AGBO Aeroballistic hypersonic combat equipment
Aeroballisticheskoe Giperzvukovoe Boevoe Osnashchenie
The Boost-glide concept was first studied by the German engineer Eugene Sanger, whose "Silver Bird" antipodal bomber was intended to bomb New York City. During the early years of the Cold War the Soviet Union investigated a variety of such mixed propulsion configurations, including rocket boosted cruise missiles and rocket launched boost glide vehicles.
The priority development of a hypersonic weapon is on a par with high-precision, according to Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who oversees the defense industry issues of the government. In his opinion, the one who will own hypersonic weapon "will change the principles of warfare." And, of course, the relevance of this theme highlights the priority in Russian President Vladimir Putin. During his meeting with the students of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI", which took place in 2014, the President drew attention to the importance of the development of new materials in the context of just this military equipment. "Modern hypersonic missile systems that provide several Mach speed, it is impossible to imagine without modern materials, - said Vladimir Putin.
According to the president of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems, retired Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov, the appearance in Russia's own hypersonic weapons will restore the balance of power, as there is practically no means of protection against such weapons. At the same time, as stressed by the head of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems, a key task for such weapons can be to destroy enemy missiles when the main thing is "to have time to react."
As explained by the "joint venture", military expert and editor in chief of the portal Militaryrussia Dmitry Kornev , the correct technical name of the tested aircraft is "aeroballistic hypersonic combat equipment" (AGBO). Its peculiarity is that most of the flight unit moves along the boundary of Earth's atmosphere. And it is this aerodynamic movement at high speed is termed "hypersonic flight" with a seed up to 7 kilometers per second. It is important to understand that the machine "4202" in itself can not fly. To start it necessarily need a ballistic missile. The "Pretty pictures" often encountered on the web depicting some futuristic hypersonic aircraft, some vehicles with wings, with a pronounced tail and so on, and not the reality. Most likely, the "Objekt 4202" looks not much different from the usual combat unit. Nevertheless, it is able to create additional points by maneuvering airfoils. This is the main innovation of hypersonic unit.
Boost-glide technologies mate a rocket booster with a hypersonic glide vehicle, which may or may not incorporate an air-breathing supersonic-combustion ramjet. A Maneuvering Reentry Vehicle (MARV) is a ballistic missile reentry vehicle, with no propulsion system, equipped with its own navigation and control systems capable of adjusting its trajectory during reentry into the atmosphere. In the 1970s the three measures that were proposed in the United States for increasing hard-target, counterforce capability were: Refine the existing guidance system for the Minuteman III; Initiate engineering development of a larger yield warhead (MK-12A) that could be placed on the Minuteman III; and Initiate advanced development of terminally guided maneuvering reentry vehicles (MARV), such as the Evader MARV as an anti-ABM warhead for deployment on 100 TRIDENT I missiles by the early 1980s.
Long range BGVs start at orbital speed of nearly 8 km/s and have therefore rather more kinetic energy to dissipate than do ICBM RVs. The RV traverses the entire 8 km “scale height” of the atmosphere at an angle to the horizontal of 22° in a few seconds, while the BGV supports itself aerodynamically for 10,000 km at near-orbital speed for 1,200 seconds. The heating due to lift is concentrated on the lower surface of the BGV rather than uniformly around the axis of the RV. This would typically require a very thick layer of ablative material on the lower surface of the BGV. The function of the inner layer is simple insulation rather than ablation, so much of the protection system could be in the form of non-ablating material such as the “tiles” on the space shuttle.
The intense heating of the BGV during the whole of the glide phase provides a strong infrared signal to defensive systems designed to detect it or to use it for an infrared homing intercept. A simple terminal maneuver for a ballistic missile will allow it to deny sanctuary to structures and locations shielded by a near-vertical launch interceptor. At intermediate range this can require a 45° maneuver that with an L/D = 2.2 would result in a reduction of warhead speed to 0.7 of the initial speed. If performed at 10 g transverse acceleration (0.1 km/s2), the maneuver could take on the order of 30 seconds. An alternative would be to have a high-drag RV to greatly reduce speed to, say, Mach 3 (1 km/s), so that a 45° maneuver could be accomplished in a few seconds (slowdown to turn). The simple kinematic considerations of this appendix indicate the value of the engineering design of a variable-geometry RV, and the competition between the longer-term “better” and the earlier and perhaps “good enough.”
Separated in flight component of the head of the strategic missile (GV), the combat unit of a rocket (BB) designed to directly destroy the target. The missile includes the body with the combat charge and automatic system placed in it, as well as other systems and devices that provide the required conditions for their use as intended. The warhead of the main part of strategic missiles uses, as a rule, a thermonuclear warhead.
The warhead body defines its aerodynamic shape and is designed to accommodate the combat charge and the automation system and protect them from external influences during operation and combat use, including for thermal protection in the atmospheric descent section and ensuring strength when subjected to aerodynamic loads and undermining the anti-missile.
The warhead casing consists of a power structure, heat-protective or multifunctional coating, as well as devices providing the required composition of the gas medium in the warhead casing. The power structure of the housing warhead perceives the bulk of the mechanical loads acting on the warhead during ground operation and combat use; consists of a power shell, frames and other reinforcing elements, bottoms, etc.
The warhead can be uncontrollable, controllable and penetrating. The uncontrolled warhead (NBB) after separation from the MS platform does not change the flight path to the target. The NBB may contain means for targeting and stabilizing with respect to the center of mass as part of the NWB twist motor relative to the longitudinal axis and the oblique pylons at the tail end. To reduce the probability of recognizing the warhead among false targets, the NBB may have a means of distorting radar characteristics in the form of inflatable or reticular reflectors.
Guided [Managed] warhead (UBB) is designed to change the flight path relative to the ballistic one after separation from the MS platform. For this purpose, the UBB has a control system that can be combined with the automation system of the warhead, and controls.
UBB can be homing (SNBB) and maneuvering (MBB). SNBB is designed to correct the flight path in order to improve the accuracy of hitting the target. The flight path is changed at the atmospheric descent due to aerodynamic quality of the SNBB. For this purpose, the command controls from the homing system provide the required angles of attack and slip of the SNBB.
MBB is designed to change the flight path in order to evade the enemy's missile defenses (anti-missile). Maneuvers are usually carried out at the atmospheric section of the flight path due to the aerodynamic quality of the MBB. Maneuvers can be programmatic and adaptive, taking into account the information received about the functioning of the means of intercepting and destroying the enemy's antimissile defense. UBB can simultaneously carry out both a maneuver of evading anti-missiles and homing on the target.
Penetrating warhead (PBB) is designed to penetrate into the ground to a depth of more than 10 m and the implementation of an underground explosion. For this purpose, the PBB has an elongated shape and increased strength of the hull, a cannon-type combat charge and an automation system.
Initially the theme of "Avangard" included the development of various breakthrough themes that give Russia a great strategic advantage. As a result, the hypersonic maneuvering and planning device for delivery of combat blocks, both conventional and thermonuclear, small, medium and high power (and on heavy ICBMs - heavy) remained under this name. "Vanguard" is the heir of the previous generation of these weapons, tested in the 1990s, and then - even the Soviet theme "Albatross".
The ABC was tested on the basis of the liquid medium MBR UR-100NUTTX , in common parlance "Sotka" , and it will also be deployed on it. Thus, the aging third generation ICBM (Voyevoda and the old Topol - 4th generation, Topol-M, various Yarsy and Sarmat - is the 5th) got a chance for a second life as the carrier of the world's first serial model of a "rapid global strike" weapon . Now it's clear why Russia at one time exchanged gas for Ukraine's "dry", unregulated and encapsulated UR-100NUTTX. Moreover, these missiles have not been installed in the mines, but lie in the arsenal.
The hypersonic aeroballistic aerial warhead "Dagger" (GZUR, or X-47M2), has a relationship with the missile of the Iskander-M complex. More precisely, with one of its modifications. By the way, on the 2018 video presented it was carried by the MiG-31 interceptor with the airborne number 592 - this is a famous airplane. The machine of one of the first series, the first of the refueling system, the first to visit the North Pole, participated in a variety of tests, and now - in tests of such a formidable product as a maneuvering hypersonic missile.
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