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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report


Regime Strategy and WMD
Timeline Events

Regime Strategy and WMD Timeline Events

Serial # Issue Area Date Name Short Description
1 POL 1980 Iraq invades Iran
2 POL 1981 Israeli Air Force bombs Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor
3 CW 08-Jun-81 Code name Research Center 922 to produce chemical weapons (CW) agents Mustard, Tabun, Sarin, and VX
4 NUC 1981 Iraq Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) pursues Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) for uranium enrichment
5 CW 06-Aug-81 CW program reorganized (Project 922) at Al Rashad
6 NUC Early 1982 IAEC Office of Studies and Development (OSD) established for uranium enrichment R&D (later renamed Office 3000)
7 BW 1983 BW program added to Project 922 mission
8 CW 1983 First media reports of use of Iraqi CW (Mustard) against Iranian forces
9 CW 1984 Media reports of the use of CW (Tabun) against Iranian forces
10 NUC 1984 Al Qaim yellowcake plant commissioned
11 BW 1985 BW program restarted
12 POL Mid 1985 Iranian F4 attack on Project 922 site (later Al Muthanna State Establishment - ‘Al Muthanna’)
13 CW 1986 Construction of Fallujah II commenced
14 POL Oct-86 Iranian SCUDs fired at MSE
15 POL Nov-86 Irangate scandal in the United States (the covert supplying of missiles to Iran)
16 POL Late 1986 Iraq deploys significant portion of Roland Air Defense Systems to Al Muthanna
17 BW 1987 Proposal to scale up BW production at MSE denied; program moved to Al Salman
18 NUC April 1987 Groups 1, 2, 3 formed under Office 3000; Group 1 leaves, becomes Engineering Design Directorate under MIC
19 NUC April 1987 Al Husayn project formed to study requirements for weapons program
20 BW Aug-87 Taji Single Cell Protein (SCP) assets relocated to bolster BW at Al Salman
21 POL 19-Aug-87 Lieutentant General Husayn Kamil (HK) appointed head of new Military Industrialization Commission (MIC)
22 NUC November 1987 Al Husayn project transfers to IAEC and later becomes Group 4 under Office 3000
23 NUC Late 1987 Iraq begins construction on Electromagnetic Isotope Separation (EMIS) facilities at Tarmiya
24 BW 1988 Initial BW trials (Feb-May)
25 POL Feb-1988 War of the Cities begins
26 DS February 1988 Iraq receives last of 29 deliveries of 819 SCUDs from former Soviet Union (FSU)
27 POL Mar-88 CW used against Kurdish city of Halabja
28 NUC 1988 LIS abandoned as a uranium enrichment process
29 POL Apr-1988 War of the Cities ends
30 BW Apr-1988 Construction of dedicated BW agent production plant (Al Hakam) begins
31 BW May 1988 BW broadened with addition of fungal toxins
32 NUC mid 1988 Iraq begins magnetic-bearing centrifuge program
33 NUC August 1988 Construction begins on Al Athir nuclear weapons fabrication & assembly facility under Al Husayn project (Group 4)
34 NUC August 1988 German engineers provide centrifuge design data
35 CW August 1988 Al Muthanna stops CW agent production and focuses on research
36 POL 08-Aug-88 Iran and Iraq agree to ceasefire
37 NUC November 1988 Husayn Kamil takes control of combined Iraqi nuclear weapons program
38 BW November 1988 Al Kindi vaccine production fermentation line moved to Al Hakam
39 BW 1989 First bulk production run of Botulinum toxin at Al Hakam
40 NUC Jan 1989 Office 3000 officially renamed Petrochemical Project 3 (PC-3) under Ja’far
41 DS 1989 Iraq cancels BADR-2000 Contract with Egypt
42 NUC Feb-90 Iraq completes one nuclear-related fireset
43 POL 02-Apr-90 Saddam threatens to use binary CW against Israel if Israel attacks Iraq
44 CW Apr-1990 Manufacture of Al Husayn special chemical warheads commences
45 POL April 1990 Husayn Kamil gives orders to weaponize BW as quickly as possible
46 CW Jun-1990 Iraq starts filling Al Husayn special warheads (CW) & R-400 bombs at Al Muthanna
47 NUC 1990 EDC acquires carbon fiber rotors from a German supplier
48 NUC 1990 Iraq arranges for a winding machine and carbon fiber (reaches Jordan July 1992)
49 PROC 17-Jul-90 Saddam accuses neighbors of threatening Iraq via low oil prices
50 PROC 18-Jul-90 Tariq ‘Aziz accuses Kuwait of stealing Iraqi oil
51 CW August 1990 Iraq deploys a range of CW around Iraq before invasion of Kuwait
52 POL 02-Aug-90 Iraq invades Kuwait
53 POL 06-Aug-90 United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 661 establishes embargo on Iraq
54 BW Sep-90 Al Dawrah Foot & Mouth Disease Vaccine (FMDV) plant annexed by BW for agent production and virus R&D
55 BW Sep-90 Agricultural Water and Resources Center annexed by BW for aflatoxin production
56 BW Nov-1990 Iraq’s declared start date for Mirage F-1 drop tank CW spray conversion (for BW)
57 DS November 1990 MIG-21 Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) Conversion project initiated
58 BW Dec-1990 1st flight test of Mirage F-1 CW spray drop tank system (for BW)
59 NUC Jan-91 Work on uranium metal casting initiated at Al Athir
60 BW Jan-1991 R-400, 400A BW bombs sent to Airstrip 37 and Al ‘Aziziyah firing range
61 NUC Early 1991 Tarmiya EMIS equipment commissioned; Iraq testing a gas centrifuge using carbon fiber rotor
62 NUC Early 1991 After Kuwait invasion, Iraq resumes work on a 50-machine centrifuge cascade, as part of a “crash” nuclear program
63 DS 12-Jan-91 MIG-21 RPV flight from Al Rashid Air Base
64 CBW 15-Jan-91 MIC orders evacuation to safety of all assets & dangerous materials
65 BW 15-Jan-91 Mirage F1 droptank deployed to Al ‘Ubaydi with anthrax spores at airfield out-station
66 BW 15-Jan-91 Iraq deploys 25 BW warheads
67 POL 17-Jan-91 Gulf War (Desert Storm) begins
68 POL Feb 1991 Sources warn that Iraq will use WMD if territorial integrity threatened
69 POL 28-Feb-91 Gulf War ends
70 POL March 1991 All but two Iraqi provinces in revolt
71 POL March 1991 Iraq uses CS and nerve agent-filled bombs on Shi’a in Najaf and Karbala (nerve bombs fail to operate)
72 DS April 1991 MIG-21 RPV Program discontinued post Desert Storm
73 NUC Early 1991 Qusay, Husayn Kamil order nuclear documents and equipment hidden
74 BW 01-Apr-91 Single-Cell Protein (SCP) and Bio-pesticide (BT) decided as cover for Hakam
75 POL 03-Apr-91 UNSCR 687 demands disarmament and compensation fund financed by Iraq
76 NUC April 1991 Centrifuge development ceases after UNSCR 687
77 POL Mid April 1991 Regime begins denial and deception program
78 POL April 1991 Husayn Kamil orders retention of 85 SCUD missiles
79 POL April 1991 Husayn Kamil orders elimination of evidence of offensive BW program, but BW weapons remain in situ at deployment sites
80 POL 18-Apr-91 Iraq responds to UNSCR 687 with incomplete WMD declaration
81 BW 18-Apr-91 Iraq letter to UN Secretary General (UNSG) denies BW program
82 NUC 27-Apr-91 Iraq declares safeguarded material and Al Qaim yellowcake production to UN/IAEA
83 NUC Late May 1991 PC-3 sites ordered to hand over materials, equipment and documents to the Security Apparatus for the Protection of Military Industrialization Establishments (SAP) prior to inspections to avoid detection
84 POL June 1991 Husayn Kamil orders retention of WMD know-how documentation and small amounts of key WMD materiel
85 CW 09-Jun-91 UNSCOM starts weapons inspections; first CW inspection at MSE (U-2, CW-1)
86 POL 30-Jun-91 Iraqi High Level Committee formed to address retention of proscribed materiel
87 POL 1991 Saddam states: “Sanctions will last no more than 3 years”
88 DS July 1991 Husayn Kamil orders retention of 2 missiles and some missile parts
89 POL July 1991 Special Republican Guard (SRG) officers receive orders from Qusay to move/conceal MIC materials
90 DS 06-Jul-91 Iraq completes destruction of declared SCUD-type missiles under UNSCOM supervision
91 NUC 07-Jul-91 IAEA seizure of EMIS components prompts Iraqi admission of large EMIS program
92 POL 1991 Husayn Kamil tells ‘Abd Hamid Mahmoud it is unnecessary to declare BW programs and will order scientists to hide evidence at home
93 DS July 1991 Unilateral missile destruction
94 POL July 1991 Unexpectedly robust UN inspections lead Iraq to start unilateral destruction, as later claimed by regime
95 NUC by 1991 Iraq receives nine flow-forming machines from Germany
96 CBW Mid July 1991 CW and all BW munitions unilaterally destroyed, according to subsequent Iraqi claims
97 POL Summer 1991 Committee of Special Duties forms under Husayn Kamil or Qusay to covertly obstruct UN inspections
98 BW 02-Aug-91 First UNSCOM BW inspection begins at Al Salman (U-7, BW-1)
99 POL 15-Aug-91 UNSCR 707 demands Full, Final and Complete Declaration (FFCD) as required by UNSCR 687
100 PROC Sept 1991 Iraq-Jordan Trade Protocol renegotiated and then reviewed annually
101 POL Sept 1991 UNSCOM begins destruction of declared CW and agent; continues until July 1994
102 NUC Late 1991 IAEA seizure of documents leads to Iraqi admission of Al Athir existence
103 BW Sept or Oct 1991 Destruction of bulk agents at Al Hakam (reported to UN in 1995)
104 PROC 01-Sep-91 MIC forms Al Basha’ir front company to obtain items for Ministry of Defense (MoD), IAEC
105 POL 11-Oct-91 UNSCR 715 calls for unconditional acceptance of inspectors and ongoing monitoring/verification
106 BW November 1991 Decision to dissolve Technical Research Center (TRC): implemented over the following year
107 DS Dec 1991 Unilateral destruction of remaining 2 missiles completed
108 POL Feb 1992 Husayn Kamil appointed Supervising Minister, responsible for MIC, Oil, MIM, & head of Economic Committee
109 DS Feb 1992 UNSCOM-28 prevented from destroying prohibited missile equipment and facilities
110 BW Early 1992 Iraq begins design, construction of 5 cubic meter fermentors at Hakam (2) and Tuwaitha Agricultural and Biological Research Center (TABRC) (1)
111 NUC March 1992 PC-3 officially dissolved
112 BW Early 1992 Al Razi Research Center and Ibn-al-Baytar Center formed
113 POL 17-Mar-92 Iraq admits to July - Dec ‘91 unilateral destruction of CW, missiles
114 DS Apr 1992 UNSCOM-34 completes destruction of known prohibited missile production equipment and buildings
115 DS Apr 1992 Creation of Ibn-al-Haytham missile R&D center
116 NUC Mar-Apr 1992 PC-3 and EDC personnel transferred en masse to MIC and other companies to support rebuilding of Iraq
117 DS May 1992 Iraq submits first missile FFCD
118 NUC Apr - June 1992 Al Athir nuclear weapons fabrication & assembly facility destroyed by IAEA
119 BW 01-May-92 Iraq admits it had defensive BW program
120 CW June 1992 Iraq provides FFCD for CW
121 CW July 1992 UNSCOM begins destruction of CW facilities
122 OTHER/NUC 1993 MIC initiates Rail Gun Program at the High Voltage Establishment (later renamed Al Tahadi)
123 POL 13-Jan-93 US, UK, France conduct bombing raids on southern Iraq (targeted missile sites and command and control bases)
124 POL Feb 1993 Saddam warns strikes on Iraq will result in a precise reaction
125 POL 1993 Husayn Kamil tells WMD scientists that programs will resume and be expanded once inspectors leave
126 DS 1993 Al Samud program initiated
127 CW 20-Oct-93 Former CW facilities split from National Company for Agricultural Chemicals and Medicines
128 POL November 1993 Iraq accepts UNSCR 715: long-term monitoring
129 BW 1994 1993-1995 Bacillus thuringiensis (dry formulated preparation) produced at Al Hakam
130 POL Jan 1994 National Monitoring Directorate (NMD) established in response to UNSCR 715
131 PROC Early 1994 Iraq takes drastic measures (e.g. amputation) to enforce emergency economic measures
132 DS 17-Mar-94 UNSCOM letter limits diameter of Al Samud to 600mm and restricts use of SA-2 in SSM mode
133 CW 01-Jun-94 UNSCOM completes destruction of known CW agents and production facilities
134 OTHER/NUC 1994 Iraqi laser projects moved from IAEC to MIC Laser Research Center
135 NUC Mid 1994 Iraqi nuclear scientists prohibited from traveling outside Iraq
136 POL Late 1994 Iraq threatens to stop co-operating unless oil embargo lifted
137 POL Late 1994 Iraq moves forces to Kuwaiti border
138 POL 13-Oct-94 Russians counsel Iraq to accept Kuwait border
139 POL 21-Oct-94 Iraq, Russia offer joint proposal to recognize Kuwait if sanctions lifted
140 POL November 1994 Iranian missile attack on MEK facilities in Iraq
141 BW Early 1995 UNSCOM discovers 42 tons of unaccounted-for BW growth medium; Iraq cannot explain
142 DS March 1995 Iraq blocks destruction of SCUD engine production equipment
143 BW 07-Apr-95 UNSCOM seminar concludes Iraq has undeclared full scale BW program
144 POL 14-Apr-95 UN passes Oil for Food (OFF) Resolution 986
145 POL Early 1995 Iraq wants deal: ‘Give us a clean report on CW and missiles and we will satisfy UN resolutions on BW’
146 POL 03-May-95 UNSCOM seminar concludes Iraq has not fully disclosed past CW activities
147 DS June 1995 SCUD engine production equipment destroyed
148 POL June 1995 Iraqi Foreign Minister demands UNSC lift sanctions
149 OTHER/NUC Mid 1995 MIC cancels Rail Gun program at Al Tahadi
150 BW 01-Jul-95 Iraq admits offensive BW program but denies weaponization
151 BW 01-Jul-95 Iraq submits draft BW FFCD based on 1 July admission of BW program
152 BW 01-Jul-95 Russia agrees to provide Iraq with 50 cubic meter fermentation plant
153 POL 17-Jul-95 Saddam demands UNSC lift sanctions
154 BW 04-Aug-95 Iraq submits BW FFCD based on 1 July admission
155 POL 08-Aug-95 Husayn Kamil flees Iraq
156 BW 09-Aug-95 Iraq declares BW FFCD null and void
157 POL mid-Aug 1995 Kamal Mustafa orders Walid Tawfiq to burn docs at ‘Aqarquf
158 BW 17-Aug-95 Iraq declares more complete BW program (still does not declare ricin)
159 POL 20-Aug-95 Iraq reveals 143 boxes of documents to UNSCOM at chicken farm
160 CW Sep 1995 Saddam orders creation of the Industrial Committee (IC) and Economic Committee (EC)
161 BW 01-Sep-95 Iraq admits more of its BW program (now includes ricin)
162 POL Sep-Oct 95 Large number of organizational changes in MIC
163 DS Nov 1995 Iraq submits second missile FFCD
164 PROC Late 1995 Saddam re-establishes the Economic Affairs Committee (EAC) to influence fiscal and monetary policy
165 DS 01-Nov-95 Iraq begins the Al Bay’ah (L-29) RPV program
166 DS 10-Nov-95 UNSCOM intercepts illegal Russian SS-N-18 SLBM gyros in Jordan
167 DS Dec 1995 Dr. Muzhir is imprisoned (until January 1998)
168 PROC Iraqi economy bottoms out (GDP drops to 20% of 1989; inflation hits 387%)
169 PROC 1996 Annual MIC budget is $7.8M
170 CW 1996-1997 Industrial Committee begins work, plans to coordinate indigenous chemical production
171 POL 06-Jan-96 Saddam decrees austerity measures due to inflation caused by sanctions
172 PROC 17-Jan-96 Iraq agrees to discuss UN plan for limited oil sales
173 POL 23-Feb-96 Husayn Kamil and brother are executed following their return to Iraq
174 POL Iraq signs MOU accepting Oil for Food
175 CW June 1996 Iraq submits 3rd chemical FFCD
176 BW 15-Jun-96 After series of draft BW FFCD’s, Iraq submits first post-Husayn Kamil departure BW FFCD
177 BW 20-Jun-96 Al Hakam BW plant destroyed under UNSCOM supervision
178 DS July 1996 Iraq submits 3rd missile FFCD
179 DS 1996 Work commences at Ibn Firnas to convert L-29 to an RPV
180 POL 1996 WMD scientists ordered to sign agreement to turn over any documentation in their homes
181 NUC 1996 Fadil Al Janabi appointed head of IAEC
182 PROC 1996 Regime procurement with Jordan leads to further sanctions erosion
183 POL 31-Aug-96 Iraqi forces attack Irbil
184 CW Sep 1996 Twenty fourth meeting of the IC indicates committee was concerned about wasting intellectual capital
185 BW 01-Sep-96 Iraq submits new BW FFCD
186 POL 03-Sep-96 Coalition forces extend No-Fly zones
187 NUC 07-Sep-96 Iraq submits nuclear FFCD
188 OTHER/NUC After 1996 Air defense projects were a priority at the IAEC
189 POL 10-Dec-96 OFF is implemented
190 POL 12-Dec-96 Assassination attempt cripples ‘Uday Husayn
191 NUC Through 1990s Two scientists - one former EMIS and one former centrifuge - retain hidden nuclear documents and components
192 PROC 18-Mar-97 Iraq grants Russia MFN trade status, awards it 20% of initial OFF contracts
193 PROC 22-Mar-97 Iraq establishes a new Iraqi/Russian oil company
194 POL 27-Mar-97 Huwaysh becomes director of MIC; preserving pre-war nuclear competence becomes less important
195 POL Early 1997 VP Ramadan recognizes OFF activities as opportunity
196 DS 13-Apr-97 First flight of L-29 RPV
197 POL 1997 Huwaysh orders MIC employees to sign statements certifying they do not have WMD documents or equipment
198 PROC 1997 Regime procurement with Jordan, South Korea, Syria leads to further sanctions erosion
199 NUC 19-Jul-97 Fireset exhumed from rubble at Al Athir and turned over to inspectors
200 POL Sept 1997 Iranian aircraft strike MEK facilities in Iraq; Iraq asks UN to act
201 BW Sept 1997 UN inspectors find documents from July 1995 that show Russia intended to sell Iraq dual-use fermentation equipment
202 BW 01-Sep-97 Iraq submits new BW FFCD
203 CW Oct 1997 Chemical process equipment purchased before 1991 for CW programs destroyed by UNSCOM
204 POL 10-Oct-97 UNSCOM attempts inspection of a Presidential palace and Iraq denies access
205 POL 15-Oct-97 Iraq protests UN inspection practices
206 DS 24-Oct-97 First Al Samud launch
207 DS Nov 1997 UNSCOM Executive Chairman Butler to Iraq Government: no SA2 components to be used on Iraqi ballistic missiles
208 PROC Nov 1997 Saddam approves MIC plan to use IIS to assist procurement
209 POL 03-Nov-97 Iraq awards Russian company contract to develop W Qurna oil field
210 POL 13-Nov-97 UNSCOM suspends inspections in Iraq
211 DS Nov 1997 L-29 RPV and associated control equipment deployed to Tallil airbase in southern Iraq.
212 POL 20-Nov-97 Russia brokers agreement to resume UN inspections; inspections subsequently resume
213 PROC Nov 1997 Aziz travels to Syria to re-establish relations
214 PROC 28-Nov-97 Rabi’ah and Al Qa’im border crossings opened with Syria (no UN monitoring)
215 OTHER/NUC After 1997 Large laser research contract between MIC and Technology University initiated
216 NUC By 1998 Many nuclear scientists have migrated to other high priority programs such as air defense, infrastructure repair, rebuilding industrial base
217 CW/DS Feb 1998 Technical Evaluation Meetings (TEM) conclude Iraq has not fully disclosed CW, missile activities
218 POL Early 1998 Inner circle views Saddam as increasingly reclusive
219 PROC 06-Feb-98 Iraq rejects UN’s proposal to increase oil exports
220 PROC 20-Feb-98 UNSCR 1153 expands Iraqi oil sales to $5.256B/year
221 POL 23-Feb-98 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with UN Secretary General on inspection of Presidential sites
222 BW March/April 1998 BW Technical Evaluation Meetings conclude Iraq has not fully disclosed BW programs
223 CW Apr 1998 VX discovered on missile warhead fragments
224 POL 28-Apr-98 UNSC decides to continue sanctions; reinstates 60 day reviews
225 POL 1998 Huwaysh becomes Deputy PM/Head of the Ind. Committee: new Husayn Kamil?
226 OTHER/NUC 1998 Onward Saddam becomes increasingly interested in the activities of the Iraq Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) & begins holding regular meetings with IAEC representatives
227 PROC 19-Jun-98 UNSCR 1175 allows $300M for oil spare parts
228 POL 24-Jun-98 Leak reveals VX lab results; allies condemn Iraq
229 POL 1998 Iraq disappointed when positive IAEA report does not lead to UN resolution
230 CW Jul 1998 Mosul University accepts DCC (VX stabilizer) tasking
231 BW July 1998 BW TEM, held in Baghdad at Iraq’s request, concludes BW not fully disclosed
232 PROC 05-Jul-98 Iraq and Jordan agree to construct oil pipeline
233 PROC 1998 French refusal to pay surcharge on Iraqi oil causes relations between the countries to cool
234 PROC 1998 Regime procurement with Bulgaria, France, FRY, PRC, and South Korea leads to further sanctions erosion
235 PROC 15-Jul-98 Iraq & Syria agree to build second pipeline
236 POL 18-Jul-98 UNSCOM discovers Air Force CW document at Air Force HQ
237 POL 03-Aug-98 Aziz-Butler standoff: ‘Aziz rejects proposed schedule & demands favorable report to UNSC
238 POL 05-Aug-98 Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) announces end of no-notice UN inspections
239 POL 11-Aug-98 NMD committee to sort documents is formed
240 PROC 20-Aug-98 Iraq and Syria agree to re-open pipeline (Kirkuk to Mediterranean Terminals)
241 POL 09-Sep-98 UNSCR 1194 condemns Iraq’s decision to stop cooperation with UNSCOM
242 POL 27-Sep-98 Turkey restores full diplomatic relations with Iraq
243 POL 23-Oct-98 UN Expert Panel confirms VX and stabilizer DCC found in destroyed warheads, asks Iraq to explain
244 POL 31-Oct-98 UN discontinues UNSCOM Monitoring due to increased tension and Iraqi intransigence
245 POL 14-Nov-98 Under US military threat Iraq agrees to resume inspections
246 PROC 05-Dec-98 MIC establishes second front company (ARMOS) to trade with Russia
247 POL Late 1998/Early 1999 Saddam disappointed at Huwaysh report that only conventional missile payloads available
248 POL 16-Dec-98 UNSCOM & IAEA leave Iraq, but NMD continues site liaison and data collection
249 POL 17-Dec-98 Desert Fox
250 POL 19-Dec-98 Iraq declares that UNSCOM will never be allowed to return
251 OTHER/NUC 1999 IAEC initiates a rail gun program at two sites: Roland Missile Factory and adjacent to Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center (TNRC)
252 DS Jan 1999 RPV-20/30 program starts
253 PROC 04-Jan-99 Iraq & Jordan renew crude oil agreement and renegotiate annually
254 PROC 13-Jan-99 World oil production cut, Iraq plans to raise output to 3 million barrels per day
255 PROC 07-Feb-99 King Husayn of Jordan dies, his heir restricts illicit trade with Iraq
256 POL Feb - Apr 1999 Amorim panel meets, recommends creating new inspection group
257 POL March 1999 Iraq media calls for strikes on US targets to force change in US policy
258 POL Apr 1999 France & Russia introduce draft resolution; Netherlands & UK counter
259 DS June 1999 Huwaysh replaces Ra’id with Muzhir at Al Karama
260 POL 01-Jun-99 Iran fires three missiles at MEK camp in Iraq
261 OTHER/NUC 1999 Huwaysh gets research grants for university professors to preserve scientific base
262 POL 1999 Huwaysh orders MIC not to jeopardize lifting of sanctions
263 OTHER/NUC 1999 IAEC establishes new laser division
264 PROC 1999 Regime procurement with Bulgaria, France, FRY, India, Jordan, North Korea, Russia, and Ukraine leads to further sanctions erosion
265 POL 1999 MIC employees sign affidavits pledging to surrender documents and not to import prohibited materials
266 OTHER/NUC 1999 Saddam personally intervenes to improve IAEC conditions; raises salaries and prevents scientists from leaving
267 POL 1999 Saddam asks Huwaysh how long it will take to build a CW production line
268 POL 17-Jul-99 Saddam speech: America has taken control of the oil wealth of Arab countries
269 PROC Oct 1999 Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS) Director Rafi’ Daham Al Tikriti dies; replacement is close to MIC
270 POL Dec 1999 Russians push to lift sanctions
271 POL 17-Dec-99 UNSCR 1284 creates UN Monitoring and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC) and lifts all Iraqi oil export ceilings
272 OTHER/NUC 2000 MIC rail gun program research continuing at Al Tahadi
273 PROC 2000 Sharp rise in Iraqi educational spending: two new universities
274 PROC Jan 2000 Turkish trade/oil sale protocol signed
275 DS Jan 2000 Start of Al Quds UAV program with goal of 100kg payload
276 CW Feb 2000 Yugoimport submits tender to MIC for $53,125 of white phosphorous (WP)
277 CW March 2000 Fallujah II complex renovates chlorine and phenol lines and restarts
278 CW Mar 2000 Yugoimport Special Purpose Military Production firm Krusik delivers 11,150 KG of WP to Hatin, which produces WP rounds
279 POL 01-Mar-00 Blix assumes leadership of UNSCOM successor UNMOVIC
280 PROC May 2000 Syria-Iraq Trade/Oil sale protocol established; Syrian pipeline opens
281 POL June 2000 Saddam speech: Iraq cannot give up its weapons if neighbors do not
282 DS June 2000 Saddam orders the design of long range missile
283 POL/PROC June 2000 French contracts under OFF total $1.78B--second only to Russia
284 PROC 10-Jun-00 President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies: opens diplomatic opportunities for Iraq
285 PROC July 2000 Iraq negotiates deals with Russia worth $20B
286 OTHER/NUC 2000 Al Tahadi Company signs magnet production line contract with Romanian company
287 PROC 2000 Regime procurement with Belarus, FRY, India, Jordan, North Korea, PRC, South Korea, Syria, Russia and Ukraine leads to further sanctions erosion
288 DS 23-Aug-00 Engineering drawings for 2 and 5 clustered SA-2 engine missiles created
289 PROC Sept 2000 10% contract value kickbacks on OFF imports officially begin; may have been occurring since 1998
290 PROC Mid-Late 2000 Iraq initiates contacts with a Chinese firm NORINCO, and first of several contacts over the next two years
291 POL 01-Nov-00 Baghdad International Fair: 46 countries participate, a ten-year record
292 POL 07-Nov-00 Saudis open border for OFF exports
293 PROC Dec 2000 Leadership starts $.20-$.35 per barrel OFF oil surcharge; by 2002 drops to $.15 per barrel
294 NUC March 2001 IAEC President asks Saddam to gather former IAEC scientists and researchers at Tuwaitha - Saddam says no
295 POL April 2001 Major Iranian missile attack on Mujaheddin el-Khalq (MEK) facilities in Iraq
296 DS Early 2001 L-29 RPV crash on final attempted unmanned flight
297 NUC 20-May-01 Iraqi embassy in Nairobi reports rejecting an opportunity to buy uranium
298 PROC June 2001 Central Bank of Iraq (CBI) begins to get cash/gold from OFF kickbacks via courier
299 DS June 2001 Huwaysh approves the Al Samud II program
300 POL 2001 MIC Director orders reconstruction of items destroyed by UNSCOM
301 POL 2001 Saddam asks Huwaysh if he had developed BW and is told no
302 POL 2001 Intensified Iraqi intel focus on Iranian nuclear program
303 OTHER/NUC 2001 Al Tahadi Company signs magnet production line contract with Belarusian company
304 PROC 2001 Regime procurement with Belarus, Bulgaria, France, FRY, India, Jordan, North Korea, PRC, South Korea, Syria, Russia and Ukraine leads to further sanctions erosion
305 POL 2001 NMD deputy requests scientists to turn in any documents they may have at home
306 OTHER/NUC 2001 IAEC establishes Technical Research Branch under Physics Department to support rail gun research
307 POL mid 2001 Aluminum tubes destined for Iraq captured in Jordan
308 DS 24-Aug-01 First successful launch of Al Samud II
309 PROC 01-Sep-01 MIC founds a 3rd front company: Al Mufakhir Export Co
310 POL 11-Sep-01 9/11 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington
311 POL 12-Sep-01 Iraq misinterprets US reaction to events of 9/11; adopts ill-conceived diplomatic position
312 OTHER/NUC Late 2001 IAEC Modernization Project begins and initiates purchase of CNC machines
313 POL Oct-Nov 2001 Enduring Freedom defeats the Taliban in Afghanistan
314 DS Dec 2001 Iraq begins serial production of the Al Samud II
315 POL Late 2001 Around this time, Iraqi scientists tell Regime leaders they cannot produce WMD
316 OTHER/NUC January 2002 Saddam issues order for IAEC and MIC to implement cooperative projects in physics, machining, electronics
317 PROC January 2002 Saddam directs the MIC to assist the IAEC with foreign procurement
318 PROC 26-28 January 2002 Tariq ‘Aziz visits Moscow and Beijing to bolster international support for lifting UNSC sanctions
319 POL 29-Jan-02 Bush refers to ‘Axis of Evil’ in State of the Union address
320 NUC 12-Feb-02 Saddam declares “We will not return to it” with reference to nuclear weapons
321 POL 13-Feb-02 Iraq says inspectors will not be allowed to return
322 PROC March 2002 MIC front company ARMOS authorized to trade outside of Russia
323 POL 21-Mar-02 Russia blocks UNSC attempt to tighten-up OFF, reduce violations
324 POL March/April 2002 Iraq & UN hold new inspection talks in NY
325 DS 01-Jun-02 Jinin cruise missile project initiated (1000km range; 500kg payload)
326 DS 2002 Ibn Firnas recommends MIC cancel L-29 RPV program
327 POL July 2002 Iraq & UN hold more inspection talks in Vienna
328 OTHER/NUC Mid 2002 MIC Rotating Machinery Department (RMD) formed; machine tools ordered, including a balancing machine
329 OTHER/NUC 05-Jul-02 Copper vapor laser demonstrated to Huwaysh; put into storage
330 PROC 2002 Regime procurement with Belarus, France, FRY, India, Jordan, PRC, Russia, Syria and Ukraine leads to further sanctions erosion
331 POL/PROC 2002 Iraq and Russia negotiate $40B oil development deal to be undertaken once sanctions are lifted
332 OTHER/NUC 2002 MIC sponsors 3200 research projects in Iraqi universities (up from 40 in 1997)
333 OTHER/NUC 2002 MIC builds explosive test facility capable of researching shaped charges
334 POL Mid 2002 Iraq begins production of 81mm aluminum tubes for rockets
335 DS Sept 2002 CAD designs for a launcher accommodating missiles up to 1m in diameter; 9m in length
336 POL Sept 2002 Higher Committee, once controlled by Tariq ‘Aziz, is reconstituted to deal with inspections, headed by Taha Ramadan
337 CW Sep 02 Over 900,000 nerve agent antidote autoinjectors had been purchased
338 POL 12-Sep-02 Bush calls Iraq ‘Grave and gathering danger’ in UN General Assembly (UNGA) speech
339 POL 16-Sep-02 Iraq agrees to readmit inspectors
340 POL 18-Sep-02 Publication of UK Iraq WMD dossier
341 POL Nov 2002 MIC scientists meet and are told that Iraq has no WMD, and they must not hide anything from inspectors
342 DS Nov 2002 Jinin and other covert delivery system programs suspended due to return of inspectors
343 POL 08-Nov-02 UNSCR 1441 finds Iraq in material breach, calls for disarmament and FFCD
344 POL 08-Nov-02 Russia refuses to veto UNSCR 1441
345 POL 27-Nov-02 UNMOVIC inspections begin
346 POL Dec 2002 Saddam tells his Generals he does not have WMD
347 POL Dec 2002 Saddam tells military leaders/senior leaders to “cooperate completely” with inspectors
348 POL/DS Dec 2002 UNMOVIC freezes the Al Samud II and Al Fat’h flight tests upon further analysis of system’s range capbility
349 OTHER/NUC Dec 2002 Details of IAEC dual-use CNC machine purchases provided to UN/IAEA
350 POL End of 2002 Iraq successfully flight tests 81mm rockets with indigenously produced aluminum tubes
351 POL Late 2002 Iraq again attempts foreign purchase of 81mm tubes
352 POL Dec 2002 NMD publishes the Currently Accurate Full, and Complete Declaration
353 CW Jan 2003 Two teams from IAEC and Al Majid Company develop multipurpose controllers for process plant
354 PROC Jan 2003 MIC annual budget at $500M
355 POL Jan-2003 UNMOVIC finds 12 empty 122mm CW rocket warheads
356 POL Jan 2003 Iraqi MoD conference on Iranian WMD
357 POL 20-Jan-03 Husam Amin tells military leaders to cooperate with inspectors, repeating Saddam’s earlier directives
358 POL 20-Jan-03 The MIC directs all Directors General of state companies to relinquish any WMD to the NMD
359 POL 25-Jan-03 The NMD director meets with Republican Guard (RG) leaders and advises they sign documents stating no WMD in RG units
360 CW Feb 2003 Inspection of Al Nu’man factory reveals cluster bomb that management claimed from Al Muthanna
361 POL Feb 2003 According to senior Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs, Saddam has decided to use CW against US troops in the event of war
362 CW Feb-2003 Iraq recommends excavating R-400 bomb fragments at Al ‘Aziziyah
363 NUC February 2003 DG of NMD still trying to satisfy IAEA concern over missing explosive lens mold drawings
364 POL 05-Feb-03 US SecState Powell presents evidence of Iraqi WMD programs to UNSC
365 POL 14-Feb-03 Saddam issues directive banning private companies and individuals from importing WMD materials or producing WMD
366 POL 28-Feb-03 Russia threatens veto of UNSCR authorizing war on Iraq
367 CW March 2003 New construction scheduled for MIM plant to provide indigenous multi-purpose production facility, halted due to OIF
368 PROC Mar 2003 MIC has $186M in contracts with Syria (SES Company)
369 DS 1-17 Mar 2003 UNMOVIC bans Samud II and supervises destruction of missiles
370 PROC Early 2003 Regime procurement with Belarus, Bulgaria, France, India, Jordan, PRC, Russia, Syria, and Ukraine leads to further sanctions erosion
371 PROC 01-Mar-03 MIC has accumulated $300M+ in reserves
372 PROC Early March Saddam forms a funds distribution committee consisting of Minister of Finance, President of the Diwan, Presidential Secretary, and Qusay Husayn
373 POL 06-Mar-03 UNMOVIC publishes report - Unresolved Disarmament Issues (Clusters)
374 POL 10-Mar-03 France threatens veto of UN resolution authorizing war; later opposes OIF
375 POL 18-Mar-03 UNMOVIC and IAEA depart Iraq
376 POL 19-Mar-03 Initiation of hostilities
377 POL Late March 2003 Saddam implies to military leaders that he has secret weapon



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