R-39M / Grom [Bark] / SS-N-28 - Program
After a series of unsuccessful launches, the development of a rocket and trial operation at the head "Akule" in 1984, the D-19 complex was adopted. However, this missile was inferior in performance to the American complex Trident. In addition to the dimensions (length 16 m vs. 10.2 m, diameter 2.5 m vs. 1.8 m, weight with starting system 90 tons vs. 33.1 tons), the P-39 also had a shorter range - 8,300 km against 11 000 and accuracy - KVO 500 m against 100 m. Therefore, from the mid-1980s, work was begun on a new solid-fueled SLBM for the "Akul" - the Bark missile.
The development of the option of deep modernization of the SL-39 SLBM was launched in the first half of the 1980s. As of 1980, the design documentation was already being developed. The decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, adopted in November 1985, entrusted to begin the experimental design of the D-19UTTX complex in order to exceed the characteristics of the Trident-2 SLBMs. In March 1986, the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the development of the D-19UTTK "Bark" complex was adopted, and in August 1986, the Decree on ROC D-19UTTX was adopted with the deployment of the complex on the upgraded SSBN pr.941U.
The draft design of the D-19UTTX complex was prepared in March 1987. In the period from 1986 to 1992, work was successfully carried out to develop the strength of the rocket assemblies. After 1987, tests were carried out of units and assemblies on the R & D "Bark" on the vacuum-dynamic stand SKB-385. The first version of the missile project envisaged the use of an octogenic fuel of the OPAL type at the 1 st stage, and the TTF-56/3 higher-energy fuel produced by the Pavlograd chemical plant (now Ukraine) at the 2 nd and 3 rd stages of the higher-energy fuel.
In May 1987, the schedule of re-equipment of Pr.941 UTTKh at Sevmashpredpriyatiy was approved. On November 28, 1988, the USSR Council of Ministers passed a resolution "On the Development of Marine Strategic Nuclear Forces," which prescribed the beginning of the 13th Five-Year Plan (until 1991) to complete the development of the D-19UTTX complex and begin rearmament of the SSBN Pr.941. By decision of the Ministry of Trade and the Navy, the re-equipment and repair of the head submarine pr.941 (plant No. 711) was entrusted to the Shipyard "Zvezdochka". It was assumed that the Shipyard "Zvezdochka" will perform modernization of the submarine. Sevmorzavod was instructed to prepare the submerged launch complex PS-65M for testing the missile at the range and the experimental PLRB pr.619 for testing and testing the D-19UTTX complex with the 3M91 missile.
Until 1989, funding for the creation of the D-19UTTX complex was carried out by the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. Since 1989 - under the State Contract with the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. In 1989, the general designer of the Rubin Central Design Bureau (SSBN) S.Kovalev addressed the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee M.Gorbachev with proposals for further development of the naval strategic nuclear forces. As a result, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 31.10.1989 was issued, in which the order of development of naval strategic nuclear forces was determined for the 1990s and early 2000s. The SSBP pr. 941 was planned to be completely rearmed to the D-19UTTKh complex and in the second half of the 1990s it was planned to build a series of 14 SSBN pr.955 with the D-31 complex (12 SLBMs on the submarine).
Production of rockets for testing was started by 1991 at the Zlatoust Machine-Building Plant with a rate of 3-5 rockets a year. By 1992, the complete cycle of development of marching and auxiliary engines of the first variant of the missile project was completed - using engines produced by the Yuzhnoye (Dnepropetrovsk) software, final reports on the readiness of the engines for flight tests were issued. A total of 14-17 bench tests were carried out for all engines. Ground handling of the control system is completed. 7 launches from the stand (from immersible - IS - Zavyalov VS) were carried out before the flight tests of the rocket began. In the same year, the financing of works was significantly reduced, production capabilities allowed to produce 1 rocket for testing in 2-3 years.
In June 1992, the Council of Chief Designers decided to develop a supplement to the draft design with equipment of the 2nd and 3rd stages with fuel of the same fuel of the first stage (OPAL-MS-IIM with an octogen). This is caused by the conversion of the fuel producer in Ukraine - the Pavlograd Chemical Plant - into the production of household chemicals. The replacement of fuel reduced the energy of the rocket, which led to a reduction in the number of combat blocks from 10 to 8 pcs. From December 1993 to August 1996, four fire tests of the engines of the 2nd and 3rd stages on OPAL fuel were carried out, and a Conclusion on the admission to flight tests was issued. As of August 1996, the development and ground workings of engine charges of all three stages and 18 charges of control motors for SSBN "Bark" have been completed. The developer of engine charges - NPO "Altai" (Biysk).
The joint flight tests with the start-ups from the ground test stand at the Nenoksa training ground began in November 1993 (1st launch). The second launch was conducted in December 1994. The third and last launch from the ground stand was November 19, 1997. All three launches were unsuccessful. The third unsuccessful launch from the polygon in Nenoks took place on November 19, 1997, the rocket exploded after the launch - the structures of the test site were damaged.
As of the end of 1997, in readiness for testing at the Zlatoust machine-building plant, there was a rocket No. 4 - its tests, taking into account the modifications on the basis of the results of the third launch, were planned for June 1998. Also at the factory were the missile readiness number 5 , 6, 7, 8 and 9 - on the basis of the assemblies and components, the readiness was 70-90%. Taking this into account, in 1998 it was planned to conduct 2 launches (missiles Nos. 4 and 5), in 1999 - 2 launches (missiles Nos. 6 and 7) and from 2000 it was planned to start with SSGS pr.941U " Dmitry Donskoy "(5 launches in 2000-2001). Since 2002, it was planned to begin the deployment of the D-19UTTX complex on two converted SSBN pr.941. The technical readiness of the complex was at this point 73%. The readiness of the converted SSBN pr.941U is 83.7%.
In November 1997, the ministers of the Russian government, J. Urinson and I. Sergeev, in a letter to Prime Minister V. Chernomyrdin raised the question of transferring the design of the main SLBM of the Navy to the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering.
In November and December 1997, two Interdepartmental Commissions, established by order of the Russian Defense Minister, worked. The commission consisted of representatives of the Ministry of Defense, the Armaments Directorate of the Russian Defense Ministry and the Strategic Missile Forces, who criticized the project - the missile used outdated decisions on the control system and combat units, sustainer propulsion systems, fuel, etc. At the same time, it should be noted that the stability of the SL SLBM elemental base (3 y) was higher than that of the Topol-M ICBM (2 y), the accuracy is almost the same. Combat units were fully developed. The perfection of the 1st and 2nd stage march engines was higher than those of the Topol-M ICBMs by 20% and 25%, while the 3rd stage was worse by 10%. The mass perfection of the rocket was higher than that of the Topol-M ICBM.
Representatives of the Armaments Directorate and the Strategic Missile Forces forecasted the need to conduct 11 launches in 2006-2007, the amount of costs - 4.5-5 billion rubles. and proposed to stop the development of SLBMs.
In early 1998, the conclusions of the commission were approved by the Military Technical Council of the Defense Ministry of Russia. In January 1998 the issue was considered by the commission created by the decree of the President of Russia. In autumn 1998, at the suggestion of the commander-in-chief of the Navy V.Kuroyedov, the Security Council of Russia officially closed the "Bark" theme and after the competition under the auspices of Roskosmos (the participants - the MIT and the Makaev MRC with the Bulava-45 project of the chief designer Kaverin Yu. A.) the design of the Bulava SLBM at MIT was started. At the same time, a redesign for the Bulava missile was begun. At the same time, control over the development of the SLBM was assigned to the 4th Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Russia (headed by V.Dvorkin), who had previously been involved in the control of the creation of ICBMs, and the "marine" 28th Central Research Institute of the Russian Defense Ministry was suspended from the SLBM.
For the SSBN pr.941U "Akula" - 20 SLBMs, it was intended to replace the SL-39 / SS-N-20 STURGEON SLBMs on all project boats. In May 1987, the schedule was approved for the re-equipment of SSBN pr.941 missile system D-19UTTX. The re-equipment was planned to be carried out at PO "Sevmash": Production plant PL #711 - October 1988 - 1994; Production plant #712 - 1992 - 1997; Production plant #713 - 1996 - 1999; and Plans No. 724, 725, 727 were planned for refurbishment after 2000.
At the time of the closure of the Bark theme, the readiness of the SSBN pr.941U Dmitry Donskoy was 84% - mounted launchers, the compartments housed installation and technological equipment, only ship systems were not installed (they were located in the manufacturers' factories).
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