US Government agencies or other civilian organizations have authority to exchange information and intelligence required to carry out their responsibilities. This two-way flow of information is part of a seamless Intelligence BOS architecture.

At a minimum, the Army component needs authority to release information, when necessary, to subordinate and adjacent units and to other services. Some types of information may require sanitization to protect sources and follow-on collection operations. Intelligence staffs must establish procedures for release of specific types of information between the Army and other agencies before the operation begins, if possible. Various US Government, DOD, and Army regulations (ARs) control releasability and specify procedures for release. ARs 380-5 , 381-1, 381-10, and other 380- and 381-series regulations contain further information.

Write-in Authority. Army intelligence elements at each echelon require the ability and the authority to write information into data bases which they receive from higher echelons. National intelligence agencies, JICs, and theater ACEs maintain a wide variety of intelligence data bases. Each echelon needs the capability for automated receipt, update, transfer, and return of data bases between echelons.

One example is the DIA's military intelligence integrated data base system/integrated data base (MIIDS/IDB). The ACE at corps, division, or separate brigade, or the intelligence element of an Army component in any interagency, joint, or combined operation, may need the capability to receive a portion of the MIIDS/IDB which focused on the requirements of that echelon or operation. They also need the write-in authority and automation to update the MIIDS/lDB at their echelon, to manipulate the data, and to pass it back to DIA or transfer the data base to subordinate or adjacent units. A two-way flow of data base information is part of the seamless intelligence architecture. It can help provide a common picture of the AO to commanders at all echelons and support distributive production of intelligence in the Intelligence BOS.

Dissemination. In interagency operations, Army commanders and civilian leaders require information and intelligence upon which to base decisions as urgently as in any other category of operations. Dissemination of intelligence must be as fast and direct as possible. US Government, DOD, and Army security requirements must be considered. Memorandums of Understanding or Letters of Agreement may be required. The Army and civilian agency intelligence staffs should complete negotiations and agreements on intelligence dissemination policies and procedures before the operation begins.

Exchange of intelligence liaison teams can greatly enhance the effectiveness of dissemination. The intelligence liaison officer can sanitize incoming information as it is received, and when necessary, interpret the information which nonmilitary staffs may not understand.

The Army and the government agency should use compatible communications and ADP systems. The commanders and leaders in an interagency operation must be able to receive information from anywhere in the intelligence system and also contribute information into the system.



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