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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Qiam-1 Modernized Shahab-2m / Scud-Cm,

In late May 2011, Iran said it had equipped the Revolutionary Guards with a new surface-to-surface missile, the Qiam-1, which was built locally and test-fired in August 2010. Iran said it has a wide range of missiles, some capable of striking targets inside Israel as well as U.S. bases in the Middle East.

The Qiam-1 [Uprising-1] is distinguished from other Scud variants by its lack of tail fins, instead using a thrust vector control system to stabilize the missile. The missile is also believed to possess a separable warhead and ground-based radio guidance system, significantly improving accuracy over prior Scud-based designs.

For the first time ever, on October 14, 2015 Iranian television broadcast footage of a secret underground tunnel, stocked with missile and launcher units. Officials have said it is one of several such bases in the Islamic republic of Iran. Located at a depth of 500 meters (1,600 feet or 540 Yards) under the mountains, the footage shows a very long tunnel which appears to be about 10 meters (33 feet or 11 Yards) high.

It is one of many missile bases in Iran, according to the Brigadier General Amir Ali Hajizadeh, commander of the Islamic Republic's Revolutionary Guards' aerospace division. "The Islamic republic's long-range missile bases are stationed and ready under the high mountains in all the country's provinces and cities," he said as quoted by the Guards' website. "This is a sample of our massive missile bases," he said, adding that "A new and advanced generation of long-range liquid and solid fuel missiles" will replace the current weapons in 2016. He issued a warning to anyone who might threaten Iran by suggesting that they had better “Have a look at the Islamic republic's army options under the table."

Rick Fisher, a military affairs analyst with the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said the latest missile video is disturbing. "It is not likely that Iran simply figured out this method of launching liquid fueled missiles from tall caves with launch holes that reach the surface, that until launch are very well concealed from overhead surveillance," Fisher said. "It is my suspicion that this launch method was pioneered by China and if that is the case, then we need to revise our estimates of the number of DF-4 and DF-5 ICBMs that China may be able to launch at the Untied States." The concealed tunnel launchers allow states like Iran, China, and North Korea to hide large numbers of missiles for decades. Missiles are kept on ready racks and transported by truck via tunnels to underground missile halls, where they are fueled, erected, and launched through a small aperture in the ceiling.

Qiam ballistic missile Specifications:
Rangeat least 800 Km (500 Miles)
Warhead 645 Kg (1,400 lb)
Weight 6,155 Kg (13,570 lb)
Length 11.5 meters
(37.7 feet, 12.57 Yards)
Fuel Liquid
Fins None
SOURCE : Iran report
A U.S. government report indicates the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force (IRGC-AF) received an unknown number of Qiam-1 missiles in late May 2010. The missile was first shown in Tehran during an armed forces parade in October 2010.

The Aerospace Division of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) held the final stage of large-scale missile drills March 8, 2016 (Persian calendar 1394/12/18). The final phase of the exercises, codenamed Eqtedar-e-Velayat, saw ballistic missiles fired from silo-based launchers in different locations across the country.

The maneuvers were aimed at displaying Iran’s “deterrence power” and the country’s “full readiness to confront all kinds of threats against the Revolution, establishment and territorial integrity,” the IRGC said. IRGC commander Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari and commander of the IRGC Aerospace Division Brigadier General Amirali Hajizadeh oversaw parts of the drills.

In October 2015, Iran successfully test-fired its precision-guided long-range Emad missile, sparking an uproar among US politicians. In January 2016, the US Department of the Treasury imposed new sanctions against Iranian citizens and companies over the country’s ballistic missile program.

Iranian Defense Minister Brigadier General Hossein Dehqan asserted that the Emad missile is a conventional weapon. In December 2015, Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif defended Iran’s right to carry out missile tests, saying none of Iranian missiles are capable of carrying nuclear warheads.

The August 20, 2010 flight tested Qiam-1 (Uprising) SRBM took place two days before its original planned August 22, 2010 flight test date of what appears to be a modernized Shahab-2m, Scud-Cm with a standard Shahab-3C four-conic RV with a base flared skirt diameter of 0.855 meters. It also introduced a new more accurate steering guidance system and no fins on the base of the first stage as well as Iran ’s 2 nd generation four-conic warhead re-entry vehicle design. For further details on the follow-on derivation of the Scud-C heritage system see:

The new Qiam features the standard four conic warhead designthat separated from the missile body as well as no fins at the base of the missile with a better guidance system for greater CEP accuracy for warhead delivery This avoids one of the major accuracy issues associated with the Scud series of missiles.

Qiam-1 was designed to greatly reducing the time for launch preparation than previous models with rapid liquid propellants loading operations among other operational improvements requirements.

Both the Scud-C and the Qian-1 have successfully transitioned from the Scud-B propellants as noted from Soviet manuals which is TM-185 20% Gasoline, 80% Kerosene while its oxidizer is believed to be AK-27I 27% N2O4 + 73% HNO3 with Iodium inhibitor Nitrogen Tetroxide & Nitric Acid. The new propellant combination for the single stage Scud-C and Qiam-1 as they are known from Soviet Naval references manuals to be Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) while its oxidizer is known to be a derivation of Inhibited Red Fuming nitric Acid (IRFNA), ( 73% Inhibited Red Fuming nitric Acid (IRFNA) & 27% N204 = AK-27S).

The launch took place on the western side of the Semnan, Missile & Space Test Range near the Safir-2 space booster horizontal assembly building infrastructure east of Tehran, Iran. That infrastructure contains both artillery ranges as well as hardened surface areas where the various Scud class Shahab missiles have previously been launched. The range of the Shahab-2m missile may exceed 500 kilometers with a 650 kilogram warhead added performance modernization enhancements. This could be a test bed demonstration to a higher performance Shahab-3C in the near future.

Tasnim News Agency claimed January, 08, 2020 that Iran used sophisticated missiles with fragmentation warheads in an attack on the US airbase of Ain al-Assad in Iraq. According to information obtained by Tasnim, the Iranian attack, launched in retaliation for the US assassination of top Iranian commander Lt. General Qassem Soleimani, the IRGC Aerospace Force utilized the Fateh-313 and the Qiam missiles, with a range of 500 km and 800 km, respectively. The the Qiam missiles fired in the overnight strike have been equipped with radar jamming systems and fragmentation warheads. This was the first time that Iran has used such advanced missiles in a combat operation.

In June 2017, the IRGC had utilized Qiam for hitting the ISIS targets in Syria, but the missiles launched in that operation had regular warheads as the targets had been packed in a small area. The fragmentation warhead in each of the Qiam missiles fired in the Wednesday strike have reportedly caused tens of explosions at the American airbase. Tasnim has also learned that the IRGC has struck only the Ain al-Assad base in the January 8 attack.

2nd. Generation Warhead Re-entry Vehicle Design New Application

Iran has introduced the second generation four-conic re-entry vehicle (RV) design for the advanced Shahab-2/Scud-Cm series that is from the Shahab-3B, 3C, Sejjil design with a design mass of 650 kilograms.

In Yemen, Iran provides military support to the Huthis against the Saudi-led coalition, enabling Tehran to indirectly pressure Riyadh without entering into a direct military conflict. Huthi missile launches against targets in Saudi Arabia and attacks on Saudi-led coalition ships demonstrate Iran’s provision of increasingly lethal capabilities to the Huthis. Tehran’s provision of explosive boat technology and Iranian- made missiles, including the extended-range Qiam SRBM, provides the Huthis with systems exceeding the capabilities of the pre-conflict Yemeni inventory.

Tehran has supplied extended-range Qiam-1 variants to the Huthis in Yemen. These missiles, launched mostly at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have flown to a range of more than 900 kilometers. Beginning around 2017, Iran begun transferring Qiam-1 missiles to Yemen’s Houthi militants as the “Burkan-2H” (Borkan-2H) [“Volcano-2H”]. 11 On July 22, 2017, Houthi rebels fired a Burkan-2H missile for the first time, targeting an oil refining facility in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia. On November 4, 2017, Houthi militants again fired a Burkan-2H, this time at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh.

On 2 August 2019, Houthi forces in Yemen announced the launch of the Borkan-3, a new liquid-propelled medium-range ballistic missile, travelling approximately 1,300 km. Video of the launch shows that the missile is clearly an adaptation of earlier Borkan-2H missiles, which the United Nations Panel of Experts on Yemen concluded were “an advanced derivative of the Iranian Qiam-1 specially designed with weight-saving measures by the designers of the Qiam-1 to achieve the range of 1000+km”. Like the Iranian Qiam-1, the Borkan-3 has a short guidance bay and a lack of large stabilizing fins; these unique features of the Qiam-1 are indicative of its Iranian origins; the booster airframe has been extended up to 1.4 metres to accommodate extra propellant.

While the Borkan-3 and earlier Borkan-2H both have small winglets at the rear, unlike the original Iranian Qiam-1 design, the same configuration has now been publicly displayed on the latest Qiam-1 missile launch in September 2018 against targets in Syria. This again indicates the links between the Iranian missile programme and the use of ballistic missiles in Yemen, raising serious concerns and suggesting that Iran may be breaching the arms embargo under Security Council resolution 2216 (2015) as the United Nations has previously found, and may be acting in breach of relevant provisions in annex B to Council resolution 2231 (2015) barring the transfer of missile technology from Iran. The Borkan-3 features a new conical warhead, smaller than any previously seen on Houthi ballistic missiles. Modelling of this lighter warhead with the improved design and configuration of the Borkan-3 confirms the new missile has a maximum range over 1,000 km and is therefore classed as a medium-range ballistic missile. This capability brings most of the region within range of Houthi strikes.

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Page last modified: 09-02-2022 18:47:27 ZULU