Tu-230 - hypersonic hydrogen bomber
In the USSR in the early 1970s, work began on several projects of hypersonic attack aircraft for various purposes and classes (intercontinental strategic, front-line, etc.). The OKB worked out two directions in the GPUS: an attack machine designed for cruising speed corresponding to M = 4 and at cruising speed M = 6 (" 360 ").
The first in a series of Tupolev GPUS was the project which received the designation "230" (Tu-230), also known as Aircraft 230 and the the Tu-260. These two designations may in fact reference two different designs, as a supposedly contemporaneous display model of the "Tu-260" features a rather radical propulsion layout that is utterly different from the more prosaic layout of the "Tu-230". Other sources report that Project “260” (Tu-260) was aircraft research and design of a hypersonic long-range aircraft designed for cruising flight speed corresponding to M = 6 with cruising engines using liquid hydrogen with a flight range of up to 12,000 km at 10 tons of payload.
The development of the Tu-230 hypersonic bomber with an intercontinental range of action began in the USSR in 1983. Yu A.Fazylov was the project leader, and A. A. Tupolev and A. L. Pukhov as general managers. A preliminary design for the 230 aircraft was completed in 1985, and several options for the aerodynamic layout of the aircraft were under development.
The bomber had a scheme similar to the Tu-244 airliner - it was carried out in the tailless layout and had a delta wing. The crew of the Tu-230 consisted of two people. The bomber was to be a tailless aircraft with delta wing and four turbojet engines. Two twin air intakes were located at the bottom of the fuselage. As weapons, missiles of the air-to-air and air-to-surface categories, located in the internal compartment, were provided.
The Tu-230 had a length of over 54 m and a wingspan of 27 meters. In one version of the project, the power plant consisted of 4 combined turbojet engines of the D-80 type with a total thrust of about 100 tons. The engines were powered by hydrogen (whose reserves in the fuel tanks exceeded 1,500 m³). The maximum fuel supply (kerosene or liquid hydrogen, depending on the source) was 106,000 kg. Each unit included a turbojet and ramjet. It was assumed that the first provides acceleration to about 3 thousand km / h, after which the second comes into effect, accelerating the device to maximum speed.
In this case, the take-off mass of the aircraft was 180,000 kg. The cruising design speed of the aircraft “230” at high altitude corresponded speeds of up to 5 thousand km / h, which is 4 times higher than the sonic one. Thus, he could fly from Moscow to Washington in just an hour and a half. The maximum flight range was to be ten thousand kilometers, and the height - 27 kilometers.
Work on the project was actively carried out for two years, but in 1985 it was canceled for unknown reasons [some sources report funding ceased due to Gorbachev's reforms.].
|Designer||ANTK imeni A.N.Tupolev|
|Type of||Hypersonic strike aircraft|
|Geometric and mass characteristics|
|Aircraft length, m||54.15|
|Wing span, m||26.83|
|Take-off weight, kg||180,000|
|Full fuel supply, kg||106,000|
|Engines||Soloviev D-80 Turbojet engine|
|Flight data (estimated)|
|Cruising flight speed, M =||4|
|Cruise flight height, m||25000-27000|
|Practical range, km||8000-10000|
|Flight duration, h||2,3|
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