4 GUMO / 4th Main Directorate
(Glavnoye Upravleniye Ministerstvo Oborony)
4 GUMO (4 Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR) was the general customer of the antiaircraft defense weapons. Very little detailed information was received in the mass media about the activities of the 4 GUMO. After the betrayal of Colonel Penkovsky, who sold abroad valuable information on a number of weapons, 4 GUMO in general was behind a triple veil of secrecy. It was under the special care of the 8th Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, which monitored the regime of secrecy, military counterintelligence and the KGB itself.
Any significant military project passes formally through a number of examinations, is considered at scientific and technical councils. But, as practice showed, this was nothing more than a ritual. Properly selected scientific and technical councils essentially stamp someone's decisions with someone. Expertise can not be effective until there is strict personal responsibility for both the idea and its implementation, and for the "good" expressed by the experts.
In 1950, the Third Main Directorate under the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Short name of this department was called TSU) started the creation of the world's first multichannel antiaircraft missile system for detecting, tracking, destroying many air targets C-25 Berkut. Until 1953, the Ministry of Defense of the USSR did not participate in these works. In 1953, Glavspetsmash and Glavspetsmontazh were established to speed up the creation of a military air defense system of the capital on the basis of the TSU. In the same year, the Ministry of Defense directly joined the creation of the S-25.
In August 1954, the Defense Ministry created military unit 77969. Operatively the main department was subordinate to the commander in chief of the country's Air Defense Forces - deputy defense minister Marshal of the Soviet Union Leonid Govorov. Task 4 of the GUMO was to train the country's air defense forces to receive the Berkut. The S-25 air defense missile system was adopted in 1955 by secret decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU of 14 April #720-435, the Council of Ministers of the USSR on May 7, No. 893-533. By decision of the Council of Ministers and the top secret order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR on May 21, 1955, No. 00112, instead of the 4th Directorate of the Defense Ministry, 4 Main Directorate (4 GUM) was created. The number of military unit 77969 was preserved.
Gradually, the military commissariat expanded powers. He became the general customer of the development, serial production, technical support during the operation of anti-aircraft missile, radio-technical weapons, communications equipment of the Air Defense Forces of the country.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the United States and NATO actively developed plans for a missile and nuclear war, a sudden crushing of air and space attacks on major strategic and military targets. The USSR responded with the creation of a unified air-space defense system of the state in the air defense troops.
To solve the problem of increasing military capabilities of the troops in 1956 was formed the 5th Directorate of 4 GUMO on request from the military-industrial complex of the USSR Armaments Missile Defense (ABM), Missile attack warning systems (missile), Space Defence (ASAT), space control (constituting). In 1956, as part of 4 GU MO, the order management of arms and military equipment for anti-missile defense was established (5th department). Later it was transformed into a management order for the systems PRN, PAC, ABM and PKO. The management was headed by Lieutenant General Mikhail Nenashev.
The 5th Directorate of 4 GUMO was engaged in creation of the first in the world system of A-35 anti-Ballistic defense under general designer General-Lieutenant Grigory Vasilyevich Kisunko. In 1978, its modification of a-35 m was adopted and put on alert. In 1984, the specialists of the 5th department gave the "good" to adopt for the missile defense of Moscow even more sophisticated weapon pro-combat system A-135.
All combat radars of the missile attack warning system "Dniester", "Dnepr", "Daugava", "Daryal", US-K space systems, USK-MO to detect launch missiles from rocket-dangerous areas for the USSR, complexes for intercepting military artificial satellites were ordered 5 management of 4 GUM. Combat system ZGRLS the same ordered from the industry specialists.
The direct chiefs of the 4th GUMO - the chief of the General Staff, Marshal Zakharov, the commander-in-chief of the Air Defense Forces, Marshal Batitsky at that time, repeatedly said that, let the probability of finding single ballistic missiles in ZGRPS Duga over the horison radar be low, but these radars see American missiles immediately after the launch. Give precious minutes to the top leadership of the state to decide on a counter-strike against the United States. This was the main thing in the history of the decision-making on the creation of the DGRFA.
The Scientific and Technical Committee of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR, the STC of the Armed Forces of the Sun tried to dictate to the 4th GUMO its policy in the field of armaments of antiaircraft, anti-missile defense, communications, automated control systems, space vehicles and other systems. But it was the commander-in-chief who ordered weapons from science and industry, paid money for them, and then adopted the systems and complexes that were created.
Since its inception, the 4th GUMO served the commander-in-chief of the air defense forces SS Biryuzov . The immediate supervisor of the administration was First Deputy Commander-in-Chief ND Yakovlev . In 1978, the 4th GU MOE was transformed into the Main Directorate of Armament of the Air Defense Forces .
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