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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze

Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze (1914-1987) founded the scientific school of designing mobile missile systems and rocket engines on solid fuel. The organizer of R & D, one of the creators of operational-tactical and strategic types of missile weapons (mobile ground-based missile systems with guided ballistic solid-fuel missiles). He directed the development and creation of the missile systems Temp, Temp-S, Temp-2S, Pioneer and its modifications, as well as Gorn, Speed, and Courier. He laid the foundations for the creation of the mobile ground missile system "Topol".

He contributed to the development of scientific foundations for the design of rocket engines on solid fuels, gas dynamics, dynamics and reliability of solid-fuel rockets. Under his leadership, more than 80 research and development projects of defense importance were carried out. The author of more than 100 scientific papers and 220 inventions. Honored Inventor of the RSFSR.

Ustinov , being the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, did everything possible for the development of the new company, the Research Institute of Thermal Engineering General Designer Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze. The future academic and twice Hero of Socialist Labor, Nadiradze did not compete with Yangel and Chelomey , who hid their missiles in the mines. He put the rockets on the wheels, and thus appeared mobile launches - "land submarines". The Nuclear Weapons Databook on Soviet nuclear weapons reported: "Concerning the location of the Nadiradze Design Bureau, there are conflicting reports. According to the most believable of them, this KB is in Moscow. According to other sources, it is located in Biisk ... "And further:" ... the rocket was found in photographs taken from the satellite ... "," according to the CIA, its range can be increased to 7500 kilometers ... "For Western intelligence agencies, the rocket maker was of great interest.

When the veil of secrecy was raised over this formidable weapon, it became known that the main organization for the development of a mobile ground-based missile complex was the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering, and the chief designer was Academician Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze, twice Hero of Socialist Labor, the Chevalier of the four Orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution, laureate of the Lenin and State Prizes.

Alexander Davidovich was born on August 20, 1914 in the Georgian city of Gori. In 1936, after the end of the Transcaucasian Industrial Institute, he moved to Moscow and entered the Moscow Aviation Institute. Since 1938 he has been working at TsAGI as an engineer, then as a team leader. He engaged in theoretical, experimental and scientific research of an airplane take-off device based on the principle of an air cushion. Nadiradze took up the realization of Tsiolkovsky's idea, incredible at the time, for creating an air cushion chassis.

Tsiolkovsky is considered to be one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics. His most important work, published in 1903, was The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices". Tsiolkovsky had been developing the idea of the air cushion since 1921, publishing fundamental paper on it in 1927, entitled "Air Resistance and the Express Train" ["Soprotivlenie vozduha i skoryj poezd"]. He first proposed a “bottom of the retractable body” chassis. Professor VI Levkov began researching various schemes of all-terrain vehicles with an air cushion. In 1935 he built the first apparatus, tested over arable land, sand, snow. From the same time, experienced boats and airships on the air cushion began to be built. From the mid-1920s onwards the importance of his work was acknowledged, and he was honored for it. He died on 19 September 1935 in Kaluga. In 1941 Nadiradze was appointed chief designer for the retractable landing gear of the OKB of the Moscow plant No. 22 named after SP Gorbunov.

That is to say, while almost all early rocket engineers were focused on the rocket itself, from the beginning Alexander Davidovich was concerned with the vehicular interface between the rocket and the Earth. This broad understanding of the complexity of design served him well in later years.

At the end of 1941, he began research on rocket technology. During the war years he developed five versions of anti-tank shells, one of which had satisfactory characteristics.

In 1945, Nadiradze is organized and appointed chief designer and chief of the Design Bureau at the Faculty of Reactive Weapons of the Moscow Institute of Mechanics of the People's Commissariat of Ammunition. The OKB management and pilot production combined with reading lectures on the design of missiles and launchers. He carried out research work on two-stage missiles and turbojets. In 1948, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR OKB Moscow Institute of Mechanics is transferred to the KB-2 Minelkhozmash. Nadiradze is head of the unit, where unguided anti-aircraft missiles and anti-tank missiles are being developed.

Since 1950 he began developing the Strizh anti-aircraft missile. In 1951, KB-2 became a member of the State Research Institute-642 MAKhM, where the design bureaus of Orlov, Nadiradze, Kasherininov and Svecharnik were united in the development of cruise and powder rockets, radio-controlled and self-directed aerial bombs. In 1953, Nadiradze led the work on the system "Raven". The accumulated experience was used to create the world's first high-altitude research meteorological rocket, the development of which began in 1949 on the terms of reference of the Central Aerological Observatory of the USSR Hydrometeorological Service (Dolgoprudny). The rocket was intended for delivery of measuring equipment to the upper atmosphere. In 1951, with the participation of staff of the observatory, the first Soviet meteorological rocket MP-1, created by Alexander Nadiradze, was launched.

October 15, 1951 Government Resolution Nadiradze charged with the development of the aviation complex "Chaika" with radio-controlled high-explosive bomb UB-2000F. The tests were successfully completed at the end of 1955. On December 1 of the same year, the complex with the UB-2F air bomb was put into service.

In 1951, in KB-2, he created the first Soviet meteorological missile MR-1. The missile favorably differed from the known analogs in that the parachute was saved by the body of the propulsion system (DU), which could be used again. In the mid-1950's. Alexander Davidovich was the chief designer of controlled aerial bombs in KB-2 / GONI-642, the development of which was completed successfully by tests and the acceptance of the first Soviet controlled aerial bomb in service in 1955. On the recommendation of Sergei Pavlovich, Korolev's Alexander Davidovich was transferred to NII-1.

At the end of 1957, Moscow GOSRI-642 was merged with Reutov OKB-52 of Vladimir Chelomey. When the restoration of the firm Chelomey began, Alexander Davidovich was appointed his deputy. Nadiradze did not work in his new position for long. His ideas about a solid-fuel rocket were not supported by the general designer.

In 1958, on the recommendation of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, he was transferred from the KB of Vladimir Chelomey to KB-1 and appointed chief designer of NII-1. Nadiradze began to create mobile ground-based missile systems with ballistic missiles on solid fuel. Since 1958, A.D. Nadiradze was the head of the SKB as part of NII-1 to create the first domestic solid-fueled guided missile for a range of 500 km, known as Temp. Since 1961, A.D. Nadiradze - Director - Chief Designer of the Research Institute No. 1, since 1966 named State Enterprise "Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering" (MIT).

NII-1 was established in 1946 on the outskirts of the city of Moscow (on the Bereza Alley) on the basis of some repair workshops in the structure of the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery in pursuance of the now widely known USSR Council of Ministers resolution "Questions of reactive weapons" of May 13, 1946. NII-1 was engaged in the development of relatively small ammunition: aircraft bombs, mines, torpedoes, etc. The positions of the chief designer were not in the structure of NII-1 before Nadiradze came. NII-1 was headed by a director, the development of each ammunition was led (supervised, coordinated) by the leading designer. By the way, it is widely known in the defense circles of NII-1 that it was because Sergei Bodrov, his director from the moment of foundation until his death in 1961, was previously removed from the post of deputy minister of agricultural machinery by Josef Stalin's personal order.

The arrival of A.D.Nadiradze in NII-1 and the development of the ballistic missile "Temp" determined the beginning of a new, essentially innovative direction in the development of Russian rocketbuilding, based on the solid-fuel large-sized propulsion systems being built, which, as they were improved for 5-7 years, the capabilities of the missiles being created and to increase the maximum range of firing up to the intercontinental range.

From the moment he joined the SKB and especially after 1961, Alexander Davidovich concentrated the efforts of his team on creating a new class of weapons urgently needed by the Soviet Army-mobile operational and tactical missiles and front-line complexes designed to deliver nuclear munitions to appropriate theaters of military operations. These missiles had undeniable advantages over liquid ones in terms of their combat and operational characteristics in the composition of mobile missile systems (higher survivability level, short combat readiness times, high fire and explosion safety, longer storage periods, etc.).

The development of the Temp rocket complex on the wheeled chassis was started and quickly went on. Here were the genius features of Alexander Davidovich. Without falling into euphoria from the first successful launches, not wiping glasses at the military customers and the country's leadership, he insisted on the need to clarify the direction of work - the transition to mixed fuel. In general, reliability, high quality of preflight ground testing, the ability to withstand any administrative pressure such as "And what will we meet Mayday?", "How do you order to report to the Central Committee (the president)?" is still a "highlight" of the staff of the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering.

Without falling into the euphoria of the first successful launches, he insisted on the need to clarify the direction of work - the transition to the creation of a more promising mixture solid propulsion engine, more modern methods of design, design and development, in general - to the next courageous step in creating more powerful ballistic missiles.

First of all, this refers to the two-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile Temp-C, which was developed and successfully passed flight tests as part of a mobile ground-based missile complex. This and all other missiles developed under the guidance and with the direct participation of A.D. Nadiradze, were equipped with latticework aerodaynamic control surfaces.

A characteristic feature of Alexander Davidovich was that at the beginning of the development he was not afraid to lay down the limit characteristics for all parameters of rockets, propulsion systems and components of the complex, which determine the overall technical level.

Legends about his ability to squeeze stocks from subcontractors. This approach to designing complex technical systems gave its positive results. It is enough to give just one example. For the Temp-C complex, the Minsk Automobile Plant's team of KBs, led by Boris Lvovich Shaposhnik, created the MAZ-543 four-axle truck chassis. With its own mass of 20 tons, it had the same capacity (ratio 1:1). It was a great achievement.

Dozens of weapons were installed on the chassis of the MAZ-543 family (MAZ-543A, MAZ-543V, MAZ-543M) and now in service with the Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, Missile Forces and others. A wide application was found in this chassis in the national economy. Alexander Nadiradze paid with the collective of Boris Shaposhnik, not reprimands or orders, but apartments, apartment buildings, skillfully knocked out of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus.

The chief limitation on previous land-mobile missiles had been the T-10 tank chassis launcher, which was limited to a missile weighing 30 tons. The problem was not that the missile were too large, but rather that the T-10 chassis was too small. The larger MAZ tractors could carry larger missiles, and the problem of mobile missiles was thus solved [more or less]. The fact that large expensive missile programs failed due to a depedence on small inexpensive items like the T-10 tank chassis reflects the irrationality of the Soviet planning process.

In 1966, the Temp-S missile system was adopted. For the creation of the complex, the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering was awarded the Order of Lenin. Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze, his deputies V.I. Gogolev and BN Lagutin was awarded the title of laureate of the Lenin Prize.

Alexander Davidovich sets himself and the team even more difficult task of creating a mobile ground complex with a solid-fuel intercontinental range missile with a monoblock warhead. After carrying out deep scientific and design studies, in 1967, the experimental design of the missile system "Temp-2S" began.

At the level of the Minister of Defense Industry, two important decisions were made. Firstly, the appointment of the Research Institute of Apprentices (NA Pilyugin) as the lead developer of the management system (instead of TsNIIAG). Secondly, the main wheel of two alternative variants - wheeled and caterpillar - was determined by the chassis of the development of the design bureau of the Minsk Automobile Plant (BL Shaposhnik).

During the flight tests of the Temp-2S complex, 30 launches were carried out. Joint flight tests with the customer were completed in December 1974 by the salvo launch of two missiles into the Pacific Ocean. This concludes the development of the world's first PGRK with an intercontinental ballistic missile.

The mobile ground-based missile system Temp-2S was adopted by the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on December 30, 1975. For its creation, the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering was awarded the second Order of Lenin. Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

Despite the seemingly relatively modest deployment of the Temp-2S complex, it was the basis for the further development of even more promising ballistic missiles and missile systems, improving their technical excellence, increasing the effectiveness of combat use, expanding the field of use, and accumulating experience in combat operation.

In the early 1970's the main designer was tasked to create a new combat missile system with a medium-range missile. According to the tactical and technical requirements, it was necessary to design a ballistic missile with high combat effectiveness, a self-propelled launcher capable of carrying missiles along the roads, ensuring launch from any point of the route of traffic at short combat readiness times.

Development of the complex, called the "Pioneer", was to be implemented in a short time - about two years. Many of the technical solutions incorporated into the design of the missile were "pioneer". In addition to the spent units and systems, a new combat stage with a separating warhead (MIRV) was introduced, including three combat units, ensuring their breeding for individual purposes.

The first launch of the Pioneer rocket took place on September 21, 1974 and was exceptionally successful. It took a little more than a year to work out and fine-tune the systems of the rocket and the mobile ground-based missile complex. After the 21st launch on January 9, 1976, the test cycle was completed.

March 11, 1976 issued a decree on the adoption of the "Pioneer" for arming the USSR Armed Forces. In the process of conducting flight tests of Pioner RK, design and engineering work on its modernization began to improve the flight performance. The Pioneer-UTTKh rocket successfully passed flight tests with ten launches from August 10, 1979 to December 17, 1980 and was adopted on April 23, 1981. In 1982, A.D. Nadiradze was again awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

Alexander Davidovich tirelessly worked on the further development and improvement of the missile system "Pioneer" - "Pioneer-3". Flight tests of Pioneer-3 began quite successfully, but were interrupted in connection with the signing of the USSR and US Treaty on the elimination of medium-range and shorter-range missiles.

The last years of life and creative activity of A.D. Nadiradze were marked by the creation of two more missile systems based on the Pioneer-UTTK launch vehicle. These include a complex with a command rocket (the "Horn" cipher), which provides, during the flight of the head, the transfer to the ground of code information and commands for the launch of combat missiles located in the position areas. A complex was also developed, equipped with a non-nuclear warhead, along which complete cycles of testing and flight tests were carried out. Both these complexes were adopted by the Soviet Army.

It should be noted that in 1984 a preliminary design for the RK was launched with a small-sized ICBM "Courier", unique in its performance characteristics. It was developed as the world's first and only small-sized solid-fuel rocket of a mobile ground complex on a wheeled track. The starting mass of this intercontinental rocket was only about 15 tons - almost three times less than the previously developed MIT rocket Temp-2S!

The design of the new generation rocket was based on the latest developments in the field of materials and fuels, as well as a new elemental base in the control system. According to the technical level, the "Courier" was not inferior to the overseas analog.

A. Nadiradze, chief designer of the missiles and complexes Temp-S, Pioneer, Speed, Topol, did not see the triumph of the new thinking at all. All operational-tactical complexes created under the leadership of Nadiradze were destroyed under the Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (INF), signed on December 8, 1987 by USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and US President Ronald Reagan. On September 2, 1987, Alexander Davidovich studied the proposals for the elimination of Pioneer missiles. By that time, the decision on their complete liquidation had already been made public. The next day, on September 3, 1987, A. Nadiradze died of a heart attack in a company car in Moscow.

Under the leadership and with his direct personal creative participation, the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering developed 11 missile systems, seven of which were adopted for service. These RCs covered a wide range of shooting ranges: small, medium, intercontinental. Among them - the unique RK Topol, which is on the alert duty of the Strategic Missile Force for more than 25 years.

In the process of carrying out the work, the cooperation of development organizations, headed by the outstanding leaders-associates of AD, was formed and strengthened. Nadiradze, such as BP. Zhukov, V.D. Protasov, N.A. Pilyugin, S.G. Kocharyants, V.G. Sadovnikov, B.L. Shaposhnik. During these years, the Ministry of Information Technologies has grown into a large scientific and technical, design and technology center. His workforce for services to the country was twice awarded the Order of Lenin.

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