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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Il-30 (Ilyushin) Frontal Bomber

Il-30 (Ilyushin) Frontal BomberBy mid-1948, the design bureau S.V.Ilyushin managed to accumulate some experience in the development of jet bombers. Already built and tested the IL-22, which became the first domestic representative of this class, and in the very near future, the test IL-28 was supposed to be tested. Despite the serious load, the design bureau found the opportunity to begin developing another promising bomber, which soon received the designation IL-30. On July 8, 1948 the first flight was made by the prototype IL-28 bomber. Subsequently, this machine showed a fairly high performance. She could reach speeds of more than 900 km / h and carry up to 3 tons of bombs. The practical range exceeded 2300 km. Such characteristics and combat capabilities could lead to a noticeable increase in the potential of the air forces, but for their further development, bombers with even higher rates were required. For this reason, shortly before the start of the IL-28 tests, the development of the next promising project began. Based on existing experience, it was found that existing technologies, if used together with new solutions, make it possible to create a bomber with a flight speed of more than 1000 km / h and a range of 3500 km, capable of carrying at least 2 tons of bomb load. Such an aircraft could be of great interest to the Soviet armed forces, as a result of which it was decided to start developing the project without a corresponding order. Initiative project of the design bureau S.V. Ilyushin received the working designation IL-30. The development of the appearance of this machine started in late spring or early summer 1948. Thus, by the time of the first flight of the latest IL-28, some features of the future attack aircraft had already been identified. The main objectives of the project did not differ in simplicity, which is why during the design process we had to carry out several important studies. So, one of the main tasks of designers and scientists was the search for the optimal wing design. Speed ??requirements no longer allowed the use of a traditional and well-developed straight wing, and swept planes have not yet been used in projects of bomber aircraft. As a result, quite complex and lengthy studies in wind tunnels were required. At the first stages of these studies, it was found that the direct wing really can not be used on a future bomber. At the maximum speed specified by the technical specifications, it was characterized by unacceptably high resistance. In addition, under such conditions there was a violation of the longitudinal balancing. The only way out of this situation was the use of the swept wing. Soon, it was possible to find the optimal design of the planes, providing the best performance in all modes. The aerodynamic design of the wing has led to some technical problems. Such a wing turned out to be too thin, which required the use of a special design of power elements. In addition, available internal volumes have sharply decreased. The specific nature of the flow flowing from the wing affected the design of the tail. The most convenient location of the wing led to the need to find the best option for placing engines and landing gear. Despite all the difficulties of a theoretical nature, S.V. Ilyushin, his colleagues and allies in the end managed to determine the exact technical appearance of the future bomber and begin full-fledged design. It took several months to preliminarily study and create a technical project - a period quite normal for that time. It was proposed to build a new bomber according to the scheme of a free-carrying mid-plane with a swept wing. The power plant was supposed to consist of two turbojet engines of the new model, characterized by enhanced characteristics. To increase combat effectiveness, the aircraft was planned to be equipped with developed defensive weapons based on automatic guns. The IL-30 received a spindle-shaped fuselage of large elongation, built on the basis of a metal frame. The fuselage section varied in its different parts, but in all cases it was close to oval or elliptical, oriented vertically. The nose of the fuselage was given under two cabins, one of which was placed directly in the nose fairing. Under the second cabin was a niche of the front landing gear, behind it - defensive weapons. The central compartment was mainly given under the volume for the transport of combat load. Behind it was the second niche of the chassis. In the tail end of the tapering fuselage, another cabin was provided with a gunner's workstation and a gun mount. According to the test results, it was decided to use a swept wing of medium elongation with a slight narrowing. The sweep of the planes along the line of the quarters of the chords was 35°. The relative thickness of the profile is 12%. To prevent overflow of the boundary layer and the corresponding growth of the basic aerodynamic characteristics, each plane received four ridges located on its upper surface. The planes were fixed in the middle of the fuselage with a negative transverse V angle of 2 °. This made it possible to provide acceptable lateral stability and the necessary maneuverability. On the lower surface of the wing, at the trailing edge, there were several flaps. In the immediate vicinity of the tip on the same wing edge were ailerons. At the ends of the wing, it was necessary to provide suspension units for additional fuel tanks. The fact is that in the thin wing it was not possible to place the main tanks of acceptable capacity. Some of the required tanks were located in the fuselage, but in order to achieve the maximum flight range corresponding to the technical specifications, the aircraft needed overhead tanks. The tail unit was built according to the traditional scheme, but taking into account the features of the flow around the swept wing. A keel of a large area, having an arrow-shaped front and rear edge, was placed directly on the fuselage. In the rear of it was the rudder of a large area. With a significant excess over the fuselage and wing mounted arrow-shaped stabilizer with elevators. Its root part was on a fixed keel, due to which all rudders of the plumage remained at a safe distance from each other. Below the tail, a pair of brake flaps was installed in the tail section. As a power plant for a promising bomber, two turbojet engines TR-3 designed by A.M. Cradles. In accordance with the assignment for the project, these products had to develop traction up to 4600 kgf. The optimal wing design imposed certain restrictions on the appearance of other units and, among other things, affected the appearance of the engine nacelles. Two engines were proposed to be placed in identical gondolas placed on the lower surface of the wing. These devices smoothly mated with the planes, and the upper elements of their fairings formed bursts on the nose and trailing edge of the wing. The gondolas had a fusiform shape with evenly cut ends that projected under the air intake and nozzle. There was not enough space in the thin wing for cleaning the landing gear. The free volumes of the fuselage also did not allow to “hide” a pair of main racks. To solve this problem for the first time in domestic practice, the so-called bike chassis. Under the cockpit and behind the cargo compartment, two main racks of a similar design, equipped with large wheels, were installed. The front desk could rotate around a vertical axis and was controlled from the cab by regular pedals. The rear strut received powerful brakes. To keep the aircraft stationary or when driving at low speed, a pair of light racks with a pair of small wheels on each was used. In flight, these racks were retracted by turning back into small compartments at the bottom of the nacelles. Taking into account the current development of fighter aircraft, the new Il-30 bomber was proposed to be equipped with six 23-mm caliber HP-23 automatic guns. A pair of such guns was located in the nose of the fuselage and mounted rigidly. Manage course weapons had to pilot. Two other guns were mounted on the IL-B12 tower installation behind the cockpit. The fifth and sixth guns were located on the Il-K6 stern. The tower was controlled by the remote control in place of the radio operator arrow in the front cockpit. The aft rig was controlled by a shooter located in close proximity to it. In accordance with the technical specifications, the bomber was notable for increased payload. The normal load of bombs was 2 tons. The maximum was one and a half times more. Depending on the assigned combat missions, the aircraft could take on board a large number of small-caliber bombs or one heavy one, corresponding to full load. The crew consisted of four people and was located in three separate sealed cabins. The front cockpit was located directly under the nose fairing and was intended for the navigator-scorer. To monitor the situation and search for targets, the navigator had to use advanced glazing with a good overview of the front hemisphere. Behind the first cockpit there was a volume for the pilot and the gunner-radio operator. They were under the general lamp. Directly behind the lantern was a turret gun mount. The second shooter was supposed to work in the tail cabin, similar to that developed in the framework of the previous IL-22 project. Access to the front and rear cockpits was provided by hatches in the bottom of the fuselage. The pilot and the gunner-radio operator could use the opening flashlight. In an emergency, the pilot had to eject through a flashlight. All other crew members had to be saved through regular hatches, the covers of which could be reset if necessary. A new type of aircraft was supposed to carry the most modern electronic equipment. In addition to communications and navigation, it was proposed to use a panoramic tail radar station, the antenna of which was located in the fairing under the arrow arrow. Various on-board equipment allowed flying and attacking targets at any time of the day. The prospective swept-wing bomber was slightly smaller than the previous models of its class. The length of the IL-30 was 18 m, the wingspan - 16.5 m, the wing area - 100 sq.m. An empty plane weighed a little less than 23 tons. The normal take-off weight was determined at 32.5 tons, the maximum - 37.5 tons. According to calculations, the maximum ground speed should have reached 900 km / h. A speed of 1000 km / h could be obtained at an altitude of 5 km. It took 4 minutes to climb to this altitude. The estimated practical ceiling was 13 km. With a normal bomb load (2 tons) and a speed of 850 km / h, an aircraft equipped with additional fuel tanks could fly at a range of up to 3,500 km. The development of the IL-30 project continued until the beginning of 1949. In summer, the construction of the first prototype was completed. In the very near future he was supposed to go to the test and show the correctness of the ideas and suggestions used. The crew of test pilots headed by V.K. was supposed to check the car. Kokkinaki. In the summer of 1949, testers conducted a series of ground checks, but did not take the plane into the air. The operation of components and assemblies was checked both in the parking lot and during taxiing, jogging, etc. Due to the great novelty and courage of the project, they were in no hurry with the start of flight tests. Ground checks have established that the bomber, in general, meets a number of requirements. At the same time, a number of its features aroused concern. Some additional checks and studies were required. According to their results, one or another refinement of the existing design might be needed. Finally, the TR-3 turbojet engine has not yet fully met the requirements and therefore needed further refinement. The unusual design of the chassis proved to be quite good and confirmed its capabilities. On the ground, the plane was controlled without any problems, and the base of the bicycle chassis was enough for normal stability. At a certain speed, lateral stability was provided not only by the side struts, but also by the lifting force of the wing. Other equipment, in general, also did not cause serious complaints. The main concerns and doubts were associated with the new wing design. According to the test results, it was decided to conduct additional theoretical study and practical verification of the wing. It was necessary to further study the strength and aeroelastic characteristics of the existing structure. When identifying certain problems, the wing could be modified. After such an improvement of the project, it was possible to rebuild the existing IL-30 and again bring it to the test. Il-30 (Ilyushin) Frontal BomberHowever, these works were not completed. Already in the autumn of 1949, the design bureau S.V. Ilyushin received a new task. Specialists had to take an active part in the deployment of serial production of the latest IL-28 bomber. In addition, they should have created several new modifications of this machine and also put them in series. At that time, the design bureau had limited opportunities, which was due, first of all, to an insufficient number of employees. The simultaneous continuation of work on two complex projects was impossible. The bureau was forced to concentrate all efforts on launching the mass production of IL-28, and the IL-30 project had to be abandoned. Additional studies were not conducted and, accordingly, did not lead to the improvement of an existing project. The plane did not manage to take off. The only IL-30 built remained in its original configuration, which did not fully suit its creators. Subsequently, this machine, no longer needed by developers and a potential customer, was disposed of. Now an interesting sample can only be seen in photographs and diagrams. The project was promising bomber special requirements in terms of flight performance and combat capabilities. To obtain the desired parameters, the authors of the IL-30 project had to conduct a number of important studies and form new ideas. In the finished project, several new solutions were used that were not previously used by domestic aircraft designers. In particular, the IL-30 became the first Soviet bomber with a swept wing and a bicycle chassis. In addition, he could carry more bombs than existing counterparts, as well as carry them faster and over longer ranges. Nevertheless, the authors of the new project were soon assigned a new task that was directly related to the ongoing rearmament of the air forces. Simultaneous work on two aircraft was impossible. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the abandonment of the IL-30 did not have a negative impact on the further development of domestic bomber aircraft. Put in a series of IL-28 became a landmark machine for the USSR Air Force, and the main developments of the IL-30 project were subsequently used to create new bombers. Modification IL-30 Wing area, m2 100.0 Weight kg empty plane 22967 normal takeoff 32552 maximum take-off 37552 engine's type 2 TRD TR-3 Thrust, kgf 2 x 4600 Speed ??km / h maximum near the ground 900 maximum at height 1000 cruising 850 Flight range, km 3500 Practical ceiling, m 13000 Crew four Armament: 6 x 23 mm NR-23: to protect the front hemisphere, two fixed guns installed in the nose of the fuselage, to protect the rear half of the upper hemisphere, two movable guns of the upper Il-B12 turret, remotely controlled, in the rear part of the aft turret Il-K6, Bomb load: normal - 2000 kg, maximum - 4000 kg. Type: IL-30 Appointment: front-line bomber Crew: 4 people wing span 16.5 m length 18 m wing area 100 m² weight: empty 22 967 kg normal flight 32 552 kg maximum flight 37 552 kg engine type 2 × TR-3 take - off thrust 4600 kgf total take-off thrust 9200 kgf maximum ground speed 900 km / h at altitude of 5,000 meters 1,000 km / h climb time 5,000 meters 4 min practical ceiling 13,000 m flight range at a speed of 850 km / h with a bomb load of 2,000 kg - 3,500 km Armament: normal bomb 2000 kg maximum 4000 kg rifle nose of the aircraft - 2 × 23 mm NR-23 guns, fixed upper hemisphere - 2 × 23 mm guns NR-23 in the turret IL-V-12 aircraft tail section - 2 × 23 -mm NR-23 guns in the IL-K6 turret Il-30 (Ilyushin) Frontal Bomber

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Page last modified: 31-10-2019 16:54:14 ZULU