The Tu-109 long-range intercontinental and supersonic strategic carrier was a composite strike aviation system. The project was a variant of the aircraft "108" with P-4 Turbofan non-afterburing [Besforsazhnymi] Engines from KB ND Kuznetsova.
Each of the problems faced by the creators of the aircraft "108", was in itself a separate, very difficult task. In practice, it was about creating a multi-mode strategic supersonic attack carrier aircraft, which in its technical and technological solutions significantly outstripped the then capabilities of domestic aircraft. In fact, this type of aircraft was realized only in the 70s and 80s with the advent of the American and Soviet multi-mode strategic strike aircraft B-1 and Tu-160 with variable sweep of the wing and equipped with complexes of equipment and weapons based on the achievements of radio electronics the last quarter of the twentieth century.
In terms of further improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the project, various options for constructing a triangular wing in the plan were considered, the feasibility of applying the area rule to the general layout solution of the carrier aircraft was studied, the possibilities of using the boundary layer blowing and jet flaps in takeoff and landing modes, etc. were studied. For the power plant, the project with four turbojet engines of the P-4 project was the optimal and most acceptable from the point of view of ensuring the declared LTX of the carrier aircraft (the carrier aircraft received the code 109 for the aircraft design bureau). The transition to real afterburners NK-6, and even more so to six VD-7Ms, further aggravated the problem of creating an effective carrier aircraft.
A turbofan engine is the most modern variation of the basic gas turbine engine. As with other gas turbines, there is a core engine, whose parts and operation are discussed on a separate page. In the turbofan engine, the core engine is surrounded by a fan in the front and an additional turbine at the rear. The fan and fan turbine are composed of many blades, like the core compressor and core turbine, and are connected to an additional shaft. All of this additional turbomachinery is colored green on the schematic. As with the core compressor and turbine, some of the fan blades turn with the shaft and some blades remain stationary. The fan shaft passes through the core shaft for mechanical reasons. This type of arrangement is called a two spool engine (one "spool" for the fan, one "spool" for the core.) Some advanced engines have additional spools for even higher efficiency.
The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet. Some of the incoming air passes through the fan and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner, where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs. The hot exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out the nozzle, as in a basic turbojet. The rest of the incoming air passes through the fan and bypasses, or goes around the engine, just like the air through a propeller. The air that goes through the fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream. So a turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust from the fan. The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio.
Because the fuel flow rate for the core is changed only a small amount by the addition of the fan, a turbofan generates more thrust for nearly the same amount of fuel used by the core. This means that a turbofan is very fuel efficient. In fact, high bypass ratio turbofans are nearly as fuel efficient as turboprops. Because the fan is enclosed by the inlet and is composed of many blades, it can operate efficiently at higher speeds than a simple propeller. That is why turbofans are found on high speed transports and propellers are used on low speed transports. Low bypass ratio turbofans are still more fuel efficient than basic turbojets. Many modern fighter planes actually use low bypass ratio turbofans equipped with afterburners. They can then cruise efficiently but still have high thrust when dogfighting. Even though the fighter plane can fly much faster than the speed of sound, the air going into the engine must travel less than the speed of sound for high efficiency. Therefore, the airplane inlet slows the air down from supersonic speeds.
|basic design data||109 4 P-6|
|wing span||37.5 m;|
|Wing area||350 m2;|
|maximum speed||1800-2000 km / h;|
|flight range||10,000 km, of which 1500-1800 km was supersonic.|
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