P-band Strategic Large Phased Array Radar
Yiyuan, Zibo, Shandong, China
36°01'23"N 118°05'35"E / 36.023072, 118.093115
Photos of China's long-range phased array warning system with a similar appearance to the US PAVE PAWS were revealed by the Guancha Syndicate, a political website based in Shanghai, on 07 August 2015. The photos taken in May 2015 indicated that China had the capability to develop its own version of a long-range warning radar like the United States and Russia. Established at an unknown space monitoring station in Heilongjiang province in the country's northeast, the long-range radar system is able to detect targets 5,500 kilometers away. It can be used to direct the People's Liberation Army's air defense missiles to intercept incoming ballistic missiles.
In September 2017 at the Beijing Exhibition Hall the "five years of endeavor" exhibit was held in large-scale achievement exhibition. This featured first public display of the the domestic P-band long-range strategic early warning phased array radar. It is part of China's effort to build a new generation of network information systems, part of the military's long-range anti-missile and strategic information warning core equipment.
On 08 October 2017 CCTV reported on the large-scale achievements exhibition "Five Years of Striving for Endeavor". A huge radar appeared in people's field of vision. This is a large domestic P-band large-scale radar array. Its first public appearance attracted attention both at home and abroad.
Analysts pointed out that this P-band radar has a height of 10 floors, a width of 35 meters. It belongs to a long wave radar, the working frequency band 30 ~ 300MHz, the wavelength is 1m~10m - specifically, a frequency of 250-500 MHz and a 1.2 meters to 60 cm wavelength. The use of more than 12,000 T/R components form a large radar array with a diameter of 30 meters and a detection range of more than 5000 km. By deploying such a large-scale radar around the country, China can easily monitor the entire eastern hemisphere region and build a powerful surveillance network for China. And Japan, South Korea and Guam, the potential rivals of China, are all under surveillance.
The P-band long-range early warning phased array radar's main mission is the missile early warning satellite information support, the strategic missile capture and tracking, and trajectory prediction. As is well known, ballistic missiles have the characteristics of fast speed, long range and small radar reflection area. It is very difficult to find the target in time only by the radar of the interception system. Therefore, the early warning radar is required to find the incoming missile as early as possible and provide sufficient Reaction time.
Chan Kai Yee, writing for Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements on 01 July 2017, noted that the "JY-27A is the newest meter-wave radar much more advanced than that used 20 years ago to shoot down F-117A. It is an all-round digital array active phased array radar with agile wave beam scanning and strong task scheduling and resources management capabilities, which make it a strong multi-task and multifunction radar with much greater maneuverability and reliability in carrying out its tasks.
"It adopts a series of new technology such as super resolution height measuring that is commensurate with complicate topography, continuous vertical coverage of air space and integrated anti-jamming technology. Such technologies enable it to overcome the traditional shortcomings of meter-wave radar that fails to cover low elevation, monitor airspace continuously or to measure the height of a target."
The military use of the P-band has a long history. Inside Germany during World War II, the two types of radars at the air defense battery level were either crude, but more impervious to chaff and jamming, or very accurate but highly susceptible to electronic countermeasures. The early battery radar was the solid-dish radar of 1939. The more accurate was the wire-mesh, P-band radar of 1942. This new battery radar was effective up to 15 kilometers, but chaff and, especially, the carpet-jamming device carried by American bombers virtually neutralized these P-band radars.
The long-range strategic early warning radar is a phased array radar that can detect and track ballistic missiles and provide early warning for strategic targets such as incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles, etc., or for early warning detection information provided by other detection platforms such as early warning satellites. The specific mode of operation is that after acquiring the position information of ballistic missile, searching and detecting the related airspace, detecting and tracking incoming missile, tracking the missile warhead after discovering it, tracking the information of incoming missile from command and Integrated Management Center in missile defense system.
The long-range warning radar has the following characteristics: The radar system is phased array, the function distance is more than 3,000-kilometer, the working frequency is low, the general work is in P band, the antenna diameter is large, the effective working diameter is more than 20 meters; the peak power reaches MW; the signal pulse is wide, and the signal processing mode is pulse stamping and accumulation.
According to the information published in the Achievement Exhibition, the China-made strategic early warning radar chose the P band as the search and tracking band. P band is a radar band, the current countries in the world on the electromagnetic band names vary, often said that China's P band is often said in some other countries to be the UHF band.
So why choose P-band? This new long-range early warning phased array radar uses the relatively rare P-band. Compared to the UHF band, the P-band keeps the detection distance far away, and is more accurate than the UHF band. P-band between VHF band [214–236 MHz] and L-band [1250-1380 MhZ], frequency range 230~1000 MHz even covers the UHF band [425-610 MhZ]. L-band is also a very popular early warning radar band.
From the experience of the United States, its current equipment of several long-range early warning phased array radar, the operating frequency of more than S-band [2700-3900 MHz] and X-band [9,230 – 9,404 MHz]. According to the technical parameters, if the early warning radar using P-band, then in the guarantee of effective detection distance, its required number of r modules, may easily be controlled in the X-band radar within one-tenth.
The radar component construction process is relatively easy, the power consumption is relatively low, although the cost is a certain amount of detection precision, but this can be optimized by the design of radar software and hardware, including the use of new algorithms to make up. With the P-band radar for China, the technical difficulty, the cost is more reasonable, cost-effective, enough to meet China's strategic warning needs.
In addition, the P-band has its own unique advantages that the United States, equipped with the X-band and S-band phased array radar, does not have. The P-band wavelength is longer, so the absorption of the atmosphere is small, in the atmosphere of the propagation of signal attenuation, signal strength, detection distance is therefore farther. The P-band belongs to the meter-wave band, with high price/performance ratio, low manufacturing difficulty, multipurpose/multi-target detection, which is the main reason of choosing P-Band of China's domestic long-range early-warning radar.
From the appearance, the domestic P-band early-warning phased array radar is similar to the United States PAVE PAWS phased array warning radar similar shape design, for a certain gradient of the rectangular array, and the core of the Transceiver Module detection unit, in the rectangular plane arranged in a circular dense. The P-band early warning radar adopts 120° detection azimuth, and the surface tilt angle is also about around 20°. The number of R transceiver modules is approximately 10,000, which is more than the U.S. PAVE PAWS radar, and its maximum detection distance should be more than 5,000-kilometer. Its performance is estimated by Chinese sources to exceed the PAVE PAWS radar deployed in Taiwan, and the next generation PAVE PAWS, the United States BMEWS phased array early warning radar, is comparable.
Although the exact location of this radar is not known, it is believed to be located on the Shandong Peninsula to monitor any ballistic launch from the east / south-east direction. vast area between the Korean Peninsula and Guam. Its operation should be close to that of American PAVE PAWS, which allows the detection and characterization of ballistic missiles from the propelled phase to mid-race. The frequency used, between 225 and 390 MHz, means that the resolution of the radar does not make it possible to provide a firing solution, but the range is, on the other hand, very large, of the order of several thousand kilometers depending on the power provided.
In an interview with CCTV, military experts, the Naval Academy of Military Research researcher Cao Weidong stated bluntly: "This radar is for long-range strategic missiles and stealth targets in advance detection." This also shows that China's long-range phased array early warning radar in the function of "dual-use", not only with the missile early warning satellite, land-based Midcourse anti-missile system composed of anti-missile system,
The development of domestic P-band long-range early-warning phased array radar service has filled the gap of a key technical equipment in China's long-range strategic early warning, and greatly enhanced China's strategic long-range early-warning detection capability. As a whole, the deployment of China's large ground-based strategic early-warning radar has greatly enhanced China's strategic early-warning capability. With the proliferation of ballistic missile technology and the increasing missile threats facing China, it is necessary for China to further improve its strategic early warning radar, Early warning satellites, anti-missile interception system integration, in order to enhance China's missile defense capabilities.
The strategic early warning system in China basically started from "zero" in recent years and is undergoing continuous improvement from equipment to system. However, this perfect speed is very fast, the disclosure of the P-band remote warning phased array radar is one of the important components. Not only the land-based early warning system needs to be further strengthened, but the space-based early warning system needs to be improved.
This LPAR is located about 10km SW of the town of Liyuan, about 100 km due south of the city of Zibo, and about 120 km SE of the provincial capital Jinan.
Yiyuan County is a county-level division under the jurisdiction of Zibo Municipality on behalf of Shandong Province. County is at the third level in China's administrative divisional system.
Zibo is located in the middle of East China’s Shandong province, near Mount Tai in the south. It backs on to the Yellow River to the north, neighbors the spring city Jinan to the west, and is adjacent to Weifang and Qingdao to the east. It is among the most thriving regions in eastern China. Considered to be the birthplace of the Han Chinese people, this city’s history often goes beyond imagination. Too many times its history had to be redrawn. It was once the ancient state capital of Qi Kingdom, (1640BC-220 BC) 3000 years ago. It was, at its height in Qi Period, the center of China’s civilization, statehood, ideology and military might.
Zibo is best known for its large silk production mills and merchant banks (called “Piaohao”). Local historians have tried tracing the famed “Silk Road” in Zibo, which had extended to what is now Europe. Once known as a central hub of the silk supply, Zibo could very well be a starting point of the “Silk Road”.
The city is also known for its large science center that attracts students to visit. The park is home to technology and pharmaceutical enterprises. There are 14 higher education institutions surrounding the park. Educational advancements through science and technology are huge attention getters in the area. The park contributes to the overall economy of Zibo.
Looking back at history, Shandong has been a wellspring of nourishment for Chinese civilization and Confucianism has been nurturing the Chinese nation for ages. Shandong province has become a pioneer in China's leapfrog development since reform and opening-up. It has done so with complete industrial sectors, a convenient transportation network, an advanced agricultural system and remarkable economic and social achievements. Shandong has an economy exceeding $1 trillion dollars and per capital GDP is above $10,000. President Xi Jinping has required Shandong to accelerate the development of emerging industries and replace traditional growth drivers with new ones in order to explore new development models and approaches.
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