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Intelligence


Covert Operations

A "covert" operation differs from a "clandestine" operation in that the former seeks to hide the identity of the operation's sponsor, while the latter seeks to hide the operation itself. See Joint Pub 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 1 December 1989. A clandestine operation, if properly conducted, remains totally concealed. The authorities in the target area never know that anything happened. A covert operation, on the contrary, must have a product. For this reason the service carrying out a covert operation knows from the start that it cannot keep the activity itself a secret; it aims instead for plausible denial.

Historically, the Central Intelligence Agency mounted covert operations, while the Special Forces conducted clandestine operations. Unlike Special Forces clandestine operations, since 1974 CIA covert operations required a Presidential finding and notification to the US Congress.

After the end of the cold war, many covert operations conceived and frequently carried out by the United States seem, in retrospect, to be acts of near folly, if not worse. But these operations were carried out by intelligent well-trained men whose dedication and patriotism were beyond reproach.

Introduction

Locale

Dates

Cold War
Soviet Russia REDBLOCK19451991
China 19451963
Philippines 19451960
Korea 19451953
Soviet Russia REDSKIN19471963
Italy 19471948
Greece 19471953
East Europe [Splinter Factor] 19481956
Austria19481962
East Germany19491969
West Germany19491974
Albania19491958
Italy 19501975
Vietnam 19501973
The Ramparts Affair19501967
Burma19501961
Bulgaria19501955
Soviet Russia REDSOX19501964
Soviet Russia REDCAP19511965
Radio Free Europe19511971
Romania19511954
Operaton Gladio 1951197?
Iran 1953
Formosa1950
Greece19521972
Poland19531960
Guatemala 19531954
British Guiana 19531964
Costa Rica 1953 1958
Syria 19561957
Middle East 19571958
Indonesia 19571958
Tibet 19571959
Haiti 19591963
Cuba Operation Zapata 1959 1961
Guatemala 1960
France / Algeria 1960
Ecuador 19601963
North Vietnam Black Entry 19601972
Peru 19601965
Dominican Republic 19601966
Cuba Assassination Attempts19611963
Cuba Operation Mongoose 19611962
Congo19611964
Brazil 19601964
Chile19611964
Guatemala 19621985
Laos 19621973
Cambodia 19631973
Uruguay 19641970
Chile 19641973
Greece 19641974
Bolivia 19641975
Indonesia 1965
Ghana 1966
Katzenbach Committee 1966
Vietnam Phoenix19671971
Panama 19691991
Costa Rica 19701971
Iraq 19721975
Australia 19731975
Angola 19751976
Zaire 19751978
Jamaica 19761980
Seychelles 19791981
Grenada 19791984
Iran Eagle Claw 19791980
Afghanistan 19791992
Solidarity19801989
El Salvador19801994
Libya 19811989
Nicaragua19811990
Suriname 19821984
Morocco 1983
Angola 19851988
Haiti 19861994
Iran-Contra1987
Noriega19881989
Bulgaria1990
Iraq 19901991
Albania 1991
Post Cold War
Iraqi National Congress 19912003
Arms to Bosnia1994
Croatia Operation Storm1995
Iran Gingrich "Add"19951996
Kosovo Operation Root19971999
Serbia 19992000
Al-Qaeda The Plan19992001
Al-Qaeda2001ongoing
Iran2001ongoing
Belarus2001ongoing
Venezuela2002ongoing
Georgia Rose Revolution2003
Iraq2003ongoing
Ukraine Orange Revolution20042005
Kyrgyzstan Tulip Revolution20052005



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