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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report

Regime Strategic Intent

Regime Strategic Intent
Key Findings 1
Who Made Iraq's Strategic Decisions and Determined WMD Policy5
Saddam's Place in the Regime5
The Apex of Power5
Personalized Rule5
Saddam's Unsettled Lieutenants5
A Few Key Players in an Insular Environment7
Saddam Calls the Shots8
Saddam Shows the Way9
Harvesting Ideas and Advice in a Byzantine Setting10
Weaving a Culture of Lies11
Saddam Became Increasingly Inaccessible11
Saddam's Command By Violence12
Saddam's Effect on the Workings of the Iraqi Government13
Suspicion of Structures13
Powerless Structures13
The Higher Committee14
The Foreign Policy Committees15
Saddam's Grip on National Security and WMD Development16
Saddam Holding Court18
Saddam and Fiscal Policy18
How Saddam Saw His Subordinates19
Mining Respect and Expertise19
Mutuality of Fear19
Dazzled by Science19
How Saddam Saw Himself21
Saddam's Psychology21
Saddam's Personal Security21
Saddam the Dynasty Founder21
Saddam and His Sense of Legacy22
Desire . . . Dominance and Deterrence Through WMD23
Saddam's Role in WMD Policy23
What Saddam Thought: The Perceived Successes of WMD24
What Saddam Thought: External Concerns28
The United States31
WMD Possession-Real or Imagined-Acts as a Deterrent34
Saddam's Prioritization of Getting Out From Under Sanctions34
Efforts To Lift Sanctions35
Realizing Saddam's Veiled WMD Intent41
Regime Strategy and WMD Timeline41
Ambition (1980-1991)41
Decline (1991-1996)42
Scientific Research and Intention to Reconstitute WMD44
Reaction to Sanctions44
Husayn Kamil's Departure46
Cooperating With UNSCOM While Preserving WMD47
Recovery (1996-1998)48
Impact of the "Chicken Farm" Documents49
Looking Ahead to Resume WMD Programs49
Guarding WMD Capabilities51
Iraq's Internal Monitoring Apparatus: The NMD and MIC Programs53
Suspending Cooperation With UNSCOM55
Transition (1998-2001)56
Nullifying All Obligations To UNSC Resolutions57
Preserving and Restoring WMD Infrastructure and Expertise59
Pumping Up Key Revenue Streams60
Miscalculation (2002-2003)61
Renewing UN Inspections63
Iraq's Other Security Concerns64
Sorting Out Whether Iraq Had WMD Before Operation Iraqi Freedom64
Alternative Hypotheses on Iraq's Nonuse of WMD During Operation Iraqi Freedom66
A. The Quartet-Influence and Disharmony Among Saddam's Lieutenants69
B. Iraq's Intelligence Services73
C. Iraq's Security Services85
D. Saddam's Personal Involvement in WMD Planning97



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