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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh

Mstislav Vsevolodovich KeldyshMstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, Russian mathematician and mechanic, was an Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1946), President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1961-1975), three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1956, 1961, 1971). He studied many problems of aviation and nuclear technology, computer and computer mathematics. He led a number of Soviet space programs, including manned spaceflight. Keldysh chose his own path in science.

He had the strength for aviation, missile technology, the creation of an atomic bomb, and space exploration. He headed the institute which dealt with the most complex and urgent problems of science and new technology. The common contribution in all of these matters were computers. The early Soviet computers were essential for all these tasks, and as a mathematician, Keldysh understood their algorithms.

Nikita Khrushchev, and Leonid Brezhnev after him, considered Academy of Sciences President Mstislav Keldysh the most competent and objective scientist, standing above departmental interests and personal ambitions. Keldysh’s authority was so great that they put him in charge of the widest range of expert commissions—from selecting combat missile systems to measures to save Lake Baikal.

Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh came from a noble family and never hid it. On the question of the questionnaire on social origin, he answered with pride: "from the nobility." Academician Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh was born into a professorial family with traditions laid down by his grandfathers: on the mother's side - a full general from the infantry (infantry) Skvortsov AN. and on the line of his father - Keldysh MF, who graduated from the theological seminary, but then chose a medical path and reached the rank of general. MV Keldysh never concealed his noble origin (he answered "to the question of social origin" from "nobles"). Of course, in the thirties and later years such biographical facts did not serve as decoration. Yes, and the repression of the late 1930s did not escape the Keldysh family. Therefore, the beginning of the life of Mstislav Bsevolodovich did not foreshadow an extraordinary continuation. After graduating from the Physics and Mathematics Department of the Moscow State University on November 24, 311, he was sent to work at TsAGI (Central Aerodynamic Institute).

So 20-year-old Keldysh was taken to work in the famous scientific aviation center. Already with his first works (1933), Mstislav Vsevolodovich attracted the attention of such an outstanding scientist as TsAGI's scientific adviser SA Chaplygin. The scientific value of these works is not only that they solved the actual problems of those years - they (which is very important) have laid the foundation for new approaches in applying mathematical methods for solving the problems of hydro-aerodynamics and auto-oscillations.

In the 1930s, one of these problems in aviation was the problem of overcoming the phenomenon of "flutter", which arose unexpectedly with increasing airspeed. Flutter was overcome in the Soviet Union, thanks to the works of MV Keldysh and his colleagues. The flutter phenomenon ceased to be a barrier to the development of high-speed aviation, and to the Patriotic War (1941-1945) Soviet aircraft industry came without this disease, which could not be said about the enemy.

The works of MV Keldysh on mathematics and mechanics in the mid-1940s received recognition of colleagues and scientists without delay, and their author was made famous in the scientific world. In 1943, MV Keldysh was elected a Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1946 a full member of the Academy.

Mstislav Vsevolodovich KeldyshWith a difficult victory in the Patriotic War, the country seemed to take a second wind. Despite the devastation and hunger, enthusiasm and faith in the future allowed focusing society on solving new serious problems. The emergence of confrontation in the host of the victorious powers, the memory of the recent terrible war, predetermined the need to strengthen its defense in the minds of the citizens of our country. A synonym for strengthening defense power at that time was the creation of nuclear weapons and the rearmament of the army on missile technology. MV Keldysh as a scientist, proved himself to be his scientific and applied research, was involved in the work on both problems.

On April 30, 1946, the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, headed by N.N. Semenov, was included in the "Atomic Project". Academician Semyonov addressed Lavrenty Pavlovitch Beria: "According to all the leading mathematicians of our country, Professor Keldysh is the most talented mathematician of the younger generation (he is 34 years old), besides having experience in technical calculations ... Our mathematics is the strongest in the world. This force we must use is our trump card. Prof. Keldysh - the strongest mathematician, who is at the most creative age and is actively willing to concentrate all his forces on the new problem. It seems to me that this desire can not be impeded. I attach great importance to bringing him to a new problem. As soon as he takes possession of a new area, the possibility will be created of drawing all the basic mathematical forces into the problem ... "

But the Minister of Aviation Industry, M.V. Khrunichev, did not agree to "give" Keldysh to the atom bomb project. So Beri directed "Khrunichev agrees to work Keldysh and Sedov in the laboratory of Academician Semenov only in combination, i.e. 3 days a week, so that they work for 3 days in TsAGI."

Frm 1946 the mastery of atomic energy in those years was associated, first of all, with the problem of creating weapons. However, the volumes of necessary computations were practically inaccessible to the computers available at that time. New computing means - electronic computers (computers), was to create and to master. This was a task of national importance - the first one in solving the problem of mastery of atomic energy. MV Keldysh himself did not design computers, but acted as the customer of this technique and its first major consumer. The institute he directed was supposed to create methods of calculation and on their basis to solve on the computer the whole set of problems falling under the atomic problem. Note that the same computers were used by the Keldysh team for calculations on rocket and space topics.

In 1946, MV Keldysh bid farewell to TsAGI, since he was appointed head of the Reactive Scientific Research Institute (NII-1) and subsequently remained his supervisor until 1961. He was the head of large scientific and technical collectives: NII-1, MIAS OPM (renamed in 1966 to the Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), chairman of the responsible commissions, then a member of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences, vice-president. The personal aspect of scientific creativity goes to the background.

With the advent of NII-1 in the field of his creative activity, problems associated with the creation of jet propulsion systems of high power for equipping cruise missiles with a whole train of scientific and technical questions on supersonic gas dynamics, heat and mass transfer, heat protection, etc., fall into the field of his creative activity. In 1954, M.V.Keldysh was appointed by the Government as the scientific leader of the creation of the intercontinental cruise missile "Storm", and SA Lavochkin - its chief designer. In 1960, the world's first cruise missile "Storm" was tested and showed higher characteristics than the American "Navajo", developed in those same years.

In 1954, MV Keldysh, SP Korolyov and M. K. Tikhonravov submitted a letter to the Government proposing the creation of an artificial Earth satellite. January 30, 1956 MV Keldysh was appointed chairman of the special commission of the Academy of Sciences.

On January 28, 1960, by decision of the Government, the Interdepartmental Scientific and Technical Council for Space Research under the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was formed to coordinate the work, and MV Keldysh was appointed its chairman. The merit of Mstislav Vsevolodovich in this post was the conduct of a balanced research program that provided an organic combination of all aspects of space exploration. Confirmation of this was the world recognition of the successes of the country, respect and authority of MV Keldysh, elected in May 1961 president of the Academy of Sciences. He led the Academy for 14 years.

Recognition of the merits of the scientist in solving the defense problem was the appropriation of MV Keldysh in 1956, the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, and in 1957 the award of the Lenin Prize. In 1961, for the special merits in the development of rocket technology, in the creation and successful launch of the world's first spacecraft Vostok with the man on board MV Keldysh, the title of Hero of Socialist Labor was conferred for the second time.

Mstislav Vsevolodovich KeldyshThanks to the high scientific authority, deep respect from leading scientists, MV Keldysh succeeded in assembling a team of like-minded people whose efforts made profound changes. They cleared a number of important scientific areas, such as biology, from "false teachings", achieved rehabilitation from political accusations with all the ensuing consequences, and restored scientific directions to genetics and cybernetics, created the conditions for the development of new branches of science - molecular biology, quantum electronics and etc.

Keldysh not only made a great contribution to the development of mechanics and cosmonautics - the scientist did not remain indifferent to what was happening with other branches of Soviet science. Among other Soviet scientists he signed the "Letter of Three Hundred", which on October 11, 1955 was sent to the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee. This message concerned the activities of TD Lysenko, who at that time was one of the leaders of Soviet biological science. The criticism of Lysenko's scientific views, contained in this letter, led to his resignation from the post of president of VASKhNIL, as well as the dismissal of a number of his associates from the structures of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

According to the recollections of those who knew Keldysh, he was a modest and very unpretentious person in everyday life. He slept very little, devoting much of my time to work. He never clashed with his subordinates; He could speak in such a way that high-ranking officials listened to him. In communication he was simple, and everyone could easily turn to him with their questions. In free moments, which were not issued very often by Academician Keldysh, he preferred to walk in the woods or listen to music.

Despite his high position in the hierarchy of power, MV Keldysh was never a fanatical supporter of the official course, but he was always a patriot of his country in the high sense of the word, a real Russian intellectual. His ministry to science was selfless and selfless. When a serious illness made it impossible to continue working in his usual rhythm, he found it not for himself to remain in office as president. He left it in 1975 on the eve of the 250th anniversary of the Academy.

Gradually, the disease of the blood vessels made itself felt. Sometimes the seizures became unbearable. He began to limp. In the early 1970s, Keldysh's health seriously deteriorated. Because of atherosclerosis, he developed painful pains in his legs, it became difficult for him to walk. Leonid Brezhnev, who was the secretary general of the USSR at that time, ordered that everything possible be done to treat the scientist. In the USSR, American doctors were invited, who did surgery on the academician. This was successful, but during the illness Keldysh, according to the memories of friends and associates, plunged into a severe depression. Rethinking his life, he, being a man of high moral principles, severely criticized himself for past mistakes and miscalculations.

Virtually no one escapes having a condition for which effective treatment requires anesthesia and surgery. Major depressive disorder (MDD) or depression is a heterogeneous disease characterized by low mood, loss of interest and pleasure in normally enjoyable activities, loss of energy, difficulties in thinking and decision-making, appetite and sleep disturbances, psychomotor disturbances and suicidal ideation.

Major depressive disorder is a frequent complication of surgery, which may lead to further morbidity and mortality. Depression is commonly associated with cognitive impairment, which may be exacerbated postoperatively. There is evidence that acute postoperative pain causes depression and depression lowers the threshold for pain. Depression is also a strong predictor and correlate of chronic post-surgical pain. Many studies have identified depression as an independent risk factor for development of postoperative delirium, which may be a cause for a long and incomplete recovery after surgery.

For some patients with coronary artery disease, despite successful surgery, the outcome can be disappointing, because of psychological impairments. The prevalence of depression approximates between 30% and 40% and it increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aetiology of the disease is not well understood, and the rates of its diagnostic recognition are poor. Furthermore, only a minority of diagnosed patients are provided with adequate treatment.

Mstislav Vsevolodovich died suddenly, unexpectedly for everyone. The death of Academician Keldysh was shrouded in mystery. According to the official version, Keldysh passed away on June 24, 1978 as a result of an accident in his garage at his dacha from poisoning with exhaust fumes. However, those who knew the academician personally believe that there was a suicide. Perhaps the impetus for such a decision was a rethinking of the processes taking place in the USSR. There was a version that Keldysh committed suicide: they say, he specifically started the engine of the car and closed the door to be poisoned with carbon monoxide. No one can confirm or reject this version. It seems that the progressive illness that led to his early departure from life was associated not only with extreme loads of everyday exhausting work, but also with the discomfort of the spirit of the last few years caused by dissatisfaction with unrealized designs.

The name of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh is immortalized in the names of a scientific research vessel, a small planet of the solar system, a crater on the Moon, a square in Moscow.

"Mstislav Vsevolodovich had a bright talent, a great restraint and great capacity for work, he was devoted to the cause, " said Nobel Laureate Academician V.L. Ginsburg. - With this, probably, everyone will agree. Far from the desire for originality, let me also note that to me, from the outside, Mstislav Vsevolodovich seemed not very happy and, even more so, to some extent a tragic figure. Perhaps this impression is due to the fact that, although I sometimes saw Mstislav Vsevolodovich laughing and cheerful, he was often more gloomy and, I thought, sad ... "

Academician Yu.A. Osipyan recalled: "He was a special person. This aura of exclusivity surrounded him always wherever he was. Mstislav Vsevolodovich was a very clever, witty man and could arrange for anyone - both man and woman - to be treated with care and reverence."

Recalling somehow the early-mid-1950s period, which he called the prologue to the first Sputnik, Mstislav Vsevolodovich remarked: "... we were young, and even the cosmos did not frighten us."

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